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Title: A Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ
       Based on the Broadus Harmony in the Revised Version

Author: Archibald Thomas Robertson

Release Date: May 29, 2011 [EBook #36264]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

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A HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS
FOR STUDENTS OF THE
LIFE OF CHRIST

Based on the Broadus Harmony
in the Revised Version


BY

A. T. ROBERTSON, M.A., D.D., LL.D., LITT.D.

CHAIR OF NEW TESTAMENT INTERPRETATION
SOUTHERN BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY




"Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me."




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HARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS
NEW YORK AND LONDON




COPYRIGHT, 1922,
BY HARPER & BROTHERS


PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA




TO

ELIZA S. BROADUS

ELDEST DAUGHTER OF JOHN A. BROADUS
AN ELECT LADY BELOVED IN MANY LANDS




PREFACE


It is now just thirty years since one day his young assistant suggested to Dr. John A. Broadus that he prepare a harmony of the Gospels that should depart from the old plan of following the feasts as the turning points in the life of Jesus. He acted on the hint and led the way that all modern harmonies have followed. The book has gone through a dozen large editions and has become the standard harmony for many thousands of students all over the world. Broadus was concerned to bring out "the inner movements of the history, towards that long-delayed, but foreseen and inevitable collision, in which, beyond all other instances, the wrath of man was made to praise God." This he succeeded in doing with marvelous power.

A generation has passed by and it is meet that the work of Broadus should be reviewed in the light of modern synoptic criticism and research into every phase of the life of Christ. So I have made a new analysis that preserves Broadus's real purpose, but with new sections and new notes. The notes at the end of the old volume, written by me for the first edition, have been thoroughly revised and brought up to date. The Old Testament passages referred to in the Gospels are given in the text. The Gospel of Mark appears in the first column, then Matthew, Luke, and John. It is now known that Matthew and Luke made use of Mark for the framework of their Gospels. This change simplifies amazingly the unfolding of the narrative.

There is still dispute concerning the historical worth of the Gospel of John, but the Johannine authorship is not disproved. It still holds the field in my opinion. Dr. C. F. Burney's theory of an Aramaic original is already giving a new turn to Johannine criticism.

A harmony of the Gospels cannot meet every phase of modern criticism. The data are given, as free from bias as circumstances allow, so that all students can use the book and interpret the facts according to their various theories. Numerous historical items call for notes of various kinds that throw light on the passage in question. No effort is made to reconcile all the divergent statements of various details in the different Gospels. The differences challenge the student's interest as much as the correspondences and are natural marks of individual work. The notes and appendices at the end of the volume are meant for students who wish help for historical study of the life of Christ. A harmony cannot give all the aid that one needs, but it is the one essential book for the serious study of the life of Jesus. Students in colleges, theological seminaries, Young Men's Christian Association and Young Women's Christian Association classes, Sunday School teachers and pupils, preachers, all who read the Gospels intelligently must have a modern harmony of the Gospels. One who has never read a harmony will be amazed at the flood of light that flashes from the parallel and progressive records of the life of Jesus Christ.

Broadus began teaching the life of Jesus in 1859 and kept it up till his death in 1895. I began like work in 1888 and have kept on without a break till now. I count it one of the crowning mercies of my life that I have led so many successive classes of young ministers and young women (some five thousand in all) through the study of Christ's life. If only one can pass on to others in all their freshness and power the teachings of Jesus, he cannot fail. There was a time when men hung in wonder upon the words of Jesus, listening with awe and rapture as he spoke. The Figure of Christ fills the world today as never before. Back to Christ the world has come, the Christ of Faith and of Experience, the Jesus of History, the Man of Galilee, the Hope of Today, the Jesus Christ of the Four Gospels, in the full blaze of modern critical and historical study.

A. T. ROBERTSON.    

    Louisville,
        Kentucky
.





CONTENTS


PREFACE
CHIEF DIVISIONS OF THE HARMONY
ANALYTICAL OUTLINE OF THE HARMONY
TABLE FOR FINDING ANY PASSAGE IN THE HARMONY
THE HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS
EXPLANATORY NOTES ON POINTS OF SPECIAL DIFFICULTY IN THE HARMONY
1.About Harmonies of the Gospels
2.Synoptic Criticism
3.The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel
4.The Jesus of History
5.The Two Genealogies of Christ
6.The Probable Time of the Saviour's Birth
7.The Feast of John 5:1, and the Duration of Our Lord's Ministry
8.The Four Lists of the Twelve Apostles
9.The Sermon on the Mount
10.The Combination of Luke and John
11.Did Christ Eat the Passover?
12.The Hour of the Crucifixion
13.The Time of the Resurrection of Christ
14.The Length of Our Lord's Stay in the Tomb
A LIST OF THE PARABLES OF JESUS
A LIST OF THE MIRACLES OF JESUS
LIST OF OLD TESTAMENT QUOTATIONS IN THE GOSPELS
A LIST OF SOME UNCANONICAL SAYINGS OF JESUS
SIMILAR INCIDENTS AND CHIEF REPEATED SAYINGS





CHIEF DIVISIONS OF THE HARMONY


PART I:THE SOURCES OF THE GOSPELS
§ 1
PART II:THE PRE-EXISTENT STATE OF CHRIST AND HIS INCARNATION
§ 2
PART III:THE TWO GENEALOGIES IN MATTHEW AND LUKE
§ 3
PART IV:THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST AND OF JESUS
§§ 4-19. (Probably B.C. 7 to A.D. 7)
PART V:THE BEGINNING OF THE BAPTIST'S MINISTRY
§§ 20-23. (Probably A.D. 25)
PART VI:THE BEGINNING OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC MINISTRY
§§ 24-36. (In all parts of Palestine. Probably A.D. 26 and 27)
PART VII:THE GREAT GALLILEAN MINISTRY
§§ 37-71. (Probably A.D. 27 to 29)
PART VIII:THE SPECIAL TRAINING OF THE TWELVE IN DISTRICTS AROUND GALILEE
§§ 72-95. (Probably Passover in A.D. 29 to Tabernacles in A.D. 29)
PART IX:THE LATER JUDEAN MINISTRY
§§ 96-111. (Probably Tabernacles to Dedication in A.D. 29)
PART X:THE LATER PEREAN MINISTRY
§§ 112-127. (Probably Dedication in A.D. 29 to Last Journey in A.D. 30)
PART XI:THE LAST PUBLIC MINISTRY IN JERUSALEM
§§ 128a-138. (Friday before the Passover to Tuesday of Passion Week, A.D. 30 or 29)
PART XII:IN THE SHADOW WITH JESUS
§§ 139-152. (Tuesday afternoon to Thursday night of Passion Week, A.D. 30 or 29)
PART XIII:THE ARREST, TRIAL, CRUCIFIXION, AND BURIAL OF JESUS
§§ 153-168. (Early Friday morning to Saturday of Passion Week, A.D. 30 or 29)
PART XIV:THE RESURRECTION, APPEARANCES, AND ASCENSION OF CHRIST
§§ 169-184. (Forty days from Sunday of Passion Week, A.D. 30 or 29)





ANALYTICAL OUTLINE OF THE HARMONY


PART I:THE SOURCES OF THE GOSPELS
§ 1:IN THE DEDICATION LUKE EXPLAINS HIS METHOD OF RESEARCH
Luke 1:1-4.
 
PART II:THE PRE-EXISTENT STATE OF CHRIST AND HIS INCARNATION
§ 2:IN HIS INTRODUCTION JOHN PICTURES CHRIST AS THE WORD (LOGOS)
John 1:1-18.
 
PART III:THE TWO GENEALOGIES IN MATTHEW AND LUKE
§ 3:APPARENTLY JOSEPH'S GENEALOGY IN MATTHEW AND MARY'S IN LUKE
Matt. 1:1-17; Luke 3:23-38.
 
PART IV:THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST AND OF JESUS
SECTIONS 4-19
§ 4:THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE BIRTH OF THE BAPTIST TO ZACHARIAS
Luke 1:5-25.
§ 5:THE ANNUNCIATION TO THE VIRGIN MARY OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS
Luke 1:26-38.
§ 6:THE SONG OF ELIZABETH TO MARY UPON HER VISIT
Luke 1:39-45.
§ 7:THE MAGNIFICAT OF MARY
Luke 1:46-56.
§ 8:THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST AND HIS DESERT LIFE
Luke 1:57-80.
§ 9:THE ANNUNCIATION TO JOSEPH OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS
Matt. 1:18-25.
§ 10:THE BIRTH OF JESUS
Luke 2:1-7.
§ 11:THE PRAISE OF THE ANGELS AND THE HOMAGE OF THE SHEPHERDS
Luke 2:8-20.
§ 12:THE CIRCUMCISION OF JESUS
Luke 2:21.
§ 13:THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE WITH THE HOMAGE OF SIMEON AND ANNA
Luke 2:22-38.
§ 14:MAGI VISIT THE NEW-BORN KING OF THE JEWS
Matt. 2:1-12.
§ 15:THE CHILD JESUS CARRIED TO EGYPT, AND THE CHILDREN AT BETHLEHEM SLAIN
Matt. 2:13-18.
§ 16:THE CHILD BROUGHT FROM EGYPT TO NAZARETH
Matt. 2:19-23; Luke 2:39.
§ 17:THE CHILDHOOD OF JESUS AT NAZARETH
Luke 2:40.
§ 18:THE VISIT OF THE BOY JESUS TO JERUSALEM WHEN TWELVE YEARS OLD
Luke 2:41-50.
§ 19:THE EIGHTEEN YEARS AT NAZARETH
Luke 2:51-52.
 
PART V:THE BEGINNING OF THE BAPTIST'S MINISTRY
SECTIONS 20-23
§ 20:THE TIME OF THE BEGINNING
Mark 1:1; Luke 3:1-2.
§ 21:THE MESSAGE AND THE MESSENGER
Mark 1:2-6; Matt. 3:1-6; Luke 3:3-6.
§ 22:A SPECIMEN OF JOHN'S PREACHING
Matt. 3:7-10; Luke 3:7-14.
§ 23:THE FORERUNNER'S PICTURE OF THE MESSIAH BEFORE SEEING HIM
Mark 1:7-8; Matt. 3:11-12; Luke 3:15-18.
 
PART VI:THE BEGINNING OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC MINISTRY
SECTIONS 24-36
§ 24:JESUS BAPTIZED BY JOHN IN THE JORDAN
Mark 1:9-11; Matt. 3:13-17; Luke 3:21-23.
§ 25:THE THREE TEMPTATIONS OF JESUS
Mark 1:12-13; Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13.
§ 26:THE TESTIMONY OF THE BAPTIST TO THE COMMITTEE OF THE SANHEDRIN
John 1:19-28.
§ 27:JOHN'S IDENTIFICATION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH
John 1:29-34.
§ 28:JESUS MAKES HIS FIRST DISCIPLES
John 1:35-51.
§ 29:JESUS WORKS HIS FIRST MIRACLE
John 2:1-11.
§ 30:JESUS MAKES A FIRST SOJOURN AT CAPERNAUM, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS KINDRED AND HIS EARLY DISCIPLES
John 2:12.
§ 31:THE FIRST CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE AT THE PASSOVER
John 2:13-22.
§ 32:THE INTERVIEW OF NICODEMUS WITH JESUS
John 2:23-3:21.
§ 33:THE PARALLEL MINISTRY OF JESUS AND JOHN WITH JOHN'S LOYALTY TO JESUS
John 3:22-36.
§ 34:CHRIST'S REASONS FOR LEAVING JUDEA
Mark 1:14; Matt. 4:12; Luke 3:19-20; 4:14; John 4:1-4.
§ 35:JESUS IN SAMARIA AT JACOB'S WELL AND IN SYCHAR
John 4:5-42.
§ 36:THE ARRIVAL OF JESUS IN GALILEE
John 4:43-45.
 
PART VII:THE GREAT GALILEAN MINISTRY
SECTIONS 37-71
Eight Groups in the Period
(1)The Rejection at Nazareth and the New Home in Capernaum
Sections 37-43.
(2)The First Tour of Galilee with the Four Fishermen and the Call of Matthew (Levi) on the Return with the Growing Fame of Jesus
Sections 44-48.
(3)The Sabbath Controversy in Jerusalem and in Galilee
Sections 49-51.
(4)The Choice of the Twelve and the Sermon on the Mount
Sections 52-54.
(5)The Spread of Christ's Influence and the Inquiry from John in Prison
Sections 55-59.
(6)The Second Tour of Galilee (now with the Twelve) and the Intense Hostility of the Pharisees
Sections 60-63.
(7)The First Great Group of Parables with the Visit to Gerasa (Khersa) and to Nazareth (final one)
Sections 64-69.
(8)The Third Tour of Galilee (following the Twelve) and the Effect on Herod Antipas
Sections 70-71.
§ 37:GENERAL ACCOUNT OF HIS TEACHING IN GALILEE
Mark 1:14-15; Matt. 4:17; Luke 4:14-15.
§ 38:THE HEALING AT CANA OF THE SON OF A COURTIER OF CAPERNAUM
John 4:46-54.
§ 39:THE FIRST REJECTION AT NAZARETH
Luke 4:16-31.
§ 40:THE NEW HOME IN CAPERNAUM
Matt. 4:13-16.
§ 41:JESUS FINDS FOUR FISHERS OF MEN IN FOUR FISHERMEN
Mark 1:16-20; Matt. 4:18-22; Luke 5:1-11.
§ 42:THE EXCITEMENT IN THE SYNAGOGUE BECAUSE OF THE TEACHING OF JESUS AND THE HEALING OF A DEMONIAC ON THE SABBATH
Mark 1:21-28; Luke 4:31-37.
§ 43:HE HEALS PETER'S MOTHER-IN-LAW AND MANY OTHERS
Mark 1:29-34; Matt. 8:14-17; Luke 4:38-41.
§ 44:THE FIRST TOUR OF GALILEE WITH THE FOUR FISHERMEN
Mark 1:35-39; Matt. 4:23-25; Luke 4:42-44.
§ 45:A LEPER HEALED AND MUCH POPULAR EXCITEMENT
Mark 1:40-45; Matt. 8:2-4; Luke 5:12-16.
§ 46:THRONGED IN CAPERNAUM, HE HEALS A PARALYTIC LOWERED THROUGH THE ROOF OF PETER'S HOUSE
Mark 2:1-12; Matt. 9:1-8; Luke 5:17-26.
§ 47:THE CALL OF MATTHEW (LEVI) AND HIS RECEPTION IN HONOR OF JESUS
Mark 2:13-17; Matt. 9:9-13; Luke 5:27-32.
§ 48:JESUS IN THREE PARABLES DEFENDS HIS DISCIPLES FOR FEASTING INSTEAD OF FASTING
Mark 2:18-22; Matt. 9:14-17; Luke 5:33-39.
§ 49:AT A FEAST IN JERUSALEM (POSSIBLY THE PASSOVER) JESUS HEALS A LAME MAN ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS THIS ACTION TO THE PHARISEES IN A GREAT DISCOURSE
John 5:1-47.
§ 50:ANOTHER SABBATH CONTROVERSY WITH THE PHARISEES WHEN THE DISCIPLES PLUCK EARS OF GRAIN IN THE FIELDS
Mark 2:23-28; Matt. 12:1-8; Luke 6:1-5.
§ 51:A THIRD SABBATH CONTROVERSY WITH THE PHARISEES OVER THE HEALING OF A MAN WITH A WITHERED HAND IN A SYNAGOGUE
Mark 3:1-6; Matt. 12:9-14; Luke 6:6-11.
§ 52:JESUS TEACHES AND HEALS GREAT MULTITUDES BY THE SEA OF GALILEE
Mark 3:7-12; Matt. 12:15-21.
§ 53:AFTER A NIGHT OF PRAYER JESUS SELECTS TWELVE APOSTLES
Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16.
§ 54:THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. PRIVILEGES AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE MESSIANIC REIGN, CHRIST'S STANDARD OF RIGHTEOUSNESS
Matt. 5-7; Luke 6:17-49.
The Place and the Audience
      Matt. 5:1-2; Luke 6:17-19.
(1) The Introduction: The Beatitudes and the Woes. Privileges of the Messiah's Subjects
      Matt. 5:3-12; Luke 6:20-26.
(2) The Theme of the Sermon: Christ's Standard of Righteousness in Contrast with that of the Scribes and Pharisees
      Matt. 5:13-20.
(3) Christ's Ethical Teaching Superior to that of the Scribes (both the Old Testament and the Oral Law) in Six Items or Illustrations (Murder, Adultery, Divorce, Oaths, Retaliations, Love of Enemies)
      Matt. 5:21-48; Luke 6:27-30, 32-36.
(4) The Practice of Real Righteousness unlike the Ostentatious Hypocrisy of the Pharisees as in Almsgiving, Prayer, Fasting
      Matt. 6:1-18.
(5) Single-hearted Devotion to God as Opposed to Worldly Aims and Anxieties
      Matt. 6:19-34.
(6) Captious Criticism, or Judging Others
      Matt. 7:1-6; Luke 6:37-42.
(7) Prayer and the Golden Rule
      Matt. 7:7-12; Luke 6:31.
(8) The Conclusion of the Sermon. The Lesson of Personal Righteousness Driven Home by Powerful Parables
      Matt. 7:13-8:1; Luke 6:43-49.
§ 55:JESUS HEALS A CENTURION'S SERVANT AT CAPERNAUM
Matt. 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10.
§ 56:HE RAISES A WIDOW'S SON AT NAIN
Luke 7:11-17.
§ 57:THE MESSAGE FROM THE BAPTIST AND THE EULOGY OF JESUS
Matt. 11:2-19; Luke 7:18-35.
§ 58:WOES UPON THE CITIES OF OPPORTUNITY. THE CLAIMS OF CHRIST AS THE TEACHER ABOUT THE FATHER
Matt. 11:20-30.
§ 59:THE ANOINTING OF CHRIST'S FEET BY A SINFUL WOMAN IN THE HOUSE OF SIMON A PHARISEE. THE PARABLE OF THE TWO DEBTORS
Luke 7:36-50.
§ 60:THE SECOND TOUR OF GALILEE
Luke 8:1-3.
§ 61:BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION OF LEAGUE WITH BEELZEBUB
Mark 3:19-30; Matt. 12:22-37.
§ 62:SCRIBES AND PHARISEES DEMAND A SIGN
Matt. 12:38-45.
§ 63:CHRIST'S MOTHER AND BRETHREN SEEK TO TAKE HIM HOME
Mark 3:31-35; Matt. 12:46-50; Luke 8:19-21.
§ 64:THE FIRST GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES
Mark 4:1-34; Matt. 13:1-53; Luke 8:4-18.
Introduction to the Group
      Mark 4:1-2; Matt. 13:1-3; Luke 8:4.
1: To the Crowds by the Sea
  (a) Parable of the Sower
      Mark 4:3-25; Matt. 13:3-23; Luke 8:5-18.
  (b) Parable of the Seed Growing of Itself
      Mark 4:26-29.
  (c) Parable of the Tares
      Matt. 13:24-30.
  (d) Parable of the Mustard Seed
      Mark 4:30-32; Matt. 13:31-32.
  (e) Parable of the Leaven and Many Such Parables
      Mark 4:33-34; Matt. 13:33-35.
2. To the Disciples in the House
  (a) Explanation of the Parable of the Tares
      Matt. 13:36-43.
  (b) The Parable of the Hid Treasure
      Matt. 13:44.
  (c) The Parable of the Pearl of Great Price
      Matt. 13:45-46.
  (d) The Parable of the Net
      Matt. 13:47-50.
  (e) The Parable of the Householder
      Matt. 13:51-53.
§ 65:IN CROSSING THE LAKE, JESUS STILLS THE TEMPEST
Mark 4:35-41; Matt. 8:18, 23-27; Luke 8:22-25.
§ 66:BEYOND THE LAKE JESUS HEALS THE GERASENE DEMONIAC
Mark 5:1-20; Matt. 8:28-34; Luke 8:26-39.
§ 67:THE RETURN AND THE HEALING OF JAIRUS' DAUGHTER AND OF THE WOMAN WHO ONLY TOUCHED CHRIST'S GARMENT
Mark 5:21-43; Matt. 9:18-26; Luke 8:40-56.
§ 68:HE HEALS TWO BLIND MEN AND A DUMB DEMONIAC, A BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION
Matt. 9:27-34.
§ 69:THE LAST VISIT TO NAZARETH
Mark 6:1-6; Matt. 13:54-58.
§ 70:THE THIRD TOUR OF GALILEE AFTER INSTRUCTING THE TWELVE AND SENDING THEM FORTH BY TWOS
Mark 6:6-13; Matt. 9:35-11:1; Luke 9:1-6.
§ 71:THE GUILTY FEARS OF HEROD ANTIPAS IN TIBERIAS ABOUT JESUS BECAUSE HE HAD BEHEADED THE BAPTIST IN MACHÆRUS
Mark 6:14-29; Matt. 14:1-12; Luke 9:7-9.
 
PART VIII:THE SPECIAL TRAINING OF THE TWELVE IN DISTRICTS AROUND GALILEE
SECTIONS 72-95
§ 72:THE FIRST RETIREMENT. THE TWELVE RETURN, AND JESUS RETIRES WITH THEM BEYOND THE LAKE TO REST. FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND
Mark 6:30-44; Matt. 14:13-21; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-13.
§ 73:THE PREVENTION OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PURPOSE TO PROCLAIM JESUS KING (A POLITICAL MESSIAH)
Mark 6:45-46; Matt. 14:22-23; John 6:14-15.
§ 74:THE PERIL TO THE TWELVE IN THE STORM AT SEA AND CHRIST'S COMING TO THEM ON THE WATER IN THE DARKNESS
Mark 6:47-52; Matt. 14:24-33; John 6:16-21.
§ 75:THE RECEPTION AT GENNESARET
Mark 6:53-56; Matt. 14:34-36.
§ 76:THE COLLAPSE OF THE GALILEAN CAMPAIGN BECAUSE JESUS WILL NOT CONFORM TO POPULAR MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS
John 6:22-71.
§ 77:PHARISEES FROM JERUSALEM REPROACH JESUS FOR ALLOWING HIS DISCIPLES TO DISREGARD THEIR TRADITIONS ABOUT CEREMONIAL DEFILEMENT OF THE HANDS. A PUZZLING PARABLE IN REPLY
Mark 7:1-23; Matt. 15:1-20; John 7:1.
§ 78:THE SECOND WITHDRAWAL TO THE REGION OF TYRE AND SIDON AND THE HEALING OF THE DAUGHTER OF A SYRO-PHOENICIAN WOMAN
Mark 7:24-30; Matt. 15:21-28.
§ 79:THE THIRD WITHDRAWAL NORTH THROUGH PHOENICIA AND EAST TOWARDS HERMON AND SOUTH INTO DECAPOLIS (KEEPING OUT OF THE TERRITORY OF HEROD ANTIPAS) WITH THE HEALING OF THE DEAF AND DUMB MAN AND THE FEEDING OF THE FOUR THOUSAND
Mark 7:31-8:9; Matt. 15:29-38.
§ 80:THE BRIEF VISIT TO MAGADAN (DALMANUTHA) IN GALILEE AND THE SHARP ATTACK BY THE PHARISEES AND SADDUCEES. (NOTE THEIR APPEARANCE NOW AGAINST JESUS)
Mark 8:10-12; Matt. 15:39-16:4.
§ 81:THE FOURTH RETIREMENT TO BETHSAIDA JULIAS IN THE TETRARCHY OF HEROD PHILIP WITH SHARP REBUKE OF THE DULNESS OF THE DISCIPLES ON THE WAY ACROSS AND THE HEALING OF A BLIND MAN IN BETHSAIDA
Mark 8:13-26; Matt. 16:5-12.
§ 82:NEAR CÆSAREA PHILIPPI JESUS TESTS THE FAITH OF THE TWELVE IN HIS MESSIAHSHIP
Mark 8:27-30; Matt. 16:13-20; Luke 9:18-21.
§ 83:JESUS DISTINCTLY FORETELLS THAT HE, THE MESSIAH, WILL BE REJECTED AND KILLED AND WILL RISE THE THIRD DAY
Mark 8:31-37; Matt. 16:21-26; Luke 9:22-25.
§ 84:THE COMING OF THE SON OF MAN IN THAT GENERATION
Mark 8:38-9:1; Matt. 16:27-28; Luke 9:26-27.
§ 85:THE TRANSFIGURATION OF JESUS ON A MOUNTAIN (PROBABLY HERMON) NEAR CÆSAREA PHILIPPI
Mark 9:2-8; Matt. 17:1-8; Luke 9:28-36.
§ 86:THE PUZZLE OF THE THREE DISCIPLES ABOUT THE RESURRECTION AND ABOUT ELIJAH ON THEIR WAY DOWN THE MOUNTAIN
Mark 9:9-13; Matt. 17:9-13; Luke 9:36.
§ 87:THE DEMONIAC BOY, WHOM THE DISCIPLES COULD NOT HEAL
Mark 9:14-29; Matt. 17:14-20; Luke 9:37-43.
§ 88:RETURNING PRIVATELY THROUGH GALILEE, HE AGAIN FORETELLS HIS DEATH AND RESURRECTION
Mark 9:30-32; Matt. 17:22-23; Luke 9:43-45.
§ 89:JESUS, THE MESSIAH, PAYS THE HALF-SHEKEL FOR THE TEMPLE
Matt. 17:24-27.
§ 90:THE TWELVE CONTEND AS TO WHO SHALL BE THE GREATEST UNDER THE MESSIAH'S REIGN. HIS SUBJECTS MUST BE CHILDLIKE
Mark 9:33-37; Matt. 18:1-5; Luke 9:46-48.
§ 91:THE MISTAKEN ZEAL OF THE APOSTLE JOHN REBUKED BY JESUS IN PERTINENT PARABLES
Mark 9:38-50; Matt. 18:6-14; Luke 9:49-50.
§ 92:RIGHT TREATMENT OF A BROTHER WHO HAS SINNED AGAINST ONE, AND DUTY OF PATIENTLY FORGIVING A BROTHER (PARABLE OF THE UNMERCIFUL SERVANT)
Matt. 18:15-35.
§ 93:THE MESSIAH'S FOLLOWERS MUST GIVE UP EVERYTHING FOR HIS SERVICE
Matt. 8:19-22; Luke 9:57-62.
§ 94:THE UNBELIEVING BROTHERS OF JESUS COUNSEL HIM TO EXHIBIT HIMSELF IN JUDEA, AND HE REJECTS THE ADVICE
John 7:2-9.
§ 95:HE GOES PRIVATELY TO JERUSALEM THROUGH SAMARIA
Luke 9:51-56; John 7:10.
 
PART IX:THE LATER JUDEAN MINISTRY
SECTIONS 96-111
§ 96:THE COMING OF JESUS TO THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES CREATES INTENSE EXCITEMENT CONCERNING THE MESSIAHSHIP
John 7:11-52.
§ 97:STORY OF AN ADULTEROUS WOMAN BROUGHT TO JESUS FOR JUDGMENT
John 7:53-8:11.
§ 98:AFTER THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES IN THE TEMPLE JESUS ANGERS THE PHARISEES BY CLAIMING TO BE THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD
John 8:12-20.
§ 99:THE PHARISEES ATTEMPT TO STONE JESUS WHEN HE EXPOSES THEIR SINFULNESS
John 8:21-59.
§ 100:JESUS HEALS A MAN BORN BLIND WHO OUTWITS THE PHARISEES. THE RULERS FORBID THE RECOGNITION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH. THE CONVERSION OF THE HEALED MAN
John 9:1-41.
§ 101:IN THE PARABLE (ALLEGORY) OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD JESUS DRAWS THE PICTURE OF THE HOSTILE PHARISEES AND INTIMATES THAT HE IS GOING TO DIE FOR HIS FLOCK AND COME TO LIFE AGAIN
John 10:1-21.
§ 102:THE MISSION OF THE SEVENTY. CHRIST'S JOY IN THEIR WORK ON THEIR RETURN
Luke 10:1-24.
§ 103:JESUS ANSWERS A LAWYER'S QUESTION AS TO ETERNAL LIFE, GIVING THE PARABLE OF THE GOOD SAMARITAN
Luke 10:25-37.
§ 104:JESUS THE GUEST OF MARTHA AND MARY
Luke 10:38-42.
§ 105:JESUS AGAIN GIVES A MODEL OF PRAYER (COMP. § 54) AND ENCOURAGES HIS DISCIPLES TO PRAY. PARABLE OF THE IMPORTUNATE FRIEND
Luke 11:1-13.
§ 106:BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION OF LEAGUE WITH BEELZEBUB
Luke 11:14-36.
§ 107:WHILE BREAKFASTING WITH A PHARISEE, JESUS SEVERELY DENOUNCES THE PHARISEES AND LAWYERS AND EXCITES THEIR ENMITY
Luke 11:37-54.
§ 108:HE SPEAKS TO HIS DISCIPLES AND A VAST THRONG ABOUT HYPOCRISY, COVETOUSNESS (PARABLE OF THE RICH FOOL), WORLDLY ANXIETIES, WATCHFULNESS (PARABLE OF THE WAITING SERVANTS AND OF THE WISE STEWARD), AND HIS OWN APPROACHING PASSION
Luke 12.
§ 109:ALL MUST REPENT OR PERISH. (TWO CURRENT TRAGEDIES); PARABLE OF THE BARREN FIG TREE
Luke 13:1-9.
§ 110:JESUS HEALS A CRIPPLED WOMAN ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS HIMSELF AGAINST THE RULER OF THE SYNAGOGUE. (CF. §§ 49-51 AND 114.) REPETITION OF THE PARABLES OF THE MUSTARD SEED AND OF THE LEAVEN
Luke 13:10-21.
§ 111:AT THE FEAST OF DEDICATION JESUS WILL NOT YET OPENLY SAY THAT HE IS THE MESSIAH. THE JEWS TRY TO STONE HIM
John 10:22-39.
 
PART X:THE LATER PEREAN MINISTRY
SECTIONS 112-127
§ 112:THE WITHDRAWAL FROM JERUSALEM TO BETHANY BEYOND JORDAN
John 10:40-42.
§ 113:TEACHING IN PEREA, ON A JOURNEY TOWARD JERUSALEM, WARNED AGAINST HEROD ANTIPAS
Luke 13:22-35.
§ 114:WHILE DINING (BREAKFASTING) WITH A CHIEF PHARISEE, HE AGAIN HEALS ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS HIMSELF (COMP. §§ 49 TO 51 AND 110) THREE PARABLES SUGGESTED BY THE OCCASION
Luke 14:1-24.
§ 115:GREAT CROWDS FOLLOW HIM, AND HE WARNS THEM TO COUNT THE COST OF DISCIPLESHIP TO HIM (COMP. §§ 70 AND 83)
Luke 14:25-35.
§ 116:THE PHARISEES AND THE SCRIBES MURMUR AGAINST JESUS FOR RECEIVING SINNERS. HE DEFENDS HIMSELF BY THREE GREAT PARABLES (THE LOST SHEEP, THE LOST COIN, THE LOST SON)
Luke 15:1-32.
§ 117:THREE PARABLES ON STEWARDSHIP (TO THE DISCIPLES, THE PARABLE OF THE UNJUST STEWARD; TO THE PHARISEES, THE PARABLE OF THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS; TO THE DISCIPLES, THE PARABLE OF THE UNPROFITABLE SERVANTS)
Luke 16:1-17:10.
§ 118:JESUS RAISES LAZARUS FROM THE DEAD
John 11:1-44.
§ 119:THE EFFECT OF THE RAISING OF LAZARUS (ON THE PEOPLE, ON THE SANHEDRIN, ON THE MOVEMENTS OF JESUS)
John 11:45-54.
§ 120:JESUS STARTS ON THE LAST JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM BY WAY OF SAMARIA AND GALILEE
Luke 17:11-37.
§ 121:TWO PARABLES ON PRAYER (THE IMPORTUNATE WIDOW, THE PHARISEE AND THE PUBLICAN)
Luke 18:1-14.
§ 122:GOING FROM GALILEE THROUGH PEREA, HE TEACHES CONCERNING DIVORCE
Mark 10:1-12; Matt. 19:1-12.
§ 123:CHRIST AND CHILDREN AND THE FAILURE OF THE DISCIPLES TO UNDERSTAND THE ATTITUDE OF JESUS
Mark 10:13-16; Matt. 19:13-15; Luke 18:15-17.
§ 124:THE RICH YOUNG RULER, THE PERILS OF RICHES, AND AMAZEMENT OF THE DISCIPLES. THE REWARDS OF FORSAKING ALL TO FOLLOW THE MESSIAH WILL BE GREAT, BUT WILL BE SOVEREIGN (PARABLE OF THE LABORERS IN THE VINEYARD)
Mark 10:17-31; Matt. 19:16-20:16; Luke 18:18-30.
§ 125:JESUS AGAIN FORETELLS TO THE DISCIPLES HIS DEATH AND RESURRECTION (COMP. §§ 83, 85, 86, 88), AND REBUKES THE SELFISH AMBITION OF JAMES AND JOHN
Mark 10:32-45; Matt. 20:17-28; Luke 18:31-34.
§ 126:BLIND BARTIMÆUS AND HIS COMPANION HEALED
Mark 10:46-52; Matt. 20:29-34; Luke 18:35-43.
§ 127:JESUS VISITS ZACCHÆUS, AND SPEAKS THE PARABLE OF THE POUNDS, AND SETS OUT FOR JERUSALEM
Luke 19:1-28.
 
PART XI:THE LAST PUBLIC MINISTRY IN JERUSALEM
SECTIONS 128-138
§ 128a:JESUS ARRIVES AT BETHANY NEAR JERUSALEM
John 11:55-12:1, 9-11.
§ 128b:HIS TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM AS THE MESSIAH
Mark 11:1-11; Matt. 21:1-11, 14-17; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19.
§ 129:THE BARREN FIG TREE CURSED, AND THE SECOND CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE (COMP. § 31)
Mark 11:12-18; Matt. 21:18-19, 12-13; Luke 19:45-48.
§ 130:THE DESIRE OF SOME GREEKS TO SEE JESUS PUZZLES THE DISCIPLES AND LEADS JESUS IN AGITATION OF SOUL TO INTERPRET LIFE AND DEATH AS SACRIFICE AND TO SHOW HOW BY BEING "LIFTED UP" HE WILL DRAW ALL MEN TO HIM
John 12:20-50.
§ 131:THE BARREN FIG TREE FOUND TO HAVE WITHERED
Mark 11:19-25; Matt. 21:19-22; Luke 21:37-38.
§ 132:THE RULERS (SANHEDRIN) FORMALLY CHALLENGE THE AUTHORITY OF JESUS AS AN ACCREDITED TEACHER (RABBI)
Mark 11:27-12:12; Matt. 21:23-22:14; Luke 20:1-19.
§ 133:THE PHARISEES AND THE HERODIANS TRY TO ENSNARE JESUS ABOUT PAYING TRIBUTE TO CÆSAR
Mark 12:13-17; Matt. 22:15-22; Luke 20:20-26.
§ 134:THE SADDUCEES ASK HIM A PUZZLING QUESTION ABOUT THE RESURRECTION
Mark 12:18-27; Matt. 22:23-33; Luke 20:27-40.
§ 135:THE PHARISEES REJOICE OVER THE ROUT OF THE SADDUCEES AND A PHARISAIC LAWYER ASKS JESUS A LEGAL QUESTION
Mark 12:28-34; Matt. 22:34-40.
§ 136:JESUS, TO THE JOY OF THE MULTITUDE, SILENCES HIS ENEMIES BY THE PERTINENT QUESTION OF THE MESSIAH'S DESCENT FROM DAVID AND LORDSHIP OVER DAVID
Mark 12:35-37; Matt. 22:41-46; Luke 20:41-44.
§ 137:IN HIS LAST PUBLIC DISCOURSE, JESUS SOLEMNLY DENOUNCES THE SCRIBES AND PHARISEES (COMP. § 107)
Mark 12:38-40; Matt. 23:1-39; Luke 20:45-47.
§ 138:JESUS CLOSELY OBSERVES THE CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE TEMPLE, AND COMMENDS THE POOR WIDOW'S GIFT
Mark 12:41-44; Luke 21:1-4.
 
PART XII:IN THE SHADOW WITH JESUS
SECTIONS 139-152
§ 139:SITTING ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES, JESUS SPEAKS TO HIS DISCIPLES ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, AND HIS OWN SECOND COMING IN APOCALYPTIC LANGUAGE. THE GREAT ESCHATOLOGICAL DISCOURSE
Mark 13:1-37; Matt. 24, 25; Luke 21:5-36.
§ 140:JESUS PREDICTS HIS CRUCIFIXION TWO DAYS HENCE (JEWISH FRIDAY)
Mark 14:1-2; Matt. 26:1-5; Luke 22:1-2.
§ 141:AT THE FEAST IN THE HOUSE OF SIMON THE LEPER MARY OF BETHANY ANOINTS JESUS FOR HIS BURIAL
Mark 14:3-9; Matt. 26:6-13; John 12:2-8.
§ 142:JUDAS, STUNG BY THE REBUKE OF JESUS AT THE FEAST, BARGAINS WITH THE RULERS TO BETRAY JESUS
Mark 14:10-11; Matt. 26:14-16; Luke 22:3-6.
§ 143:THE PREPARATION FOR THE PASCHAL MEAL AT THE HOME OF A FRIEND (POSSIBLY THAT OF JOHN MARK'S FATHER AND MOTHER)
Mark 14:12-16; Matt. 26:17-19; Luke 22:7-13.
§ 144:JESUS PARTAKES OF THE PASCHAL MEAL WITH THE TWELVE APOSTLES AND REBUKES THEIR JEALOUSY
Mark 14:17; Matt. 26:20; Luke 22:14-16, 24-30.
§ 145:DURING THE PASCHAL MEAL, JESUS WASHES THE FEET OF HIS DISCIPLES
John 13:1-20.
§ 146:AT THE PASCHAL MEAL JESUS POINTS OUT JUDAS AS THE BETRAYER
Mark 14:18-21; Matt. 26:21-25; Luke 22:21-23; John 13:21-30.
§ 147:AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF JUDAS JESUS WARNS THE DISCIPLES (PETER IN PARTICULAR) AGAINST DESERTION, WHILE ALL PROTEST THEIR LOYALTY
Mark 14:27-31; Matt. 26:31-35; Luke 22:31-38; John 13:31-38.
§ 148:JESUS INSTITUTES THE MEMORIAL OF EATING BREAD AND DRINKING WINE
Mark 14:22-25; Matt. 26:26-29; Luke 22:17-20; 1 Cor. 11:23-26.
§ 149:THE FAREWELL DISCOURSE TO HIS DISCIPLES IN THE UPPER ROOM
John 14.
§ 150:THE DISCOURSE ON THE WAY TO GETHSEMANE
John 15, 16.
§ 151:CHRIST'S INTERCESSORY PRAYER
John 17.
§ 152:GOING FORTH TO GETHSEMANE, JESUS SUFFERS LONG IN AGONY
Mark 14:26, 32-42; Matt. 26:30, 36-46; Luke 22:39-46; John 18:1.
 
PART XIII:THE ARREST, TRIAL, CRUCIFIXION, AND BURIAL OF JESUS
SECTIONS 153-168
§ 153:JESUS IS BETRAYED, ARRESTED, AND FORSAKEN
Mark 14:43-52; Matt. 26:47-56; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12.
§ 154:JESUS FIRST EXAMINED BY ANNAS, THE EX-HIGH PRIEST
John 18:12-14, 19-23.
§ 155:JESUS HURRIEDLY TRIED AND CONDEMNED BY CAIAPHAS AND THE SANHEDRIN, WHO MOCK AND BUFFET HIM
Mark 14:53, 55-65; Matt. 26:57, 59-68; Luke 22:54, 63-65; John 18:24.
§ 156:PETER THRICE DENIES HIS LORD
Mark 14:54, 66-72; Matt. 26:58, 69-75; Luke 22:54-62; John 18:15-18, 25-27.
§ 157:AFTER DAWN, JESUS IS FORMALLY CONDEMNED BY THE SANHEDRIN
Mark 15:1; Matt. 27:1; Luke 22:66-71.
§ 158:REMORSE AND SUICIDE OF JUDAS THE BETRAYER
Matt. 27:3-10; Acts 1:18-19.
§ 159:JESUS BEFORE PILATE THE FIRST TIME
Mark 15:1-5; Matt. 27:2, 11-14; Luke 23:1-5; John 18:28-38.
§ 160:JESUS BEFORE HEROD ANTIPAS THE TETRARCH
Luke 23:6-12.
§ 161:JESUS THE SECOND TIME BEFORE PILATE
Mark 15:6-15; Matt. 27:15-26; Luke 23:13-25; John 18:39-19:16.
§ 162:THE ROMAN SOLDIERS MOCK JESUS
Mark 15:16-19; Matt. 27:27-30.
§ 163:JESUS ON THE WAY TO THE CROSS (VIA DOLOROSA) ON GOLGOTHA
Mark 15:20-23; Matt. 27:31-34; Luke 23:26-33; John 19:16-17.
§ 164:THE FIRST THREE HOURS ON THE CROSS
Mark 15:24-32; Matt. 27:35-44; Luke 23:33-43; John 19:18-27.
§ 165:THE THREE HOURS OF DARKNESS FROM NOON TO THREE P.M.
Mark 15:33-37; Matt. 27:45-50; Luke 23:44-46; John 19:28-30.
§ 166:THE PHENOMENA ACCOMPANYING THE DEATH OF CHRIST
Mark 15:38-41; Matt. 27:51-56; Luke 23:45, 47-49.
§ 167:THE BURIAL OF THE BODY OF JESUS IN THE TOMB OF JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA AFTER PROOF OF HIS DEATH
Mark 15:42-46; Matt. 27:57-60; Luke 23:50-54; John 19:31-42.
§ 168:THE WATCH OF THE WOMEN BY THE TOMB OF JESUS
Mark 15:47; Matt. 27:61-66; Luke 23:55-56.
 
PART XIV:THE RESURRECTION, APPEARANCES, AND ASCENSION OF CHRIST
SECTIONS 169-184
§ 169:THE VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE TOMB OF JESUS
Mark 16:1; Matt. 28:1.
§ 170:THE EARTHQUAKE, THE ROLLING AWAY OF THE STONE BY AN ANGEL, AND THE FRIGHT OF THE ROMAN WATCHERS
Matt. 28:2-4.
§ 171:THE VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE TOMB OF JESUS ABOUT SUNRISE SUNDAY MORNING AND THE MESSAGE OF THE ANGELS ABOUT THE EMPTY TOMB
Mark 16:2-8; Matt. 28:5-8; Luke 24:1-8; John 20:1.
§ 172:MARY MAGDALENE AND THE OTHER WOMEN REPORT TO THE APOSTLES, AND PETER AND JOHN VISIT THE EMPTY TOMB
Luke 24:9-12; John 20:2-10.
§ 173:THE APPEARANCE OF JESUS TO MARY MAGDALENE AND THE MESSAGE TO THE DISCIPLES
Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18.
§ 174:THE APPEARANCE OF JESUS TO THE OTHER WOMEN
Matt. 28:9-10.
§ 175:SOME OF THE GUARD REPORT TO THE JEWISH RULERS
Matt. 28:11-15.
§ 176:THE APPEARANCE TO TWO DISCIPLES (CLEOPAS AND ANOTHER) ON THE WAY TO EMMAUS
Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-32.
§ 177:THE REPORT OF THE TWO DISCIPLES AND THE NEWS OF THE APPEARANCE TO SIMON PETER
Luke 24:33-35; 1 Cor. 15:5.
§ 178:THE APPEARANCE TO THE ASTONISHED DISCIPLES (THOMAS ABSENT) WITH A COMMISSION AND THEIR FAILURE TO CONVINCE THOMAS
Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25.
§ 179:THE APPEARANCE TO THE DISCIPLES THE NEXT SUNDAY NIGHT AND THE CONVINCING OF THOMAS
John 20:26-31; 1 Cor. 15:5.
§ 180:THE APPEARANCE TO SEVEN DISCIPLES BESIDE THE SEA OF GALILEE. THE MIRACULOUS DRAUGHT OF FISHES
John 21.
§ 181:THE APPEARANCE TO ABOUT FIVE HUNDRED ON AN APPOINTED MOUNTAIN IN GALILEE, AND A COMMISSION GIVEN
Mark 16:15-18; Matt. 28:16-20; 1 Cor. 15:6.
§ 182:THE APPEARANCE TO JAMES THE BROTHER OF JESUS
1 Cor. 15:7.
§ 183:THE APPEARANCE TO THE DISCIPLES WITH ANOTHER COMMISSION
Luke 24:44-49; Acts 1:3-8.
§ 184:THE LAST APPEARANCE AND THE ASCENSION
Mark 16:19-20; Luke 24:50-53; Acts 1:9-12.





TABLE FOR FINDING ANY PASSAGE IN THE HARMONY


MARK

Chap.VerseSection  Chap.VerseSection
1120  933-3790
12-621  938-5091
17-823  101-12122
19-1124  1013-16123
112-1325  1017-31124
11434  1032-45125
114-1537  1046-52126
116-2041  111-11128b
121-2842  1112-18129
129-3443  1119-25131
135-3944  1127-12:12132
140-4545  1213-17133
21-1246  1218-27134
213-1747  1228-34135
218-2248  1235-37136
223-2850  1238-40137
31-651  1241-44138
37-1252  131-37139
313-1953  141-2140
319-3061  143-9141
331-3563  1410-11142
41-264  1412-16143
43-2564  1417144
426-2964  1418-21146
430-3264  1427-31147
433-3464  1422-25148
435-4165  1426,
32-42
152
51-2066  1443-52153
521-4367  1453,
55-65
155
61-669  1454,
66-72
156
66-1370  151157
614-2971  151-5159
630-4472  156-15161
645-4673  1516-19162
647-5274  1520-23163
653-5675  1524-32164
71-2377  1533-37165
724-3078  1538-41166
731-8:979  1542-46167
810-1280  1547168
813-2681  161169
827-3082  162-8171
831-3783  169-11173
838-9:184  1612-13176
92-885  1614178
99-1386  1615-18181
914-2987  1619-20184
930-3288   


MATTHEW

Chap.VerseSection  Chap.VerseSection
11-173  151-2077
118-259  1521-2878
21-1214  1529-3879
213-1815  1539-16:480
219-2316  165-1281
31-621  1613-2082
37-1022  1621-2683
311-1223  1627-2884
313-1724  171-885
41-1125  179-1386
41234  1714-2087
413-1640  1722-2388
41737  1724-2789
418-2241  181-590
423-2544  186-1491
51-254  1815-3592
53-1254  191-12122
513-2054  1913-15123
521-4854  1916-20:16124
61-1854  2017-28125
619-3454  2029-34126
71-654  211-11,
14-17
128b
77-1254  2118-19,
12-13
129
713-8:154  2119-22131
82-445  2123-22:14132
85-1355  2215-22133
814-1743  2223-33134
818,
23-27
65  2234-40135
819-2293  2241-46136
828-3466  231-39137
91-846  24, 25...139
99-1347  261-5140
914-1748  266-13141
918-2667  2614-16142
927-3468  2617-19143
935-11:170  2620144
112-1957  2621-25146
1120-3058  2631-35147
121-850  2626-29148
129-1451  2630,
36-46
152
1215-2152  2647-56153
1222-3761  2657,
59-68
155
1238-4562  2658,
69-75
156
1246-5063  271157
131-364  273-10158
133-2364  272,
11-14
159
1324-3064  2715-26161
1331-3264  2727-30162
1333-3564  2731-34163
1336-4364  2735-44164
134464  2745-50165
1345-4664  2751-56166
1347-5064  2757-60167
1351-5364  2761-66168
1354-5869  281169
141-1271  282-4170
1413-2172  285-8171
1422-2373  289-10174
1424-3374  2811-15175
1434-3675  2816-20181


LUKE

Chap.VerseSection  Chap.VerseSection
11-41  949-5091
15-254  951-5695
126-385  957-6293
139-456  101-24102
146-567  1025-37103
157-808  1038-42104
21-710  111-13105
28-2011  1114-36106
22112  1137-54107
222-3813  121-59108
23916  131-9109
24017  1310-21110
241-5018  1322-35113
251-5219  141-24114
31-220  1425-35115
33-621  151-32116
37-1422  161-17:10117
315-1823  1711-37120
319-2034  181-14121
321-2324  1815-17123
323-383  1818-30124
41-1325  1831-34125
41434  1835-43126
414-1537  191-28127
416-3139  1929-44128b
431-3742  1945-48129
438-4143  2137-38131
442-4444  201-19132
51-1141  2020-26133
512-1645  2027-40134
517-2646  2041-44136
527-3247  2045-47137
533-3948  211-4138
61-550  215-36139
66-1151  221-2140
612-1653  223-6142
617-1954  227-13143
620-2654  2214-16,
24-30
144
627-3654  2221-23146
637-4254  2231-38147
643-4954  2217-20148
71-1055  2239-46152
711-1756  2247-53153
718-3557  2254,
63-65
155
736-5059  2254-62156
81-360  2266-71157
8464  231-5159
85-1864  236-12160
819-2163  2313-25161
822-2565  2326-33163
826-3966  2333-43164
840-5667  2344-46165
91-670  2345,
47-49
166
97-971  2350-54167
910-1772  2355-56168
918-2182  241-8171
922-2583  249-12172
926-2784  2413-32176
928-3685  2433-35177
93686  2436-43178
937-4387  2444-49183
943-4588  2450-53184
946-4890   


JOHN

Chap.VerseSection  Chap.VerseSection
11-182  111-44118
119-2826  1145-54119
129-3427  1155-12:1,
9-11
128a
135-5128  1212-19128b
21-1129  1220-50130
21230  122-8141
213-2231  131-20145
223-3:2132  1321-30146
322-3633  1331-38147
41-434  14...149
45-4235  15, 16...150
443-4536  17...151
446-5438  181152
51-4749  182-12153
61-1372  1812-14,
19-23
154
614-1573  1824155
616-2174  1815-18,
25-27
156
622-7176  1828-38159
7177  1839-19:16161
72-994  1916-17163
71095  1918-27164
711-5296  1928-30165
753-8:1197  1931-42167
812-2098  201171
821-5999  202-10172
91-41100  2011-18173
101-21101  2019-25178
1022-39111  2026-31179
1040-42112  21...180


NOTE:—The verses that are omitted in the Canterbury Revision do not appear in this Harmony. They are Mark 7:16; 9:44, 46; 11:26; 15:28; Matthew 17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Luke 17:36; 23:17; John 5:4.

In addition to the Gospels use is made of

    Acts 1:3-8 in § 183.
    Acts 1:9-12 in § 184.
    Acts 1:18-19 in § 158.
    1 Cor. 11:23-26 in § 148.
    1 Cor. 15:5 in § 177.
    1 Cor. 15:5 in § 179.
    1 Cor. 15:6 in § 181.
    1 Cor. 15:7 in § 182.





A HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS
FOR STUDENTS OF THE LIFE OF CHRIST





PART I
THE SOURCES OF THE GOSPELS



§ 1. IN THE DEDICATION LUKE EXPLAINS HIS METHOD OF RESEARCHa


Luke 1:1-4

1    Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to draw up a narrative concerning those matters which have been 1fulfilled among us, 2 even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word, 3 it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus;b 4 that thou mightest know the certainty concerning the 2things 3wherein thou wast instructed.

1 Or, fully establish.
2 Gr. words.
3 Or, which thou wast taught by word of mouth.

a Luke is the first critic of the life of Christ whose criticism has been preserved to us. Others had drawn up narratives of certain portions of Christ's work. Others still had been eyewitnesses of the ministry of Jesus and gave Luke their oral testimony. Luke sifted it all with care and produced an orderly and reasonably full narrative of the earthly ministry of Jesus. We cannot reproduce all the sources that Luke had at his command, but it is clear that he followed in the main our Gospel of Mark, as any one can see for himself by comparing the two Gospels in this Harmony. Both Matthew and Luke made use of Mark. But they had other sources also. See note 2 on Synoptic Criticism at the close of the Harmony. See also Chapter IV, "Luke's Method of Research" in my Luke the Historian in the Light of Research.

b Luke alone follows the method of ancient historians in dedicating his Gospel, as also the Acts (1:1), to a patron who probably met the expense of publication. So Luke as a Gentile Christian writes an historical introduction in literary (Koiné) Greek after the fashion of Thucydides and Plutarch. Mark had no formal introduction. Matthew's introduction is genealogical because he is writing for Jewish readers to prove that Jesus is the Messiah of Jewish hope. John, writing last of all, has a theological introduction to meet the Gnostic and philosophical misconceptions concerning the Person of Christ. Thus he pictures Christ as the Eternal Logos, with God in his pre-incarnate state, who became flesh and thus revealed the Father to men.





PART II
THE PRE-EXISTENT STATE OF CHRIST AND HIS INCARNATION



§ 2. IN HIS INTRODUCTION JOHN PICTURES CHRIST AS THE WORD (LOGOS)


John 1:1-18

1    In the beginning was the Word,a and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made 1by him; and without him 2was not anything made that hath been made. 4 In him was life; and the life was the light of men. 5 And the light shineth in the darkness; and the darkness 3apprehended it not. 6 There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 7 The same came for witness, that he might bear witness of the light, that all might believe through him. 8 He was not the light, but came that he might bear witness of the light. 9 4There was the true light, even the light which lighteth 5every man, coming into the world. 10 He was in the world, and the world was made 1by him, and the world knew him not. 11 He came unto 6his own, and they that were his own received him not. 12 But as many as received him, to them gave he the right to become children of God, even to them that believe on his name: 13 which were 7born, not of 8blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 14 And the Worda became flesh, and 9dwelt among us (and we beheld his glory, glory as of 10the only begotten from the Father), full of grace and truth. 15 John beareth witness of him, and crieth, saying, 11This was he of whom I said, He that cometh after me is become before me: for he was 12before me. 16 For of his fulness we all received, and grace for grace. 17 For the law was given 1by Moses; grace and truth came 1by Jesus Christ. 18 No man hath seen God at any time; 13the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

1 Or, through.
2 Or, was not anything made. That which hath been made was life in him; and the life &c.
3 Or, overcame.
4 Or, The true light, which lighteth every man, was coming.
5 Or, every man as he cometh.
6 Gr. his own things.
7 Or, begotten.
8 Gr. bloods.
9 Gr. tabernacled.
10 Or, an only begotten from a father.
11 Some ancient authorities read this was he that said.
12 Gr. first in regard of me.
13 Many very ancient authorities read God only begotten.

a The Fourth Gospel makes no further use of the term Logos (Word) for Christ. No other Gospel employs the term, but in 1 John 1:1 we find "the Word of life" in this sense and in Rev. 19:14 we have: "and his name is called the Word of God." The Greek word has a double sense (reason and speech) and John seems to have both ideas in mind (1:18). Christ is the Idea of God and the Expression of God. The Stoics followed Plato in the philosophical use of Logos. Philo took it up and made it familiar to Jewish readers who were already used to the Hebrew Mêmra (Word) in a personal sense. But John carried the term further than any of his predecessors and placed it on a par with Messiah, Son of God, Son of Man, and other phrases that portray aspects of the Person of Christ. John writes his Gospel to prove the deity of Jesus (John 20:31) against Gnostics (Cerinthian) who denied it, as he wrote his First Epistle (1 John 1:1-4) to prove the humanity of Jesus against Docetic Gnostics who disclaimed it. See note 3 at end of Harmony.





PART III
THE TWO GENEALOGIES IN MATTHEW AND LUKE



§ 3. APPARENTLY JOSEPH'S GENEALOGY IN MATTHEW AND MARY'S IN LUKEa


Matt. 1:1-17. (Cf. 1 Chron. 1:34;
2:1-25; 3:1-19.)
Luke 3:23-38. (Cf. 1 Chron. 1:1-4,
24-28; 2:1-15; 3:17; Ruth 4:18-22.)
1    1The book of the 2generation
of Jesus Christ, the son of David,
the son of Abraham.
2    Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac
begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judah
and his brethren; 3 and Judah begat
Perez and Zerah of Tamar; and
Perez begat Hezron; and Hezron
begat 3Ram; 4 and 3Ram begat
Amminadab; and Amminadab
begat Nahshon; and Nahshon
begat Salmon; 5 and Salmon begat
Boaz of Rahab; and Boaz begat
Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat
Jesse; 6 and Jesse begat David the
king.
    And David begat Solomon of
her that had been the wife of Uriah;
7 and Solomon begat Rehoboam;
and Rehoboam begat Abijah;
and Abijah begat 4Asa; 8 and 4Asa
begat Jehoshaphat; and Jehosh-
aphat begat Joram; and Joram
begat Uzziah; 9 and Uzziah begat
Jotham; and Jotham begat Ahaz;
and Ahaz begat Hezekiah; 10 and
Hezekiah begat Manasseh; and
Manasseh begat 5Amon; and
5Amon begat Josiah; 11 and Josiah
begat Jechoniah and his brethren,
at the time of the 6carrying away
to Bablyon.
12    And after the 6carrying away
to Babylon, Jechoniah begat
7Shealtiel; and 7Shealtiel begat
Zerubbabel; 13 and Zerubbabel
begat Abiud; and Abiud begat
Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor;
14 and Azor begat Sadoc; and
Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim
begat Eliud; 15 and Eliud begat
Eleazar; and Eleazar begat
Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob;
16 and Jacob begat Joseph the
husband of Mary, of whom was
bornb Jesus, who is called Christ.
17    So all the generations from
Abraham unto David are fourteen
generations; and from David unto
the 6carrying away to Babylon
fourteen generations; and from the
6carrying away to Babylon unto the
Christ fourteen generations.c
    Being the son (as was supposed)
of Joseph, the son of Heli, 24 the
son of Matthat, the son of Levi,
the son of Melchi, the son
of Jannai, the son of Joseph,
25 the son of Mattathias, the
son of Amos, the son of Nahum,
the son of Esli, the son of Naggai,
26 the son of Maath, the son of
Mattathias, the son of Semein,
the son of Josech, the son of
Joda, 27 the son of Joanan, the son
of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel,
the son of 7Shealtiel, the son of
Neri, 28 the son of Melchi, the son
of Addi, the son of Cosam, the
son of Elmadam, the son of Er,
29 the son of Jesus, the son of
Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of
Matthat, the son of Levi, 30 the son
of Symeon, the son of Judas, the
son of Joseph, the son of Jonam,
the son of Eliakim, 31 the son of
Melea, the son of Menna, the son
of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the
son of David, 32 the son of Jesse,
the son of Obed, the son of Boaz,
the son of 8Salmon, the son of
Nahshon, 33 the son of Amminadab,
9the son of 10Arni, the son of
Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of
Judah, 34 the son of Jacob, the son
of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the
son of Terah, the son of Nahor,
35 the son of Serug, the son of Reu,
the son of Peleg, the son of Eber,
the son of Shelah, 36 the son of
Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the
son of Shem, the son of Noah,
the son of Lamech, 37 the son of
Methuselah, the son of Enoch,
the son of Jared, the son of
Mahalaleel, the son of Cainan, 38 the
son of Enos, the son of Seth, the
son of Adam, the son of God.

1 Or, The genealogy of Jesus Christ.
2 Or, birth: as in ver. 18.
3 Gr. Aram.
4 Gr. Asaph.
5 Gr. Amos.
6 Or, removal to Babylon.
7 Gr. Salathiel.
8 Some ancient authorities write Sala.
9 Many ancient authorities insert the son of Admin; and one writes Admin for Amminadab.
10 Some ancient authorities write Aram.

a This view is not accepted by all scholars, though it is found as early as Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. i, 7). See note 5 at end of Harmony.

b The Sinaitic Syriac, against all the early Greek manuscripts, reads in Matt. 1:16: "But Joseph, to whom the Virgin Mary was betrothed, begat Jesus." This ancient Ebionitic text is followed by Von Soden in his Griechisches Neues Testament and by Moffatt in his New Translation of the New Testament, but it is difficult to believe it genuine, for in Matt. 1:18-22 the writer pictures Joseph as on the point of putting Mary away privily. The two reports in the Sinaitic Syriac flatly contradict each other. Those who accept it say that the writer of the Virgin Birth view in 1:18-20 overlooked 1:16 (certainly a serious oversight). It is easier to think that an Ebionitic scribe in copying altered 1:16, but passed by 1:18-20. The Ebionites denied the deity of Jesus. Both Matthew and Luke (1:26-38) give the Virgin Birth of Jesus, but they preserve separate traditions on the subject.

c Observe that Matthew's three divisions of the genealogy represent three great periods in the history of Israel. See note 5 at end of Harmony for discussion of the differences between the genealogies in Matthew and in Luke.





PART IV
THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST AND OF JESUS

Probably B.C. 7 to A.D. 7

§§ 4-19. These sections include the annunciations, the birth, infancy, and childhood of both John and Jesus.



§ 4. THE ANNUNCIATIONa OF THE BIRTH OF THE BAPTIST TO ZACHARIAS

Jerusalem, in the Temple. Probably B.C. 7


Luke 1:5-25b

5    There was in the days of Herod, king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abijah: and he had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth. 6 And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless. 7 And they had no child, because that Elisabeth was barren, and they both were now 1well stricken in years.

8    Now it came to pass, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course, 9 according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the 2temple of the Lord and burn incense. 10 And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the hour of incense. 11 And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 12 And Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. 13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: because thy supplication is heard, and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John. 14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. 15 For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and he shall drink no wine nor 3strong drink [see Num. 6:3; Judg. 13:4-6; 1 Sam. 1:11]; and he shall be filled with the 4Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb. 16 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn unto the Lord their God. 17 And he shall 5go before his face in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children [see Mal. 3:1; 4:5-6], and the disobedient to walk in the wisdom of the just; to make ready for the Lord a people prepared for him. 18 And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife 6well stricken in years. 19 And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God [see Dan. 8:16; 9:21]; and I was sent to speak unto thee, and to bring thee these good tidings. 20 And behold, thou shalt be silent and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall come to pass, because thou believedst not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season. 21 And the people were waiting for Zacharias, and they marvelled 7while he tarried in the 2temple. 22 And when he came out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the 2temple: and he continued making signs unto them, and remained dumb. 23 And it came to pass, when the days of his ministration were fulfilled, he departed unto his house.

24    And after these days Elisabeth his wife conceived; and she hid herself five months, saying, 25 Thus hath the Lord done unto me in the days wherein he looked upon me, to take away my reproach among men.

1 Gr. advanced in their days.
2 Or, sanctuary.
3 Gr. sikera.
4 Or, Holy Spirit: and so throughout all the Gospels.
5 Some ancient authorities read come nigh before his face.
6 Gr. advanced in her days.
7 Or, at his tarrying.

a There are three annunciations: (1) to Zacharias § 4, (2) to Mary § 5, (3) to Joseph § 9. Luke gives the first two and Matthew the third. The Angel Gabriel is named by Luke (1:19, 26), but Matthew simply has "an angel of the Lord" (1:20).

b It is certain that Luke tells the infancy stories from the standpoint of Mary while Matthew writes from the standpoint of Joseph. Matthew gives the public account while Luke tells the private story from Mary herself (Ramsay, Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? p. 79). Luke could have seen Mary, if still alive, or could have obtained it from one of Mary's circle either orally or in manuscript form. Some scholars even suggest "Gospel of Mary" and even, "Gospel of the Baptist" as a written source for Luke in 1:5-2:52. Sanday (The Life of Christ in Recent Research, p. 166) says: "These two chapters—whatever the date at which they were first committed to writing—are essentially the most archaic thing in the whole New Testament." Certainly Luke reveals the use of Aramaic or Hebrew sources by the sudden changes in his style from 1:1-4. Luke, if familiar with the current account as seen in Matthew, apparently felt that he owed it to Mary to record her story of her great experience.





§ 5. THE ANNUNCIATION TO THE VIRGIN MARY OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS

Nazareth. Probably B.C. 7 or 6


Luke 1:26-38

26    Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, 27 to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. 28 And he came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art 1highly favoured, the Lord is with thee.2 29 But she was greatly troubled at the saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this might be. 30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found 3favour with God. 31 And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS [see Isa. 7:14]. 32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David [see 2 Sam. 7:12-17]: 33 and he shall reign over the house of Jacob 4for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. 34 And Mary said unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? 35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee: wherefore also 5that which 6is to be born 7shall be called holy [see Ex. 13:12], the Son of God. 36 And behold, Elisabeth thy kinswoman, she also hath conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her that 8was called barren. 37 For no word from God shall be void of power [see Gen. 18:14]. 38 And Mary said, Behold, the 9handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.

1 Or, endued with grace.
2 Many ancient authorities add blessed art thou among women. (See ver. 42.)
3 Or, grace.
4 Gr. unto the ages.
5 Or, the holy thing which is to be born shall be called the son of God.
6 Or, is begotten.
7 Some ancient authorities insert of thee.
8 Or, is.
9 Gr. bondmaid.




§ 6. THE SONGa OF ELISABETH TO MARY UPON HER VISIT

Hill Country of Judea


Luke 1:39-45

39    And Mary arose in these days and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah; 40 and entered into the house of Zacharias and saluted Elisabeth. 41 And it came to pass, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost; 42 and she lifted up her voice with a loud cry, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. 43 And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come unto me? 44 For behold, when the voice of thy salutation came into mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy. 45 And blessed is she that 1believed; for there shall be a fulfilment of the things which have been spoken to her from the Lord.

1 Or, believed that there shall be.

a This hymn or psalm springs from the omen to Elisabeth.





§ 7. THE MAGNIFICAT OF MARY

Hill Country of Judea


Luke 1:46-56

46                                          And Mary said,

  My soul doth magnify the Lord [see 1 Sam. 2:1-10],
47     And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.
48     For he hath looked upon the low estate of his 1handmaiden:
  For behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed [see 1 Sam 1:11].
49     For he that is mighty hath done to me great things;
  And holy is his name [see 1 Sam. 2:2].
50     And his mercy is unto generations and generations
  On them that fear him [see Ps. 103:17].
51     He hath shewed strength with his arm;
  He hath scattered the proud 2in the imagination of their heart [see 1 Sam. 2:4; Ps. 89:10].
52     He hath put down princes from their thrones,
  And hath exalted them of low degree [see Job 5:11; 12:19].
53     The hungry he hath filled with good things;
  And the rich he hath sent empty away [see Ps. 107:9].
54     He hath holpen Israel his servant,
  That he might remember mercy [see Isa. 41:8-9]
55     (As he spake unto our fathers)
  Toward Abraham and his seed for ever [see Gen. 17:7; Mic. 7:20].

56    And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned unto her house.

1 Gr. bondmaiden.
2 Or, by.




§ 8. THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF THE BAPTIST, AND HIS DESERT LIFE

Hill Country of Judea. B.C. 7 or 6


Luke 1:57-80

57    Now Elisabeth's time was fulfilled that she should be delivered; and she brought forth a son. 58 And her neighbours and her kinsfolk heard that the Lord had magnified his mercy toward her; and they rejoiced with her. 59 And it came to pass on the eighth day, that they came to circumcise the child; and they would have called him Zacharias, after the name of his father. 60 And his mother answered and said, Not so; but he shall be called John. 61 And they said unto her, There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. 62 And they made signs to his father, what he would have him called. 63 And he asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they marvelled all. 64 And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spake, blessing God. 65 And fear came on all that dwelt round about them: and all these sayings were noised abroad throughout all the hill country of Judea. 66 And all that heard them laid them up in their heart, saying, What then shall this child be? For the hand of the Lord was with him.

67    And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying,

68     Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel;
  For he hath visited and wrought redemption for his people [see Ps. 72:18; 111:9],
69     And hath raised up a horn of salvation for us
  In the house of his servant David [see 1 Sam. 2:10; Ps. 18:3]
70     (As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets which have been since the world began),
71     Salvation from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us [see Ps. 106:10];
72     To shew mercy towards our fathers,
  And to remember his holy covenant;
73     The oath which he sware unto Abraham our father [see Gen. 17:7; Lev. 26:42; Ps. 105:8; Mic. 7:20],
74     To grant unto us that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies
  Should serve him without fear,
75     In holiness and righteousness before him all our days.
76     Yea and thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Most High:
  For thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to make ready his ways [see Mal. 3:1];
77     To give knowledge of salvation unto his people
  In the remission of their sins,
78     Because of the 1tender mercy of our God,
  2Whereby the dayspring from on high 3shall visit us [see Mal. 4:2],
79     To shine upon them that sit in darkness and the shadow of death;
  To guide our feet into the way of peace [see Isa. 8:22; 9:2].

80    And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel.a

1 Or, heart of mercy.
2 Or, Wherein.
3 Many ancient authorities read hath visited us.

a Dwell on this summary statement as to John's retired life in the wild regions of Judea, whence he will come forth thirty years later.





§ 9. THE ANNUNCIATION TO JOSEPH OF THE BIRTH OF JESUS

Nazareth


Matt. 1:18-25

18    Now the 1birth 2of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found with child of the 3Holy Ghost. 19 And Joseph her husband, being a righteous man, and not willing to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privily. 20 But when he thought on these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is 4conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. 21 And she shall bring forth a son; and thou shalt call his name JESUS; for it is he that shall save his people from their sins. 22 Now all this is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying,

23     Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son [see Isa. 7:14],
  And they shall call his name 5Immanuel;

which is, being interpreted, God with us. 24 And Joseph arose from his sleep, and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took unto him his wife; 25 and knew her not till she had brought forth a son: and he called his name JESUS.

1 Or, generation: as in ver. 1 in § 3.
2 Some ancient authorities read of the Christ.
3 Or, Holy Spirit.
4 Gr. begotten.
5 Gr. Emmanuel.




§ 10. THE BIRTH OF JESUS

Bethlehem. Probably B.C. 6 or 5


Luke 2:1-7

1    Now it came to pass in those days, there went out a decree from Cæsar Augustus, that all the 1world should be enrolled. 2 This was the first enrolment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. 3 And all went to enrol themselves, every one to his own city.a 4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David; 5 to enrol himself with Mary, who was betrothed to him, being great with child. 6 And it came to pass, while they were there, the days were fulfilled that she should be delivered. 7 And she brought forth her firstborn son; and she wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.

1 Gr. inhabited earth.

a Observe how the ruler of the civilized world is unconsciously bringing it about that the Messiah, the son of David, shall be born at Bethlehem, though his mother's home was Nazareth. All the previous history of Rome and of Israel gathers about this manger. As to Quirinius, and as to the probable time of the Saviour's birth, see note 6 at the end of the book. The vindication of Luke's historical statements in these verses is one of the triumphs of modern research, as is shown in that note.





§ 11. THE PRAISE OF THE ANGELS AND THE HOMAGE OF THE SHEPHERDS

Near Bethlehem


Luke 2:8-20

8    And there were shepherds in the same country abiding in the field, and keeping 1watch by night over their flock. 9 And an angel of the Lord stood by them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. 10 And the angel said unto them, Be not afraid; for behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy which shall be to all the people: 11 for there is born to you this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is 2Christ the Lord. 12 And this is the sign unto you; Ye shall find a babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, and lying in a manger. 13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praisinga God, and saying,

14     Glory to God in the highest,
  And on earth 3peace among 4men in whom he is well pleased.

15    And it came to pass, when the angels went away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this 5thing that is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. 16 And they came with haste, and found both Mary and Joseph, and the babe lying in the manger. 17 And when they saw it, they made known concerning the saying which was spoken to them about this child. 18 And all that heard it wondered at the things which were spoken unto them by the shepherds. 19 But Mary kept all these 6sayings, pondering them in her heart. 20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, even as it was spoken unto them.

1 Or, night-watches.
2 Or, Anointed Lord.
3 Many ancient authorities read peace, good pleasure among men.
4 Gr. men of good pleasure.
5 Or, saying.
6 Or, things.

a The Gloria in Excelsis.





§ 12. THE CIRCUMCISION OF JESUS

Bethlehem


Luke 2:21

21    And when eight days were fulfilled for circumcising him [see Gen. 17:12; Lev. 12:3], his name was called JESUS, which was so called by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.





§ 13. THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE WITH THE HOMAGE OF SIMEON AND ANNA

Jerusalem


Luke 2:22-38

22    And when the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord 23 (as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord) [see Ex. 13:2, 12, 15; Lev. 12:1-8], 24 and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons. 25 And behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Spirit was upon him. 26 And it had been revealed unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ. 27 And he came in the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might do concerning him after the custom of the law, 28 then he received him into his arms, and blessed God, and said,a

29     Now lettest thou thy 1servant depart, O 2Lord,
  According to thy word, in peace;
30     For mine eyes have seen thy salvation [see Isa. 52:10],
31     Which thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples;
32     A light for 3revelation to the Gentiles,
  And the glory of thy people Israel [see Isa. 42:6; 49:6].

33 And his father and his mother were marvelling at the things which were spoken concerning him; 34 and Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the falling and rising up of many in Israel; and for a sign which is spoken against; 35 yea and a sword shall pierce through thine own soul; that thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed. 36 And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was 4of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, 37 and she had been a widow even for fourscore and four years), which departed not from the temple, worshipping with fastings and supplications night and day. 38 And coming up at that very hour she gave thanks unto God, and spake of him to all them that were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem.

1 Gr. bondservant.
2 Gr. Master.
3 Or, the unveiling of the Gentiles.
4 Gr. advanced in many days.

a The four New Testament psalms, given by Luke, breathe the atmosphere of Old Testament piety, quite in contrast to the formalism of the Pharisees and yet thoroughly Jewish in background and Christian in sentiment. But it is primitive Christian feeling. Section 7 gives the Magnificat of Mary in response to the song of Elisabeth in § 6. In § 8 we have the Benedictus of Zacharias and in § 13 The Nunc Dimittis of Simeon.





§ 14. MAGI VISIT THE NEW-BORN KING OF THE JEWS

Jerusalem and Bethlehem


Matt. 2:1-12

1    Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, 1wise men from the east [see Num. 24:17] came to Jerusalem, saying, 2 2Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we saw his star in the east, and are come to worship him. 3 And when Herod the king heard it, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4 And gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Christ should be born. 5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judea: for thus it is written 3by the prophet,

6     And thou Bethlehem, land of Judah,
  Art in no wise least among the princes of Judah:
  For out of thee shall come forth a governor [see Mic. 5:1-2],
  Which shall be shepherd of my people Israel.

7 Then Herod privily called the 1wise men, and learned of them carefully 4what time the star appeared. 8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search out carefully concerning the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word, that I also may come and worship him. 9 And they, having heard the king, went their way; and lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. 10 And when they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 11 And they came into the house and saw the young child with Mary his mother; and they fell down and worshipped him; and opening their treasures they offered unto him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh. 12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.

1 Gr. Magi. Compare Esther 1:13; Dan. 2:12.
2 Or, Where is the King of the Jews that is born?
3 Or, through.
4 Or, the time of the star that appeared.




§ 15. THE CHILD JESUS CARRIED TO EGYPT, AND THE CHILDREN AT BETHLEHEM SLAIN

Probably B.C. 5


Matt. 2:13-18

13    Now when they were departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I tell thee: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 14 And he arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt; 15 and was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt did I call my son [see Hos. 11:1]. 16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the 1wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the male children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the borders thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had carefully learned of the 1wise men. 17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken 2by Jeremiah the prophet, saying [see Jer. 31:15],

18     A voice was heard in Ramah,
  Weeping and great mourning,
  Rachel weeping for her children;
  And she would not be comforted, because they are not.
1 Gr. Magi.
2 Or, through.




§ 16. THE CHILD BROUGHT FROM EGYPT TO NAZARETH

Probably B.C. 4


Matt. 2:19-23 Luke 2:39
19    But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel
of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in
Egypt, saying, 20 Arise and take the young child
and his mother, and go into the land of Israel:
for they are dead that sought the young child's
life. 21 And he arose and took the young child
and his mother, and came into the land of
Israel. 22 But when he heard that Archelaus was
reigning over Judea in the room of his father
Herod, he was afraid to go thither; and being
warned of God in a dream, he withdrew into
the parts of Galilee, 23 and came and dwelt in a
city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled
which was spoken 1by the prophets,a that he
should be called a Nazarene.


39    And when they
had accomplished
all things that were
according to the law
of the Lord, they
returned into Galilee,
to their own city
Nazareth.
1 Or, through.

a Cf. Isa. 11:1 where the Messiah is called Netzer, a Branch, though Nazareth is not mentioned in the Old Testament.





§ 17. THE CHILDHOOD OF JESUS AT NAZARETH

Probably B.C. 4 to A.D. 7


Luke 2:40

40    And the child grew, and waxed strong, 1filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him.a

1 Gr. becoming full of wisdom.

a This simple statement of Luke tells more in one sentence than all the apocryphal Gospels of the Infancy, with their silly legends about the miraculous prowess of the child Jesus.





§ 18. THE VISIT OF THE BOY JESUS TO JERUSALEM WHEN TWELVE YEARS OLD

Probably A.D. 7 or 8


Luke 2:41-50

41    And his parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the passover [see Ex. 23:14-17; Deut. 16:1-8]. 42 And when he was twelve years old, they went up after the custom of the feast; 43 and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and his parents knew it not; 44 but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's journey; and they sought for him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance: 45 and when they found him not, they returned to Jerusalem, seeking for him. 46 And it came to pass, after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the 1doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions: 47 and all that heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. 48 And when they saw him, they were astonished: and his mother said unto him, 2Son, why hast thou thus dealt with us? behold, thy father and I sought thee sorrowing. 49 And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be 3in my Father's house? 50 And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them.

1 Or, teachers.
2 Gr. Child.
3 Or, about my Father's business.




§ 19. THE EIGHTEEN YEARSa AT NAZARETH

Probably A.D. 7 to A.D. 26 (or 6 to 25)


Luke 2:51-52

51    And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth; and he was subject unto them: and his mother kept all these 1sayings in her heart.

52    And Jesus advanced in wisdom and 2stature, and in 3favour with God and men [see 1 Sam. 2:26].

1 Or, things.
2 Or, age.
3 Or, grace.

a After the return to Nazareth, we know nothing of Jesus' life at that place beyond the general statements of Luke 2:52, with the knowledge and dispositions indicated in the narrative of § 18 and the fact that he was a carpenter, until he comes forth to be baptized by John, his forerunner. The social and political conditions of this period in Galilee are described by Edersheim, D. Smith, and other writers on the Life of Jesus, and briefly stated in Broadus's Commentary on Matthew, p. 30 f. Dwell on the general statement of Luke 2:52. Other passages throw light on the life in Nazareth as to habits of worship (Luke 4:16), the family group of brothers and sisters (Mark 6:3 = Matt. 13:55 f.), work as carpenter (ibid.). A helpful book on this obscure period is Ramsay's The Education of Christ.





PART V
THE BEGINNING OF THE BAPTIST'S MINISTRY

Probably six months and in A.D. 25. In the Wilderness of Judea and beside the Jordan, §§ 20-23


§ 20. THE TIME OF THE BEGINNING


Mark 1:1 Luke 3:1-2
1    The beginning of the
gospel of Jesus Christ,
1the Son God.
1    Now in the fifteenth ayear of the
reign of Tiberius Cæsar, Pontius Pilate
being governor of Judea, and Herod
being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother
Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituræa
and Trachonitis, and Lysaniasb
tetrarch of Abilene, 2 in the
highpriesthood of Annas and Caiaphas,
the word of God came unto John the
son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
1 Some ancient authorities omit the son of God.

a See note 6 at end of Harmony.

b See note 6. Luke follows the custom of ancient historians in dating events by the names of the rulers. As the son of a priest John was probably thirty years old when he came forth.





§ 21. THE MESSAGE AND THE MESSENGER


Mark 1:2-6 Matt. 3:1-6 Luke 3:3-6
2    Even as it is written
1in Isaiah the prophet,
    Behold, I send my
      messenger before
      thy face [see
      Mal. 3:1
],
    Who shall prepare
      thy way;
3   The voice of one
      crying in the
      wilderness [see
      Isa. 40:3
],
    Make ye ready the
      way of the Lord,
    Make his paths
      straight;
4 John came, who
baptized in the
wilderness and
preached the baptism
of repentance unto
remission of sins. 5 And
there went out unto
him all the country
of Judea, and all
they of Jerusalem;
and they were
baptized of him in the
river Jordan,
confessing their sins.
6 And John was clothed
with camel's hair,
and had a leathern
girdle about his loins,
and did eat locusts
and wild honey.
1    And in those days
cometh John the
Baptist, preaching in
the wilderness of
Judea, saying,a
2 Repent ye; for the
kingdom of heaven is
at hand. 3 For this is
he that was spoken of
2by Isaiah the prophet,
saying,
    The voice of one
      crying in the
      wilderness,
    Make ye ready the
      way of the Lord,
    Make his paths
      straight.
4 Now John himself
had his raiment of
camel's hair, and a
leathern girdle about
his loins; and his
food was locusts and
wild honey. 5 Then
went out unto him
Jerusalem, and all
Judea, and all the
region round about
Jordan; 6 and they
were baptized of him
in the river Jordan,
confessing their sins.
3    And he came into
all the region round
about Jordan, preach-
ing the baptism of
repentance unto re-
mission of sins; 4 as it
is written in the book
of the words of Isaiah
the prophet,
    The voice of one
      crying in the
      wilderness,
    Make ye ready the
      way of the Lord,
    Make his paths
      straight.
5   Every valley shall
      be filled,
    And every moun-
      tain and hill shall
      be brought low;
    And the crooked
      shall become
      straight,
    And the rough
      ways smooth;
6   And all flesh shall
      see the salvation
      of God [see Isa.
      40:4-5
].
1 Some ancient authorities read in the prophets.
2 Or, through.

a See Mark 1:15 (= Matt. 4:17); Matt. 10:7; Acts 2:38.





§ 22. A SPECIMENa OF JOHN'S PREACHING


Matt. 3:7-10 Luke 3:7-14
7 But when he saw many of the
Pharisees and Sadducees coming
to his baptism, he said unto them,
Ye offspring of vipers, who warned
you to flee from the wrath to
come? 8 Bring forth therefore fruit
worthy of 1repentance: 9 and think
not to say within yourselves, We
have Abraham to our father: for
I say unto you, that God is able
of these stones to raise up children
unto Abraham. 10 And even now
is the axe laid unto the root of the
trees: every tree therefore that
bringeth not forth good fruit is
hewn down, and cast into the fire.
7    He said therefore to the multitudes
that went out to be baptized
of him, Ye offspring of vipers, who
warned you to flee from the wrath
to come? 8 Bring forth therefore
fruits worthy of 1repentance, and
begin not to say within yourselves,
We have Abraham to our father:
for I say unto you, that God is
able of these stones to raise up
children unto Abraham. 9 And
even now is the axe also laid unto
the root of the trees: every tree
therefore that bringeth not forth
good fruit is hewn down, and cast
into the fire. 10 And the multitudes
asked him, saying, What then must
we do? 11 And he answered and
said unto them, He that hath two
coats, let him impart to him that
hath none; and he that hath food,
let him do likewise. 12 And there
came also 2publicans to be
baptized, and they said unto him,
3Master, what must we do? 13 And
he said unto them, Extort no more
than that which is appointed
you. 14 And 4soldiers also asked
him, saying, And we, what must
we do? And he said unto them,
Do violence to no man, neither
5exact anything wrongfully; and be
content with your wages.
1 Or, your repentance.
2 That is, collectors or renters of Roman taxes.
3 Or, Teacher.
4 Gr. soldiers on service.
5 Or, accuse any one.

a Here we see Matthew and Luke preserving a non-Markan section, as so frequently hereafter, an example of the so-called Logia (Discourses).





§ 23. THE FORERUNNER'S PICTURE OF THE MESSIAH BEFORE SEEING HIM


Mark 1:7-8 Matt. 3:11-12 Luke 3:15-18
7 And he preached,
saying, There cometh
after me he that
is mightier than I,
the latchet of whose
shoes I am not
2worthy to stoop
down and unloose.
8 I baptized you 1with
water; but he shall
baptize you 1with the
3Holy Ghost.
11 I indeed baptize
you 1with water unto
repentance: but he
that cometh after me
is mightier than I,
whose shoes I am not
2worthy to bear: he
shall baptize you
1with the 3Holy Ghost
and with fire: 12 whose
fan is in his hand,
and he will throughly
cleanse his threshing-
floor; and he will
gather his wheat into
the garner, but the
chaff he will burn up
with unquenchable
fire.
15    And as the people
were in expectation,
and all men
reasoned in their
hearts concerning
John, whether haply
he were the Christ;
16 John answered,
saying unto them all, I
indeed baptize you
with water; but there
cometh he that is
mightier than I, the
latchet of whose
shoes I am not
2worthy to unloose: he
shall baptize you
1with the 3Holy Ghost
and with fire: 17 whose
fan is in his hand,
throughly to cleanse
his threshing-floor,
and to gather the
wheat into his garner;
but the chaff he will
burn up with
unquenchable fire.
18    With many other
exhortations therefore
preached he 4good
tidings unto the people.a
1 Or, in.
2 Gr. sufficient.
3 Or, Holy Spirit.
4 Or, the gospel.

a One can easily put together all that we are told of John the Baptist in John 1:6-15 and in Sections 4, 6, 8, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 33, 34, 49, 57, 71, 86, 132. See also Acts 1:5, 22; 10:37; 13:24; 18:25; 19:1-7. For a full discussion of the Baptist see my John the Loyal. These months of John's ministry prepared the way for the Messiah.





PART VI
THE BEGINNING OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC MINISTRY

THE YEAR OF OBSCURITYa

Probably Part of A.D. 26 and 27

In all parts of the Holy Land (the first Perean Ministry, the first Galilean Ministry, the first Judean Ministry, the first Samaritan Ministry). §§ 24-36. This early ministry includes the baptism, the temptation, John's witness to Jesus, the first disciples, the first miracle and work in Galilee, the first work in Judea, the arrest of John, the work in Samaria, and the return to Galilee.

a The precise duration of this early ministry cannot be determined. Our Lord's baptism must have been at least two months before the Passover, and may have been some weeks or months earlier. Then the highly successful ministry in Judea after the Passover must have lasted several months (John 3:22; 4:1-3). If the "yet four months" in John 4:35 be understood to be not a common saying as to the usual interval between seedtime and harvest, but a statement that it was then just four months before harvest, that would make the Judean ministry extend eight months after the Passover. But this interpretation is upon the whole improbable, and we can only say that the opening ministry lasted several months. The time occupied makes very little difference for our understanding the events and discourses. All of the incidents during this period after the temptation are given in John's Gospel. But for the Fourth Gospel we should not know that Jesus did not plunge at once into the great Galilean Ministry.





§ 24. JESUS BAPTIZED BY JOHN IN THE JORDAN

Bethany beyond Jordan. Probably A.D. 26


Mark 1:9-11 Matt. 3:13-17 Luke 3:21-23
9    And it came to
pass in those days,
that Jesus came from
Nazareth of Galilee,
and was baptized of
John 4in the Jordan.









10 And straightway
coming up out of the
water, he saw the
heavens rent asunder,


and the Spirit as a
dove descending
upon him: 11 and a
voice came out of the
heavens, Thou art
my beloved Son, in
thee I am well pleased
[see Ps. 2:7; Isa.
42:1
].
13    Then cometh Jesus
from Galilee to the
Jordan unto John, to
be baptized of him.a
14 But John would have
hindered him, saying,
I have need to
be baptized of thee,
and comest thou to
me? 15 But Jesus
answering said unto
him, Suffer 1it now:
for thus it becometh
us to fulfil all right-
eousness. Then he
suffereth him. 16 And
Jesus, when he was
baptized, went up
straightway from the
water: and lo, the
heavens were opened
2unto him, and he
saw the Spirit of
God descending as
a dove, and coming
upon him; 17 and lo, a
voice out of the heavens,
saying, 3This is
my beloved Son, in
whom I am well
pleased.















21    Now it came to
pass, when all the
people were baptized,
that, Jesus also having
been baptized,
and praying, the
heaven was opened,
22 and the Holy Ghost
descended in a bodily
form, as a dove,
upon himb [see John
1:32-34
], and a
voice came out of
heaven, Thou art my
beloved Son; in thee
I am well pleased.c
23 And Jesus himself,
when he began
to teach, was about
thirty years of age.
1 Or, me.
2 Some ancient authorities omit unto him.
3 Or, This is my son; my beloved in whom I am well pleased.
4 Gr. into.

a The Gospel of the Hebrews (one of the apocryphal gospels) is quoted by Jerome (adv. Pelag. iii, 2) as having the following: "Behold, the Lord's mother and His brethren were saying to Him, John the Baptist baptizes unto the remission of sins; let us go and be baptized by him. But he said unto them, What sin have I done, that I should go and be baptized by him? unless perchance this very thing which I have said is an ignorance."

b The Gospel of John does not describe the baptism of Jesus, but refers to the event in a way that shows knowledge of the Synoptic Gospels.

c Codex Bezae (D) reads in Luke: "Thou art my beloved son, to-day have I begotten thee." The Gospel of the Ebionites has: "Thou art my beloved son, in thee I am well pleased, to-day I have begotten thee."

See § 85 for similar language at the Transfiguration.





§ 25. THE THREE TEMPTATIONSa OF JESUS

The Wilderness of Judea. Probably A.D. 26


Mark 1:12-13 Matt. 4:1-11 Luke 4:1-13
12    And straightway
the Spirit driveth him
forth into the
wilderness. 13 And he
was in the wilderness
forty days tempted
of Satan; and he
was with the wild
beasts;






























































                and the
angels ministered
unto him.
1    Then was Jesus led
up of the Spirit into
the wilderness to be
tempted of the devil.
2 And when he had
fasted forty days and
forty nights, he
afterward hungered.
3 And the tempter
came and said unto
him, If thou art the
Son of God,
command that these
stones become 1bread.
4 But he answered and
said, It is written [see
Deut. 8:3
], Man shall
not live by bread
alone, but by every
word that proceedeth
out of the mouth
of God. 5 Then the
devil taketh him into
the holy city; and
he set him on the
2pinnacle of the
temple, 6 and saith
unto him, If thou art
the Son of God, cast
thyself down: for it is
written [see Ps.
91:11-12
],
    He shall give his
      angels charge
      concerning thee:
    And on their hands
      they shall bear
      thee up,
    Lest haply thou
      dash thy foot
      against a stone.
7 Jesus said unto him,
Again it is written
[see Deut. 6:16], Thou
shalt not tempt the
Lord thy God. 8 Again,
the devil taketh him
unto an exceeding
high mountain, and
sheweth him all the
kingdoms of the
world, and the glory
of them; 9 and he said
unto him, All these
things will I give
thee, if thou wilt fall
down and worship
me. 10 Then saith Jesus
unto him, Get thee
hence, Satan: for it is
written [see Deut.
6:13
], Thou shalt
worship the Lord thy
God, and him only
shalt thou serve.





11 Then the devil
leaveth him; and behold
angels came and
ministered unto him.
1    And Jesus, full of
the Holy Spirit,
returned from the
Jordan, and was led
3by the Spirit 2 in the
wilderness during forty
days, being tempted
of the devil [see Heb.
4:15
]. And he did eat
nothing in those days:
and when they were
completed, he
hungered. 3 And the
devil said unto him, If
thou art the Son of
God, command this
stone that it become
4bread. 4 And Jesus
answered unto him,
It is written [see Deut.
8:3
], Man shall not
live by bread alone.
5 And he led him up,
and shewed him all
the kingdoms of 5the
world in a moment
of time. 6 And the
devil said unto him,
To thee will I give
all this authority, and
the glory of them:
for it hath been
delivered unto me; and
to whomsoever I will
I give it. 7 If thou
therefore wilt worship
before me, it shall
all be thine. 8 And
Jesus answered and
said unto him, It is
written [see Deut.
6:13
], Thou shalt wor-
ship the Lord thy God,
and him only shalt
thou serve. 9 And he
led him to Jerusalem,
and set him on the
2pinnacle of the
temple, and said unto
him, If thou art the Son
of God, cast thyself
down from hence:
10 for it is written [see
Ps. 91:11-12
],
    He shall give his
      angels charge
      concerning thee,
      to guard thee:
11 And on their hands
      they shall bear
      thee up,
    Lest haply thou
      dash thy foot
      against a stone.
12 And Jesus answering
said unto him, It is
said [Deut. 6:16],
Thou shalt not tempt
the Lord thy God.
13    And when the devil
had completed every
temptation, he
departed from him 6for
a season.
1 Gr. loaves.
2 Gr. wing.
3 Or, in.
4 Or, a loaf.
5 Gr. the inhabited earth.
6 Or, until.

a Mark gives only a summary account while the Logia (the oldest known record) tells the temptations in detail. This early document reveals the Messianic consciousness of Jesus as distinctly as it appears in the Gospel of John. The record of the baptism in § 24 and of the temptation in § 25 goes back to the two oldest strata of the Gospel sources (Mark or the Memoirs of Peter and the Logia of Matthew) and shows that Jesus enters upon his Messianic work knowing that he had his Father's approval and the power of the Holy Spirit upon him.





§ 26. THE TESTIMONY OF THE BAPTIST TO THE COMMITTEE OF THE SANHEDRIN

At Bethany beyond Jordan


John 1:19-28

19    And this is the witness of John, when the Jews sent unto him from Jerusalem priests and Levites to ask him, Who art thou? 20 And he confessed, and denied not; and he confessed, I am not the Christ. 21 And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elijah? And he saith, I am not. Art thou the prophet? And he answered, No. 22 They said therefore unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? 23 He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet [see Isa. 40:3]. 24 1And they had been sent from the Pharisees.a 25 And they asked him, and said unto him, Why then baptizest thou, if thou art not the Christ, neither Elijah, neither the prophet? 26 John answered them, saying, I baptize 2with water: in the midst of you standeth one whom ye know not, 27 even he that cometh after me, the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose. 28 These things were done in 3Bethany beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.

1 Or, And certain had been sent from among the Pharisees.
2 Or, in.
3 Many ancient authorities read Bethabarah, some Betharabah.

a In 1:19 the priests and Levites are Sadducees. The idea seems to be that the Pharisees had the Sadducees sent on this embassy (cf. § 22). Later Jesus will say that John was Elijah that was to come; some will even take Jesus to be Elijah.





§ 27. JOHN'S IDENTIFICATION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH

At Bethany beyond the Jordan


John 1:29-34

29    On the morrow he seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold, the Lamb of God, which 1taketh away the sin of the world [see Isa. 53:7]! 30 This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is become before me: for he was 2before me. 31 And I knew him not; but that he should be made manifest to Israel, for this cause came I baptizing 3with water. 32 And John bare witness, saying, I have beheld the Spirit descending as a dove out of heaven; and it abode upon him. 33 And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize 3with water, he said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and abiding upon him, the same is he that baptizeth 3with the Holy Spirit. 34 And I have seen, and have borne witness that this is the son of God.a

1 Or, beareth the sin.
2 Gr. first in regard of me.
3 Or, in.

a Put together the Baptist's testimonies to Jesus in sections 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 33, 57. Add John 1:6-15. Note also the four testimonies of Jesus to John, sections 49, 57, 86, 132. Observe the four successive days here in John 1:19, 29, 35, 43, and the third day from the last in John 2:1, making a week that is covered in detail (cf. the Passion Week at the close). We have other glimpses of special days in the ministry, as the Busy Day of the blasphemous accusation and the parables (Matt. 12 and 13). In John 1:39 the very hour is preserved, probably Roman time (ten in the morning), as John writes long after the destruction of Jerusalem and outside of Palestine and uses the Roman reckoning (midnight to midnight) in John 20:19. But see note 11 at end of Harmony for Ramsay's objections to this view.





§ 28. JESUS MAKES HIS FIRSTa DISCIPLES

At Bethany beyond the Jordan


John 1:35-51

35    Again on the morrow John was standing, and two of his disciples; 36 and he looked upon Jesus as he walked, and saith, Behold, the Lamb of God [see Isa. 53:7]! 37 And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. 38 And Jesus turned, and beheld them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? And they said unto him, Rabbi (which is to say, being interpreted, 1Master), where abidest thou? 39 He saith unto them, Come, and ye shall see. They came therefore and saw where he abode; and they abode with him that day: it was about the tenth hour. 40 One of the two that heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. 41 He findeth first his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messiah (which is, being interpreted, 2Christ). 42 He brought him unto Jesus. Jesus looked upon him, and said, thou art Simon the son of 3John: thou shalt be called Cephas (which is by interpretation, 4Peter).

43    On the morrow he was minded to go forth into Galilee, and he findeth Philip: and Jesus saith unto him, Follow me. 44 Now Philip was from Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 46 And Nathanael said unto him, Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, Come and see. 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile! 48 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee. 49 Nathanael answered him, Rabbi, thou art the son of God; thou art King of Israelb [see 2 Sam. 7:14; Ps. 2:7]. 50 Jesus answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee underneath the fig tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than these. 51 And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye shall see the heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of manc [see Gen. 28:12].

1 Or, Teacher.
2 That is, Anointed.
3 Gr. Joanes: called in Matt. 16:17, Jonah.
4 That is, Rock or Stone.

a Notice here a series of First Things; first testimony of John, first disciples, first miracle, first residence at Capernaum, first passover during his ministry, first extended discourse.

b Notice that these first disciples at once believed that Jesus was the Messiah (ver. 41, 45, 49). Compare the confession of Jesus (§ 35) to the Woman at Jacob's well and the confessions of Peter in Matt. 14:33; John 6:69; Matt. 16:16 (§§ 74, 76, 82).

c Cf. the close of the temptation in the wilderness and the experience in the Garden of Gethsemane.





§ 29. JESUS WORKS HIS FIRST MIRACLE

At Cana in Galilee


John 2:1-11

1    And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: 2 and Jesus also was bidden, and his disciples, to the marriage. 3 And when the wine failed, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine. 4 And Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come. 5 His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. 6 Now there were six waterpots of stone set there after the Jews' manner of purifying, containing two or three firkins apiece. 7 Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. 8 And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the 1ruler of the feast. And they bare it. 9 And when the ruler of the feast tasted the water 2now become wine, and knew not whence it was (but the servants which had drawn the water knew), the ruler of the feast calleth the bridegroom, 10 and saith unto him, Every man setteth on first the good wine; and when men have drunk freely, then that which is worse: thou hast kept the good wine until now. 11 This beginning of his signs did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested his glory; and his disciples believed on him.

1 Or, steward.
2 Or, that it had become.




§ 30. JESUS MAKES A FIRST SOJOURN AT CAPERNAUM, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS KINDRED AND HIS EARLY DISCIPLES

(Later Capernaum will become his home)


John 2:12

12    After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his brethren, and his disciples: and there they abode not many days.





§ 31. THE FIRSTa CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE AT THE PASSOVER

Jerusalem.b Probably A.D. 27


John 2:13-22

13    And the passoverc of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 And he found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: 15 and he made a scourge of cords, and cast all out of the temple, both the sheep and the oxen; and he poured out the changers' money, and overthrew their tables; 16 and to them that sold the doves he said, Take these things hence; make not my Father's house a house of merchandise. 17 His disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house shall eat me up [see Ps. 69:9]. 18 The Jews therefore answered and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing thou doest these things? 19 Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this 1temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 20 The Jews therefore said, Forty and six years was this 1temple in building, and wilt thou raise it up in three days? 21 But he spake of the 1temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he spake this; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.

1 Or, sanctuary.

a Many scholars consider this the same incident as that in the Synoptic Gospels and placed by them in Passion Week (§ 129) probably on Monday. It is urged that Jesus would not have repeated such an act and hence one must follow either the order of John or of the Synoptics. But there is no inherent difficulty in the repetition of such an act when one reflects on the natural indignation of Jesus at the desecration of the temple on his visit during his ministry and considers that Jesus may have wished to make one last protest at the close of his ministry. Certainty, of course, is not possible in such an argument one way or the other.

b Observe the successive scenes of this early ministry—beside the Jordan, on the eastern side, at Cana of Galilee, at Capernaum, at Jerusalem, in Judea, in Samaria.

c This is the first of the passovers in John's Gospel (2:13; 6:4; 13:1). There may have been another.





§ 32. THE INTERVIEW OF NICODEMUS WITH JESUS

At Jerusalem during the Passover


John 2:23 to 3:21

23    Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, during the feast, many believed on his name, beholding his signs which he did. 24 But Jesus did not trust himself unto them, 25 for that he knew all men, and because he needed not that any one should bear witness concerning 1man; for he himself knew what was in man.

1    Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus,a a ruler of the Jews: 2 the same came unto him by night, and said to him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these signs that thou doest, except God be with him. 3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born 2anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God. 4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born? 5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born 2anew. 8 3The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit. 9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be? 10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou the teacher of Israel, and understandest not these things? 11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and bear witness of that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. 12 If I told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you heavenly things? 13 And no man hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended out of heaven, even the Son of man, 4which is in heaven. 14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness [see Num. 21:8-9], even so must the Son of man be lifted up: 15 that whosoever 5believeth may in him have eternal life.

16    For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have eternal life. 17 For God sent not the Son into the world to judge the world; but that the world should be saved through him. 18 He that believeth on him is not judged: he that believeth not has been judged already, because he hath not believed on the name of the only begotten Son of God. 19 And this is the judgment, that the light is come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. 20 For every one that 6doeth ill hateth the light, and cometh not to the light, lest his works should be 7reproved. 21 But he that doeth the truth cometh to the light, that his works may be made manifest, 8that they have been wrought in God.

1 Or, a man; for ... the man.
2 Or, from above.
3 Or, The Spirit breatheth.
4 Many ancient authorities omit which is in heaven.
5 Or, believeth in him may have.
6 Or, practiseth.
7 Or, convicted.
8 Or, because.

a Nicodemus appears as an exception to the statement of 2:24, as one whom Jesus did trust, and who amid all difficulties of temperament and station proved not unworthy of the trust.





§ 33. THE PARALLEL MINISTRY OF JESUS AND JOHN WITH JOHN'S LOYALTY TO JESUSa


John 3:22-36

22    After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judea; and there he tarried with them, and baptized. 23 And John also was baptizing in Ænon near to Salim, because there 1was much water there: and they came, and were baptized. 24 For John was not yet cast into prison. 25 There arose therefore a questioning on the part of John's disciples with a Jew about purifying. 26 And they came unto John, and said to him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou hast borne witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him. 27 John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it have been given him from heaven. 28 Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but, that I am sent before him. 29 He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled. 30 He must increase, but I must decrease.

31    He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is of the earth, and of the earth he speaketh: 2he that cometh from heaven is above all. 32 What he hath seen and heard, of that he beareth witness; and no man receiveth his witness. 33 He that hath received his witness hath set his seal to this, that God is true. 34 For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for he giveth not the Spirit by measure. 35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand. 36 He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life; but he that 3obeyeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.

1 Gr. were many waters.
2 Some ancient authorities read he that cometh from heaven beareth witness of what he hath seen and heard.
3 Or, believeth not.

a Jesus gained his first disciples from John at Bethany beyond Jordan and many in Jerusalem. Now he is surpassing John. On John's loyalty to Jesus see my John the Loyal.





§ 34. CHRIST'S REASONS FOR LEAVING JUDEA


John 4:1-4

1    When therefore the Lord knew how that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 2 (although Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples), 3 he left Judea, and departed again into Galilee. 4 And he must needs pass through Samaria.


Luke 3:19, 20

19    But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done, 20 added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison.a


Mark 1:14 Matt. 4:12 Luke 4:14
14    Now after that
John was delivered
up, Jesus came into
Galilee.
12    Now when he
heard that John was
delivered up, he
withdrew into Galilee.
14    And Jesus returned
in the power of
the Spirit into Galilee.

a The place of John's imprisonment was Machærus, east of the Dead Sea. See Josephus. War, Ch. VII, vi. In Antiquities, Ch. XVIII, v, 2 Josephus gives the public and political reason for John's imprisonment because of Herod's fear of a revolution. He "feared lest the great influences John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion."





§ 35. JESUS IN SAMARIA.a

At Jacob's Well and in Sychar


John 4:5-42

5    So he cometh to a city of Samaria, called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph: 6 and Jacob's 1well was there [see Josh. 24:32]. Jesus therefore, being wearied with his journey, sat 2thus by the 1well. It was about the sixth hour. 7 There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water: Jesus saith unto her, Give me to drink. 8 For his disciples were gone away into the city to buy food. 9 The Samaritan woman therefore saith unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a Samaritan woman? (3For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 10 Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water. 11 The woman saith unto him, 4Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou that living water? 12 Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his sons, and his cattle? 13 Jesus answered and said unto her, Every one that drinketh of this water shall thirst again: 14 but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall become in him a well of water springing up unto eternal life. 15 The woman saith unto him, 4Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come all the way hither to draw. 16 Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy husband, and come hither. 17 The woman answered and said unto him, I have no husband. Jesus saith unto her, Thou saidst well, I have no husband: 18 for thou hast had five husbands; and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband: this hast thou said truly. 19 The woman saith unto him, 4Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet. 20 Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship. 21 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, shall ye worship the Father. 22 Ye worship that which ye know not: we worship that which we know: for salvation is from the Jews. 23 But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth: 5for such doth the Father seek to be his worshippers. 24 6God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship in spirit and truth. 25 The woman saith unto him, I know that Messiah cometh (which is called Christ): when he is come, he will declare unto us all things. 26 Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee am he.

27    And upon this came his disciples; and they marvelled that he was speaking with a woman; yet no man said, What seekest thou? or, Why speakest thou with her? 28 So the woman left her waterpot, and went away into the city, and saith to the men, 29 Come, see a man, which told me all things that ever I did: can this be the Christ? 30 They went out of the city, and were coming to him. 31 In the mean while the disciples prayed him, saying, Rabbi, eat. 32 But he said to them, I have meat to eat that ye know not. 33 The disciples therefore said one to another, Hath any man brought him aught to eat? 34 Jesus saith unto them, My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, and to accomplish his work. 35 Say not ye, There are yet four months, and then cometh the harvest? behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields, that they are 7white already unto harvest. 36 He that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal; that he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together. 37 For herein is the saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth. 38 I sent you to reap that whereon ye have not laboured: others have laboured, and ye are entered into their labour.

39    And from that city many of the Samaritans believed on him abecause of the word of the woman, who testified, He told me all things that ever I did. 40 So when the Samaritans came unto him, they besought him to abide with them: and he abode there two days. 41 And many more believed because of his word; 42 and they said to the woman, Now we believe, not because of thy speaking: for we have heard for ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Saviour of the world.b

1 Gr. spring: and so in ver. 14; but not in ver. 11, 12.
2 Or, as he was.
3 Some ancient authorities omit For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.
4 Or, Lord.
5 Or, for such the Father also seeketh.
6 Or, God is spirit.
7 Or, white unto harvest. Already he that reapeth &c.

a Notice that John also had recently been preaching to Samaritans (§ 33) and compare hereafter Philip's work in the city of Samaria (Acts 8:5 ff.)

b In this early ministry Jesus allowed himself to be regarded as the Messiah by his first disciples (§ 28), and personally declared that he was the Messiah to the woman at the well (§ 35) (John 4:26), which many other Samaritans also personally believed (John 4:39, 42). He never declared this to the Jewish rulers at Jerusalem till the very end (§ 155), doubtless because such an avowal would lead them to kill him, and so must not be made till his work in teaching the people and training his disciples should be completed. Compare what he says later to Peter in Matt. 16:17-20 (§ 82). At the baptism and the temptation of Jesus it was clear that Jesus knew that he was the Son of God, the Messiah, and was so regarded by the Baptist. Events in Judea and Galilee change the early policy of Jesus and lead to silence on his part in the use of the word Messiah, though many of the people know that he makes Messianic claims and the rulers in Jerusalem come to suspect him and to fear him. See my volume on The Pharisees and Jesus.





§ 36. THE ARRIVAL OF JESUS IN GALILEE


John 4:43-45

43    And after the two days he went forth from thence into Galilee. 44 For Jesus himself testified, that a prophet hath no honour in his own country [see Luke 4:24; Mark 6:4; Matt. 13:57]. 45 So when he came into Galilee, the Galileans received him, having seen all the things that he did in Jerusalem at the feast: for they also went unto the feast.





PART VII
THE GREAT GALILEAN MINISTRY

Probablya Autumn of A.D. 27 to Spring of 29

(Apparently about a year and a half)

§§ 37-71. Great fulness of detail in Mark for this period and condensed report in Luke while Matthew is chiefly topical in this portion. Mark's Gospel plunges at once into the Great Galilean Ministry (cf. Peter's summary of Christ's life in Acts 10:36-43 to the household of Cornelius). The mass of material makes clear grouping difficult, but there is progressb in the development of events.

    1.   The Rejection at Nazareth and the New Home in Capernaum, §§ 37-43.
    2.   The First Tour of Galilee with the Four Fishermen and the Call of Matthew (Levi) on the Return with the Growing Fame of Jesus, §§ 44-48.
    3.   The Sabbath Controversy in Jerusalem and in Galilee, §§ 49-51.
    4.   The Choice of the Twelve and the Sermon on the Mount, §§ 52-54.
    5.   The Spread of Christ's Influence and the Inquiry from John in Prison, §§ 55-59.
    6.   The Second Tour of Galilee (now with the Twelve) and the Intense Hostility of the Pharisees, §§ 60-63.
    7.   The First Great Group of Parables with the Visit to Gerasa (Khersa) and to Nazareth (final one), §§ 64-69.
    8.   The Third Tour of Galilee (Following the Twelve) and the Effect on Herod Antipas, §§ 70-71.

a We cannot confidently determine the length of the ministry in Galilee. We are not sure whether it began in summer or late autumn (see footnote 7 in Explanatory Notes at end of Harmony). If the feast of John 5:1 was a passover or there is an unknown passover, the Galilean ministry lasted at least sixteen months, for it ended when another passover was near (John 6:4). Otherwise we should not certainly know that it lasted more than some six or eight months. About the two subsequent periods of our Lord's ministry we shall find no room to question that each lasted six months; but here we have to admit much uncertainty as to the time. After all, a determination of the time employed would be a matter of very little importance to our study of this period. But the immense amount of material in this period argues for a length of over a year.

b Throughout this great ministry in Galilee, and the periods that will follow after, the reader ought to trace carefully the progress of the history along several lines: (1) the Saviour's progressive self-manifestation; (2) the gradual training of the Twelve who are to carry on his teaching and work after his death; (3) the deepening and spreading hostility of the Jewish influential classes and official rulers. By constantly observing these parallel lines of progress, it will be seen that the history and teachings of our Lord exhibit a vital growth, moving on to an end by him foreseen (Luke 12:50), when the hostility of the rulers will culminate as he before the Sanhedrin avows himself to be the Messiah, and the Twelve will be almost prepared to succeed him.





§ 37. GENERAL ACCOUNT OF HIS TEACHING IN GALILEE


Mark 1:14-15 Matt. 4:17 Luke 4:14-15
14    [Now after that
John was delivered
up, Jesus came into
Galilee], preaching
the gospel of God,
15 and saying, The
time is fulfilled, and
the kingdom of God
is at hand: repent
ye, and believe in
the gospel.
17    From that time
began Jesus to preach,
and to say, Repent
ye; for the kingdom
of heaven is at hand.
14    [And Jesus returned
in the power of
[see John 4:3, 43] the
Spirit into Galilee]:
and a fame went out
concerning him
through all the region
round about. 15 And
he taught in their
synagogues, being
glorified of all.




In sections 38-43 (the Rejection at Nazareth and the New Home in Capernaum) Jesus revisits Cana and Nazareth, recalls the four fishermen by the Sea of Galilee, and begins his ministry of teaching and healing in Capernaum.





§ 38. THE HEALING AT CANA OF THE SON OF A COURTIER OF CAPERNAUM


John 4:46-54

46    He came therefore again unto Cana of Galilee, where he made the water wine. And there was a certain 1nobleman, whose son was sick at Capernaum. 47 When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judea into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought him that he would come down, and heal his son; for he was at the point of death. 48 Jesus therefore said unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will in no wise believe. 49 The 1nobleman saith unto him. 2Sir, come down ere my child die. 50 Jesus saith unto him, Go thy way; thy son liveth. The man believed the word that Jesus spake unto him, and he went his way. 51 And as he was now going down, his 3servants met him, saying, that his son lived. 52 So he inquired of them the hour when he began to amend. They said therefore unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him. 53 So the father knew that it was at that hour in which Jesus said unto him, Thy son liveth: and himself believed, and his whole house. 54 This is again the second sign that Jesus did, having come out of Judea into Galilee.

1 Or, king's officer.
2 Or, Lord.
3 Gr. bondservants.




§ 39. THE FIRST REJECTION AT NAZARETH


Luke 4:16-31

16    And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and he entered, as his custom was, into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up to read. 17 And there was delivered unto him 1the book of the prophet Isaiah. And he opened the 2book, and found the place where it was written,

18     The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
  3Because he anointed me to preach 4good tidings to the poor:
  He hath sent me to proclaim release to the captives,
  And recovering of sight to the blind,
  To set at liberty them that are bruised,
19     To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord [see Isa. 58:6; 61:1-2].

20 And he closed the 2book, and gave it back to the attendant, and sat down: and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 21 And he began to say unto them, To-day hath this scripture been fulfilled in your ears. 22 And all bare him witness, and wondered at the words of grace which proceeded out of his mouth: and they said, Is not this Joseph's son? 23 And he said unto them, Doubtless ye will say unto me this parable, Physician, heal thyself [see John 6:42; 7:15]: whatsoever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in thine own country. 24 And he said, Verily I say unto you, No prophet is acceptable in his own country [see John 4:44]. 25 But of a truth I say unto you, There were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when there came a great famine over all the land [see 1 Kings 17:1; 18:1-2]; 26 and unto none of them was Elijah sent, but only to 5Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow [see 1 Kings 17:8-9]. 27 And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet; and none of them was cleansed, but only Naaman the Syrian [see 2 Kings 5:1-14]. 28 And they were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things; 29 and they rose up, and cast him forth out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, that they might throw him down headlong. 30 But he passing through the midst of them went his way. 31 And he came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee.

1 Or, a roll.
2 Or, roll.
3 Or, Wherefore.
4 Or, the gospel.
5 Gr. Sarepta.




§ 40. THE NEW HOME IN CAPERNAUM


Matt. 4:13-16

13 And leaving Nazareth,a he came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali: 14 that it might be fulfilled which was spoken 1by Isaiah the prophet [see Isa. 8:23; 9:1-2], saying,

15     The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali,
  2Toward the sea, beyond Jordan,
  Galilee of the 3Gentiles,
16     The people which sat in darkness
  Saw a great light,
  And to them which sat in the region and shadow of death,
  To them did light spring up.
1 Or, through.
2 Gr. The way of the sea.
3 Gr. nations: and so elsewhere.

a Nazareth was never the Saviour's residence during his public ministry. After the wedding at Cana he lived a short time at Capernaum, and henceforth that city will be his abode, till he leaves Galilee six months before the crucifixion—most of the time, however, being actually spent in several journeys throughout Galilee, together with a trip to Jerusalem, and retirement to districts around Galilee.





§ 41. JESUS FINDS FOUR FISHERS OF MEN IN FOUR FISHERMENa

By the Sea of Galilee, near Capernaum


Mark 1:16-20 Matt. 4:18-22 Luke 5:1-11
16    And passing along
by the sea of Galilee,
he saw Simon and
Andrew the brother
of Simon casting a
net in the sea: for
they were fishers.
17 And Jesus said unto
them, Come ye after
me, and I will make
you to become fishers
of men. 18 And
straightway they left the
nets, and followed
him. 19 And going on
a little further, he
saw James the son of
Zebedee, and John
his brother, who also
were in the boat mending
the nets. 20 And
straightway he called
them: and they left
their father Zebedee
in the boat with the
hired servants, and
went after him.
18    And walking by
the sea of Galilee, he
saw two brethren,
Simon who is called
Peter, and Andrew
his brother, casting
a net into the sea;
for they were fishers.
19 And he saith unto
them, Come ye after
me, and I will make
you fishers of men.
20 And they straightway
left the nets, and
followed him. 21 And
going on from thence
he saw other two
brethren, 1James the
son of Zebedee, and
John his brother, in
the boat with Zebedee
their father, mending
their nets; and he
called them. 22 And they
straightway left the
boat and their father,
and followed him.a
1    Now it came to
pass, while the multitude
pressed upon
him and heard the
word of God, that he
was standing by the
lake of Gennesaret;
2 and he saw two boats
standing by the lake:
but the fishermen had
gone out of them, and
were washing their
nets. 3 And he entered
into one of the boats,
which was Simon's
and asked him to
put out a little from
the land. And he
sat down and taught
the multitudes out of
the boat. 4 And when
he had left speaking,
he said unto Simon,
Put out into the
deep, and let down
your nets for a
draught. 5 And Simon
answered and said,
Master, we toiled all
night, and took nothing:
but at thy word I will
let down the nets. 6 And
when they had this
done, they inclosed a
great multitude of
fishes; and their nets
were breaking; 7 and
they beckoned unto their
partners in the other
boat, that they should
come and help them.
And they came, and
filled both the boats, so
that they began to sink.
8 But Simon Peter, when
he saw it, fell down at
Jesus' knees, saying,
Depart from me; for I
am a sinful man, O
Lord. 9 For he was
amazed, and all that were
with him, at the draught
of the fishes which they
had taken; 10 and so were
also James and John,
sons of Zebedee, which
were partners with
Simon. And Jesus said
unto Simon, Fear not;
from henceforth thou
shalt 2catch men. 11 And
when they had brought
their boats to land, they
left all, and followed him.
1 Or, Jacob: and so elsewhere.
2 Gr. take alive.

a Three of these two pairs of brothers (Andrew and Peter, John and James) had already become disciples of Jesus at Bethany beyond Jordan (James probably soon afterwards), but now they leave their prosperous fish business and follow Jesus continuously as many business men since have given up a lucrative business for the ministry. They, along with Philip and Nathaniel, had been with Jesus in the early ministry (the year of obscurity).





§ 42. THE EXCITEMENT IN THE SYNAGOGUE BECAUSE OF THE TEACHING OF JESUS AND THE HEALING OF A DEMONIAC ON THE SABBATH


Mark 1:21-28 Luke 4:31-37
21    And they go into Capernaum;
and straightway on the sabbath
day he entered into the synagogue
and taught. 22 And they
were astonished at his teaching:
for he taught them as having
authority, and not as the scribes.
23 And straightway there was in
their synagogue a man with an
unclean spirit; 24 and he cried out,
saying, What have we to do with
thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth?
art thou come to destroy us? I
know thee who thou art, the
Holy One of God. 25 And Jesus
rebuked 1him, saying, Hold thy
peace, and come out of him.
26 And the unclean spirit, 2tearing
him and crying with a loud voice,
came out of him. 27 And they were
all amazed, insomuch that they
questioned among themselves,
saying, What is this? a new teaching!
with authority he commandeth
even the unclean spirits, and
they obey him. 28 And the report of
him went out straightway
everywhere into all the region of
Galilee round about.
31    [And he came down to
Capernaum, a city of Galilee.] And
he was teaching them on the
sabbath day: 32 and they were
astonished at his teaching; for his
word was with authority. 33 And
in the synagogue there was a
man, which had a spirit of an
unclean 3devil; and he cried out
with a loud voice, 34 4Ah! what
have we to do with thee, thou Jesus
of Nazareth? art thou come to
destroy us? I know thee who thou
art [see Ps. 16:10], the Holy One
of God.
35 And Jesus rebuked him, saying,
Hold thy peace, and come out of
him. And when the 3devil had
thrown him down in the midst, he
came out of him, having done him
no hurt. 36 And amazement came
upon all, and they spake together,
one with another, saying, What
is 5this word? for with authority
and power he commandeth the
unclean spirits, and they come
out. 37 And there went forth a
rumour concerning him into every
place of the region round about.
1 Or, it.
2 Or, convulsing.
3 Gr. demon.
4 Or, Let alone.
5 Or, this word, that with authority ... come out?




§ 43. HE HEALS PETER'S MOTHER-IN-LAW AND MANY OTHERS

At Capernaum, in Peter's Home


Mark 1:29-34 Matt. 8:14-17 Luke 4:38-41
29    And straightway
3when they were come
out of the synagogue,
they came into the
house of Simon and
Andrew, with James
and John. 30 Now
Simon's wife's mother
lay sick of a fever;
and straightway they
tell him of her: 31 and
he came and took
her by the hand, and
raised her up; and
the fever left her,
and she ministered
unto them.
32    And at even, when
the sun did set,
they brought unto
him all that were
sick, and them that
were 1possessed with
devils. 33 And all the
city was gathered
together at the door.
34 And he healed many
that were sick with
divers diseases, and
cast out many 4devils;
and he suffered not
the 4devils to speak,
because they knew
him.5







14    And when Jesus
was come into
Peter's house, he saw
his wife's mother
lying sick of a fever.
15 And he touched her
hand, and the fever
left her; and she
arose, and ministered
unto him.
16    And when even was
come, they brought
unto him many
1possessed with devils:
and he cast out the
spirits with a word,
and healed all that
were sick: 17 that it
might be fulfilled
which was spoken
2by Isaiah the prophet
[see Isa. 53:4], saying,
Himself took our
infirmities, and bare
our diseases.

38    And he rose up
from the synagogue,
and entered into the
house of Simon. And
Simon's wife's mother
was holden with a
great fever; and they
besought him for
her. 39 And he stood
over her, and rebuked
the fever; and it left
her: and immediately
she rose up and
ministered unto them.


40    And when the sun
was setting, all they
that had any sick
with divers diseases
brought them unto
him; and he laid his
hands on every one
of them, and healed
them. 41 And 4devils
also came out from
many, crying out, and
saying, Thou art the
Son of God. And
rebuking them, he
suffered them not to
speak, because they
knew that he was
the Christ.
1 Or, demoniacs.
2 Or, through.
3 Some ancient authorities read when he was come out of the synagogue, he came &c.
4 Gr. demons.
5 Many ancient authorities add to be Christ. See Luke 4:41.




In sections 44-52 Jesus makes his first tour of Galilee with the Four Fishermen whom he has now called to follow him continuously. On the return to Capernaum Matthew is called and various miracles arouse the enthusiasm of the multitudes and the hostility of the Pharisees to Christ's teachings.





§ 44. THE FIRST TOUR OF GALILEE WITH THE FOUR FISHERMEN


Mark 1:35-39 Matt. 4:23-25 Luke 4:42-44
35    And in the
morning, a great while
before day, he rose
up and went out,
and departed into a
desert place, and
there prayed. 36 And
Simon and they that
were with him followed
after him; 37 and
they found him, and
say unto him, All
are seeking thee.
38 And he saith unto
them, Let us go
elsewhere into the next
towns, that I may
preach there also; for
to this end came I
forth. 39 And he went
into their synagogues
throughout all
Galilee, preaching
and casting out 4devils.



















23    And 1Jesus went
about in all Galilee,a
teaching in their
synagogues, and
preaching the 2gospel
of the kingdom,
and healing all manner
of disease and all
manner of sickness
among the the people.
24 And the report of him
went forth into all Syria:
and they brought unto
him all that were sick,
holden with divers
diseases and torments,
3possessed with devils,
and epileptic, and
palsied; and he healed
them. 25 And there
followed him great
multitudes from Galilee
and Decapolis and
Jerusalem and Judea and
from beyond Jordan.
42    And when it was
day, he came out and
went into a desert place:
and the multitudes
sought after
him, and came unto
him, and would have
stayed him, that he
should not go from
them. 43 But he said
unto them, I must
preach the 5good
tidings of the kingdom
of God to the
other cities also: for
therefore was I sent.




44    And he was
preaching in the
synagogues of 6Galilee.
1 Some ancient authorities read he.
2 Or, good tidings: and so elsewhere.
3 Or, demoniacs.
4 Gr. demons.
5 Or, gospel.
6 Very many ancient authorities read Judea.

a This journey about all Galilee included a great mass of teaching and healing (dwell on Matt. 4:23-25), of which only a few specimens are recorded, and these apparently occurred at Capernaum, his headquarters. The journey given by Luke only (8:1-3) is probably distinct from this, and if so it would be a second, while that of Luke 9:1-6 (= Mark 6:6-13 = Matt. 9:35-11:1), which is quite certainly distinct, would then be a third journey about Galilee. The reader ought to expand his imagination and take in these extended labors.





§ 45. A LEPER HEALED, AND MUCH POPULAR EXCITEMENT


Mark 1:40-45 Matt. 8:2-4 Luke 5:12-16
40    And there cometh to
him a leper, beseeching
him, 1and kneeling
down to him,
and saying unto him,
If thou wilt, thou
canst make me clean.
41 And being moved
with compassion, he
stretched forth his
hand, and touched
him, and saith unto
him, I will; be thou
made clean. 42 And
straightway the
leprosy departed from
him, and he was
made clean. 43 And he
2strictly charged him,
and straightway sent
him out, 44 and saith
unto him, See thou
say nothing to any
man: but go thy way,
shew thyself to the
priest, and offer for
thy cleansing the
things which Moses
commanded, for a
testimony unto them.

45 But he went out, and
began to publish it
much, and to spread
abroad the 3matter,
insomuch that 4Jesus
could no more openly
enter into 5a city,
but was without in
desert places: and
they came to him
from every quarter.
2 And behold, there
came to him a leper
and worshipped him,
saying, Lord, if thou
wilt, thou canst make
me clean.

3 And he stretched
forth his hand, and
touched him, saying,
I will; be thou made
clean. And straightway
his leprosy was
cleansed.




4 And Jesus saith unto
him, See thou tell
no man; but go thy
way, shew thyself to
the priest, and offer
the gift that Moses
commanded, for a
testimony unto them.
12    And it came to
pass, while he was
in one of the cities,
behold, a man full of
leprosy: and when
he saw Jesus, he fell
on his face, and
besought him, saying,
Lord, if thou wilt,
thou canst make me
clean. 13 And he
stretched forth his
hand, and touched him,
saying, I will; be thou
made clean. And
straightway the
leprosy departed from
him.
14            And
he charged him to
tell no man: but go
thy way, and shew
thyself to the priest,
and offer for thy


cleansing, according
as Moses commanded,
for a testimony
unto them [see Lev.
13:49; 14:2-32
].
15 But so much the
more went abroad the
report concerning him:
and great multitudes
came together
to hear, and to be
healed of their
infirmities. 16 But he
withdrew himself in
the deserts, and
prayed.
1 Some ancient authorities omit and kneeling down to him.
2 Or, sternly.
3 Gr. word.
4 Gr. he.
5 Or, the city.




§ 46. THRONGED IN CAPERNAUM, HE HEALS A PARALYTIC LOWERED THROUGH THE ROOF OF PETER'S HOUSE


Mark 2:1-12 Matt. 9:1-8 Luke 5:17-26
1    And when he
entered again into
Capernaum after some
days, it was noised
that he was 4in the
house. 2 And many
were gathered
together, so that there
was no longer room
for them, no, not even
about the door: and
he spake the word
unto them. 3 And they
come, bringing unto
him a man sick of the
palsy, borne of four.
4 And when they could
not 5come nigh unto
him for the crowd,
they uncovered the
roof where he was:
and when they had
broken it up, they let
down the bed whereon
the sick of the



palsy lay. 5 And Jesus
seeing their faith
saith unto the sick of
the palsy, 1Son, thy
sins are forgiven. 6 But
there were certain
of the scribes sitting
there, and reasoning
in their hearts,
7 Why doth this man
thus speak? he
blasphemeth: who can
forgive sins but one,
even God? 8 And
straightway Jesus,
perceiving in his spirit
that they so reasoned
within themselves,
saith unto them, Why
reason ye these things
in your hearts?
9 Whether is easier, to
say to the sick of the
palsy, Thy sins are
forgiven; or to say,
Arise, and take up
thy bed, and walk?
10 But that ye may
know that the Son
of man hath 3power
on earth to forgive
sins (he saith to the
sick of the palsy),a 11 I
say unto thee, Arise,
take up thy bed, and
go unto thy house.

12 And he arose, and
straightway took up
the bed, and went
forth before them all;
insomuch that they
were all amazed, and
glorified God, saying,
We never saw it on
this fashion.
1    And he entered into
a boat, and crossed
over, and came into
his own city.








2 And behold, they
brought to him a man
sick of the palsy,
lying on a bed:












and Jesus seeing their
faith said unto the
sick of the palsy,
1Son, be of good
cheer; thy sins are
forgiven. 3 And
behold, certain of the
scribes said within
themselves, This man
blasphemeth.




4 And Jesus 2knowing
their thoughts said,



Wherefore think ye
evil in your hearts?
5 For whether is easier,
to say, Thy sins are
forgiven; or to say,
Arise, and walk? 6 But


that ye may know
that the Son of man
hath 3power on earth
to forgive sins (then
saith he to the sick
of the palsy), Arise,
and take up thy bed,
and go unto thy


house. 7 And he arose,
and departed to his
house.


8                But
when the multitudes
saw it, they were
afraid, and glorified
God, which had given
such 3power unto
men.
17    And it came to
pass on one of those
days, that he was
teaching; and there
were Pharisees and
doctors of the law
sitting by, which were
come out of every
village of Galilee and
Judea and Jerusalem:
and the power of the
Lord was with him
6to heal. 18 And behold,
men bring on a
bed a man that was
palsied: and they
sought to bring him
in, and to lay him
before him. 19 And not
finding by what way
they might bring him
in because of the
multitude, they went
up to the housetop,
and let him down
through the tiles with
his couch into the
midst before Jesus.
20 And seeing their
faith, he said, Man,
thy sins are forgiven
thee. 21 And the scribes
and the Pharisees began
to reason, saying,
Who is this that
speaketh blasphemies?
Who can forgive
sins, but God alone?



22 But Jesus perceiving
their reasonings,
answered and
said unto them, 7What
reason ye in your
hearts?

23          Whether
is easier, to say, Thy
sins are forgiven thee;
or to say, Arise and
walk?


24 But that ye may
know that the Son
of man hath 3power
on earth to forgive
sins (he said unto
him that was palsied),
I say unto thee,
Arise, and take up
thy couch, and go
unto thy house. 25 And
immediately he rose
up before them, and
took up that whereon
he lay, and departed
to his house,
glorifying God. 26 And
amazement took hold
on all, and they
glorified God; and they
were filled with fear,
saying, We have seen
strange things to-day.
1 Gr. Child.
2 Many ancient authorities read seeing.
3 Or, authority.
4 Or, at home.
5 Many ancient authorities read bring him unto him.
6 Gr. that he should heal. Many ancient authorities read that he should heal them.
7 Or, Why.

a Note the parenthetic explanation of the writers in the middle of the saying of Jesus. It is proof that each of the Gospels had the same written source here or rather, as we know otherwise, that Matthew and Luke had Mark before them.





§ 47. THE CALL OF MATTHEW (LEVI) AND HIS RECEPTION IN HONOR OF JESUS

Capernaum


Mark 2:13-17 Matt. 9:9-13 Luke 5:27-32
13    And he went forth
again by the sea side;
and all the multitude
resorted unto him,
and he taught them.
14 And as he passed
by, he saw Levi the son
of Alphæus sitting
at the place of toll,
and he saith unto
him, Follow me. And
he arose and followed


him. 15 And it came
to pass, that he was
sitting at meat in his
house, and many
4publicans and sinners
sat down with Jesus
and his disciples: for
there were many, and
they followed him.
16 And the scribes 5of
the Pharisees, when
they saw that he was
eating with the sinners
and publicans,
said unto his disciples,
6He eateth 7and
drinketh with publicans
and sinners.
17 And when Jesus
heard it, he saith
unto them, They that
are 3whole have no
need of a physician,
but they that are
sick: I came not to
call the righteous, but
sinners.





9    And as Jesus
passed by from thence,
he saw a man, called
Matthew, sitting at
the place of toll: and
he saith unto him,
Follow me. And he
arose, and followed
him.
10    And it came to
pass, as he 1sat at
meat in the house,
behold, many
publicans and sinners
came and sat down
with Jesus and his
disciples.

11            And when
the Pharisees saw it,
they said unto his
disciples, Why eateth
your 2Master with
the publicans and
sinners?


12 But when he heard
it, he said, They that
are 3whole have no
need of a physician,
but they that are sick.
13 But go ye and learn
what this meaneth,a
I desire mercy,
and not sacrifice: for
I came not to call the
righteous, but sinners.
27    And after these
things he went forth,
and beheld a publican,
named Levi,
sitting at the place of
toll, and said unto
him, Follow me.



28 And he forsook all,
and rose up and
followed him.

29                  And
Levi made him a
great feast in his
house: and there was
a great multitude of
publicans and of
others that were sitting
at meat with them.

30 And 8the Pharisees
and their scribes
murmured against his
disciples, saying, Why
do ye eat and drink
with the publicans
and sinners?


31        And Jesus
answering said unto
them, They that are
3whole have no need
of a physician; but
they that are sick.

32                I am
not come to call the
righteous but sinners
to repentance.
1 Gr. reclined: and so always.
2 Or, Teacher.
3 Gr. strong.
4 That is, collectors or renters of Roman taxes: and so elsewhere.
5 Some ancient authorities read and the Pharisees.
6 Or, How is it that he eateth ... sinners?
7 Some ancient authorities omit and drinketh.
8 Or, the Pharisees and the scribes among them.

a Hos. 6:6.





§ 48. JESUS IN THREE PARABLES DEFENDS HIS DISCIPLES FOR FEASTINGa INSTEAD OF FASTING


Mark 2:18-22 Matt. 9:14-17 Luke 5:33-39
18    And John's
disciples and the
Pharisees were fasting:
and they come and say
unto him, Why do
John's disciples and
the disciples of the
Pharisees fast, but
thy disciples fast not?
19 And Jesus said unto
them, Can the sons of
the bride-chamber fast,
while the bridegroom
is with them?
as long as they have
the bridegroom with
them, they cannot
fast. 20 But the days
will come, when the
bridegroom shall be
taken away from
them, and then they
will fast in that day.


21                No
man seweth a piece
of undressed cloth on
an old garment: else
that which should
fill it up taketh from
it, the new from the
old, and a worse rent
is made. 22 And no
man putteth new wine
into old 2wine-skins:
else the wine
will burst the skins,
and the wine perisheth,
and the skins:
but they put new wine
into fresh wine-skins.
14    Then come to him
the disciples of John,
saying, Why do we
and the Pharisees fast
1oft, but thy disciples



fast not? 15 And Jesus
said unto them, Can
the sons of the bride-
chamber mourn, as
long as the bridegroom
is with them?



but the days will come,
when the bridegroom
shall be taken
away from them, and
then will they fast.



16                And no
man putteth a piece
of undressed cloth
upon an old garment;
for that which should
fill it up taketh from
the garment, and a
worse rent is made.
17 Neither do men put
new wine into old
2wine-skins: else the
skins burst, and the
wine is spilled, and
the skins perish: but
they put new wine
into fresh wine-skins,
and both are
preserved.
33    And they said unto
him, The disciples
of John fast often, and
make supplications;
likewise also
the disciples of the
Pharisees; but thine
eat and drink. 34 And
Jesus said unto them,
Can ye make the sons
of the bride-chamber
fast while
the bridegroom is
with them?



35 But the days will
come; and when the
bridegroom shall be
taken away from
them, then will they
fast in those days.
36        And he spake
also a parableb unto
them; No man rendeth
a piece from a new
garment and putteth
it upon an old
garment; else he will
rend the new, and
also the piece from
the new will not agree
with the old. 37 And
no man putteth new
wine into old 2wine-
skins; else the new
wine will burst the
skins, and itself will
be spilled, and the
skins will perish.
38 But new wine must
be put into fresh
wine-skins. 39 And no
man having drunk
old wine desireth new:
for he saith, The old
is 3good.
1 Some ancient authorities omit oft.
2 That is, skins used as bottles.
3 Many ancient authorities read better.

a It was probably the presence of the disciples of Christ at Matthew's feast on one of the Jewish fast days that occasioned the complaint of John's disciples and the Pharisees. It is sad to see disciples of John aligned with the Pharisees against Jesus.

b Note the use of the term parable in Luke. There are three parables (the sons of the bride-chamber, the new patch on an old garment, the new wine in old wine-skins) here together. A few isolated ones have already occurred as in John 2:19.





In sections 49 to 51 we see the Pharisees attacking Jesus both in Jerusalem and in Galilee with great hostility and with the purpose of killing him because of violation of the Pharisaic regulations about the Sabbath. Jesus defends himself and his disciples by various arguments and personal claims.





§ 49. AT A FEAST IN JERUSALEM (POSSIBLY THE PASSOVER) JESUS HEALS A LAME MAN ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS THIS ACTION TO THE PHARISEES IN A GREAT DISCOURSE


John 5:1-47

1    After these things there was 1a feasta of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.b

2    Now there is in Jerusalem by the sheep gate a pool, which is called in Hebrew 2Bethesda, having five porches. 3 In these lay a multitude of them that were sick, blind, halt, withered3. 5 And a certain man was there, which had been thirty and eight years in his infirmity. 6 When Jesus saw him lying, and knew that he had been now a long time in that case, he saith unto him, Wouldst thou be made whole? 7 The sick man answered him, 4Sir, I have no man, when the water is troubled, to put me into the pool: but while I am coming, another steppeth down before me. 8 Jesus saith unto him, Arise, take up thy bed, and walk. 9 And straightway the man was made whole, and took up his bed and walked.

    Now it was the sabbath on that day. 10 So the Jews said unto him that was cured, It is the sabbath, and it is not lawful for thee to take up thy bed [see Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14]. 11 But he answered them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take up thy bed, and walk. 12 They asked him, Who is the man that said unto thee, Take up thy bed, and walk? 13 But he that was healed wist not who it was: for Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitude being in the place. 14 Afterward Jesus findeth him in the temple, and said unto him, Behold, thou art made whole: sin no more, lest a worse thing befall thee. 15 The man went away, and told the Jews that it was Jesus which had made him whole. 16 And for this cause did the Jews persecute Jesus, because he did these things on the sabbath. 17 But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh even until now, and I work. 18 For this cause therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only brake the sabbath, but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God.

19    Jesus therefore answered and said unto them,

    Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father doing: for what things soever he doeth, these the Son also doeth in like manner. 20 For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth: and greater works than these will he shew him, that ye may marvel. 21 For as the Father raiseth the dead and quickeneth them, even so the Son also quickeneth whom he will. 22 For neither doth the Father judge any man, but he hath given all judgement unto the Son; 23 that all may honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which sent him. 24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth him that sent me, hath eternal life, and cometh not into judgement, but hath passed out of death into life. 25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour cometh, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live. 26 For as the Father hath life in himself, even so gave he to the Son also to have life in himself: 27 and he gave him authority to execute judgement, because he is 5the Son of man. 28 Marvel not at this: for the hour cometh, in which all that are in the tombs shall hear his voice, 29 and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have 6done ill, unto the resurrection of judgement.

30    I can of myself do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgement is righteous; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of him that sent me. 31 If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true. 32 It is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true. 33 Ye have sent unto John, and he hath borne witness unto the truth. 34 But the witness which I receive is not from man: howbeit I say these things, that ye may be saved. 35 He was the lamp that burneth and shineth: and ye were willing to rejoice for a season in his light. 36 But the witness which I have is greater than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to accomplish, the very works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me. 37 And the Father which sent me, he hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his form. 38 And ye have not his word abiding in you: for whom he sent, him ye believe not. 39 7Ye search the scriptures, because ye think that in them ye have eternal life; and these are they which bear witness of me; 40 and ye will not come to me, that ye may have life. 41 I receive not glory from men. 42 But I know you, that ye have not the love of God in yourselves. 43 I am come in my Father's name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive. 44 How can ye believe, which receive glory one of another, and the glory that cometh from 8the only God ye seek not? 45 Think not that I will accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, on whom ye have set your hope. 46 For if ye believed Moses, ye would believe me; for he wrote of me. 47 But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?c

1 Many ancient authorities read the feast.
2 Some ancient authorities read Bethsaida, others Bethzatha.
3 Many ancient authorities insert, wholly or in part, waiting for the moving of the water: 4 for an angel of the Lord went down at certain seasons into the pool, and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped in was made whole, with whatsoever disease he was holden.
4 Or, Lord.
5 Or, a son of man.
6 Or, practised.
7 Or, Search the scriptures.
8 Some ancient authorities read the only one.

a This feast of John 5:1 was most probably a Passover (see note at end of volume, note 7). If so, we should know that our Lord's public ministry lasted three years and a fraction, and that the great ministry in Galilee lasted some 18 to 20 months. Otherwise, we should know of only two years and a fraction for the former, and 6 to 8 months for the latter; as John gives three passovers beyond question (John 2:13; 6:4; 12:1), and our Lord's ministry began some time before the first of these. If the feast of 5:1 was not a passover, it is quite impossible to determine what other feast it was. While one would be glad to settle these questions, if it were possible, yet it really does not matter as regards understanding our Lord's recorded history and teachings during the great ministry in Galilee, the only point of difference being that if this feast was a Passover (or if there is an unmentioned Passover) we should conceive of the three journeys about Galilee as occupying a longer time, and including more extensive unrecorded labors in preaching and healing.

b It is to be noted that John's Gospel gives the Jerusalem Ministry of Jesus almost entirely except Galilee in ch. 2, Samaria and Galilee in ch. 4, Galilee in ch. 6 and again in ch. 21. It seems clear that John wrote with full knowledge of the Synoptic Gospels and supplements them at certain points. Both Luke and John were thus critics of the Gospel records.

c Observe that here more than a year before the crucifixion, and probably two years (i.e. if the feast of 5:1 was a passover or if an unnamed passover is granted), the hostility of the Jews at Jerusalem (comp. John 4:1) has reached the point of a desire to kill him, as a sabbath breaker and a blasphemer (5:16-18). So we shall find him staying away from Jerusalem at the passover of John 6:4, and until the Tabernacles six months before the crucifixion (John 7:1-10). Meantime, the hostility will go on increasing in other parts of the country (Mark 3:6, etc.).—Notice also that in this discourse at Jerusalem our Lord repeatedly declares himself in a high sense the Son of God, and the appointed judge of mankind (ver. 27), and says that Moses wrote concerning him (ver. 46). All this indicated that he was the Messiah, but he did not here expressly assert it as he did in Samaria (John 4:26). That would have precipitated the collision, for to claim to be the Messiah would in the view of the Jewish rulers involve political consequences. Comp. John 11:48.





§ 50. ANOTHER SABBATH CONTROVERSY WITH THE PHARISEES WHEN THE DISCIPLES PLUCK EARS OF GRAIN IN THE FIELDS

Probably in Galilee on the Way Back from Jerusalema


Mark 2:23-28 Matt. 12:1-8 Luke 6:1-5
23    And it came to
pass, that he was
going on the sabbath
day through the
cornfields; and his
disciples 3began, as
they went, to pluck the
ears of corn. 24 And
the Pharisees said
unto him, Behold,
why do they on the
sabbath day that
which is not lawful?
25        And he said
unto them, Did ye
never read what David
did, when he had
need, and was an
hungred, he, and
they that were with
him? 26 How he
entered into the house
of God 4when Abiathar
was high priest, and
did eat the shewbread,
which is not
lawful to eat, save
for the priests, and
gave also to them
that were with him?










27        And he said
unto them, The
sabbath was made for
man, and not man for
the sabbath: 28 so that
the Son of man is
lord even of the
sabbath.b
1    At that season Jesus
went on the sabbath
day through the
cornfields; and his
disciples were an
hungred, and began to
pluck ears of corn,
and to eat. 2 But the
Pharisees, when they
saw it, said unto
him, Behold, thy
disciples do that which
it is not lawful to do
upon the sabbath.
3 But he said unto
them, Have ye not
read what David did,
when he was an
hungred, and they that
were with him; 4 how
he entered into the
house of God, and
1did eat the shewbread,
which it was
not lawful for him
to eat, neither for
them that were with
him, but only for
the priests? 5 Or have
ye not read in the
law, how that on
the sabbath day the
priests in the temple
profane the sabbath
[see Num. 28:9-10],
and are guiltless?
6 But I say unto you,
that 2one greater than
the temple is here.
7 But if ye had known
what this meaneth
[see Hos. 6:6], I
desire mercy, and not
sacrifice, ye would not
have condemned the
guiltless. 8 For the
Son of man is lord of
the sabbath.
1    Now it came to
pass on a 5sabbath,
that he was going
through the cornfields
[see Deut. 23:25];
and his disciples
plucked the ears of
corn, and did eat,
rubbing them in their
hands. 2 But certain
of the Pharisees said,
Why do ye that which
is not lawful to do
on the sabbath day [see
John 5:10; Ex. 20:10;
Deut. 5:14
]? 3 And
Jesus answering them
said, Have ye not
read even this, what
David did, when he
was an hungred, he,
and they that were
with him [see Lev.
24:9; 1 Sam. 21:1-6
];
4 how he entered into
the house of God, and
did take and eat the
shewbread, and gave
also to them that
were with him; which
it is not lawful to eat
save for the priests
alone?











5         And he said
unto them, The Son
of man is lord of the
sabbath.
1 Some ancient authorities read they did eat.
2 Gr. a greater thing.
3 Gr. began to make their way plucking.
4 Some ancient authorities read in the days of Abiathar the high priest.
5 Many ancient authorities insert second-first.

a Because in Mark 3:7 Jesus withdraws to the Sea of Galilee.

b Note the five arguments made by Jesus in defence of the conduct of the disciples on the Sabbath (the historical appeal in the conduct of David, the appeal to the law about the temple service, the voice of prophecy, the purpose of God in the Sabbath, and the lordship of the Messiah over the Sabbath). Jesus had already (John 5:17) argued that he was equal to the Father and hence had the right to do certain things (acts of mercy) on the Sabbath.





§ 51. A THIRDa SABBATH CONTROVERSY WITH THE PHARISEES OVER THE HEALING OF A MAN WITH A WITHERED HAND IN A SYNAGOGUE

In Galilee


Mark 3:1-6 Matt. 12:9-14 Luke 6:6-11
1    And he entered
again into the
synagogue; and there
was a man there which
had his hand withered.

2    And they watched
him, whether he
would heal him on
the sabbath day; that
they might accuse
him.
3                And he
saith unto the man
that had his hand
withered, 1Stand
forth. 4 And he saith
unto them, Is it
lawful on the sabbath
day to do good, or
to do harm? to save
a life, or to kill? But
they held their peace.
5 And when he had
looked round about
on them with anger,
being grieved at the
hardening of their
heart, he saith unto
the man, Stretch
forth thy hand. And
he stretched it forth:
and his hand was
restored.

6        And the
Pharisees went out,
and straightway with
the Herodians took
counsel against him,
how they might
destroy him.b
9    And he departed
thence, and went into
their synagogue: 10 and
behold, a man having
a withered hand.

                    And
they asked him,
saying, Is it lawful to
heal on the sabbath
day? that they might
accuse him.
11                And he
said unto them, What
man shall there be
of you, that shall
have one sheep, and
if this fall into a pit
on the sabbath day,
will he not lay hold
on it, and lift it out?
12 How much then is a
man of more value
than a sheep!
Wherefore it is lawful
to do good on the
sabbath day.



13 Then saith he to the
man, Stretch forth
thy hand. And he
stretched it forth; and
it was restored whole,


as the other. 14 But
the Pharisees went
out, and took counsel
against him, how they
might destroy him.
6    And it came to
pass on another sab-
bath, that he entered
into the synagogue
and taught: and there
was a man there,
and his right hand
was withered. 7 And
the scribes and the
Pharisees watched
him, whether he
would heal on the
sabbath; that they
might find how to
accuse him. 8 But he
knew their thoughts;
and he said to the
man that had his
hand withered, Rise
up, and stand forth
in the midst. And
he arose and stood
forth. 9 And Jesus
said unto them, I ask
you, Is it lawful on
the sabbath to do
good, or to do harm?
to save a life, or to
destroy it? 10 And he
looked round about
on them all, and said
unto him, Stretch
forth thy hand. And
he did so: and his
hand was restored.


11 But they were filled
with 2madness; and
communed one with
another what they
might do to Jesus.
1 Gr. Arise into the midst.
2 Or, foolishness.

a On three other later occasions controversies arise with the Pharisees concerning Sabbath observance (John 9:1-34; Luke 13:10-21; 14:1-24). In John 7:20-24 Jesus refers to the miracle in John 5 and adds another argument (circumcision on the Sabbath) for his conduct on the Sabbath.

b Here at some point near the sea of Galilee, there is already a plot to kill him, as some had wished to do in Jerusalem (comp. on § 49).





In sections 52 to 54 we see Christ choosing the Twelve Apostles and delivering the Sermon on the Mount to them and to the multitudes.





§ 52. JESUS TEACHES AND HEALS GREAT MULTITUDES BY THE SEA OF GALILEE


Mark 3:7-12 Matt. 12:15-21
7    And Jesus with his disciples
withdrew to the sea: and a great
multitude from Galilee followed:
and from Judea, 8 and from
Jerusalem, and from Idumæa, and
beyond Jordan, and about Tyre
and Sidon,a a great multitude,
hearing 2what great things he
did, came unto him. 9 And he
spake to his disciples, that a
little boat should wait on him
because of the crowd, lest they
should throng him: 10 for he had
healed many; insomuch that as
many as had 3plagues 4pressed
upon him that they might touch
him. 11 And the unclean spirits,
whensoever they beheld him, fell
down before him, and cried,
saying, Thou art the Son of God.
12 And he charged them much
that they should not make him
known.
15    And Jesus perceiving it
withdrew from thence: and many
followed him;










and he healed them all,






16                                     and
charged them that they should
not make him known: 17 that it
might be fulfilled which was spoken
1by Isaiahb the prophet, saying,
18  Behold, my servant whom I
         have chosen;
     My beloved in whom my soul
         is well pleased:
     I will put my Spirit upon him,
     And he shall declare judgement
         to the Gentiles.
19  He shall not strive, nor cry
         aloud;
     Neither shall any one hear his
         voice in the streets.
20  A bruised reed shall he not
         break,
     And smoking flax shall he not
         quench,
     Till he send forth judgement
         unto victory.
21  And in his name shall the
         Gentiles hope.
1 Or, through.
2 Or, all the things that he did.
3 Gr. scourges.
4 Gr. fell.

a Note the wide territory from which the crowds now come, from Idumea in the south to Phoenicia in the north and from Perea in the east.

b Isaiah 42:1-4.





§ 53. AFTER A NIGHT OF PRAYER, JESUS SELECTS TWELVE APOSTLES


Mark 3:13-19 Luke 6:12-16
13    And he goeth up into the
mountain, and calleth unto him
whom he himself would: and they
went unto him. 14 And he appointed
twelve1, that they might be with
him, and that he might send
them forth to preach, 15 and to have
authority to cast out 2devils; 16 3and
Simon he surnamed Peter; 17 and
James the son of Zebedee, and
John the brother of James; and
them he surnamed Boanerges,
which is, Sons of thunder: 18 and
Andrew, and Philip, and
Bartholomew, and Matthew, and
Thomas, and James the son of
Alphæus, and Thaddæus, and
Simon the 4Cananæan,
19                                 and Judas
Iscariot, which also betrayed
him.
12    And it came to pass in these
days, that he went out into the
mountain to pray; and he
continued all night in prayer to
God. 13 And when it was day, he
called his disciples: and he chose
from them twelve, whom also
he names apostles;a
14                               Simon,
whom he also named Peter, and
Andrew his brother, and James
and John, and Philip and
Bartholomew,


15                  and Matthew and
Thomas, and James the son of
Alphæus, and Simon which was
called the Zealot, 16 and Judas, the
5son
of James, and Judas Iscariot,
which was the traitor.
1 Some ancient authorities add whom also he named apostles. See Luke 6:13.
2 Gr. demons.
3 Some ancient authorities insert and he appointed twelve.
4 Or, Zealot. See Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13.
5 Or, brother. See Jude 1.

a Matthew postpones giving the names of the Twelve till they are sent out to preach in Galilee (Matt. 10:1-4. § 70). There is a fourth list in Acts 1:13. See the four compared in note at the end of this volume, note 8.





§ 54. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. PRIVILEGES AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE MESSIANIC REIGN. CHRIST'S STANDARD OF RIGHTEOUSNESS

Matthew, chapters 5-7. Luke 6:17-49.a

A level place on a mountain, not far from Capernaum

a There is little doubt that the discourses given by Matthew and Luke are the same, Matthew locating it on "the mountain," and Luke "on a level place," which might easily be a level spot on a mountain. (See note at end of this book, note 9.) Observe that they begin and end alike, and pursue the same general order. Luke omits various matters of special interest to Matthew's Jewish readers (e.g. Matt. 5:17-42), and other matters that he himself will give elsewhere (e.g. Luke 11:1-4; 12:22-31); while Luke has a few sentences (as ver. 24-26, 38-40), which are not given by Matthew.


The Place and the Audience


Matt. 5:1-2 Luke 6:17-19
1    And seeing the multitudes, he
went up into the mountain: and
when he had sat down, his
disciples came unto him: 2 and
he opened his mouth and taught
them, saying,
17    And he came down with them,
and stood on a level place, and a
great multitude of his disciples,
and a great number of the people
from all Judea and Jerusalem,
and the sea coast of Tyre and
Sidon, which came to hear him,
and to be healed of their diseases;
18 and they that were troubled
with unclean spirits were healed.
19 And all the multitude sought to
touch him: for power came forth
from him, and healed them all.


1. The Introduction: The Beatitudes and the Woes. Privileges of the Messiah's Subjects


Matt. 5:3-12 Luke 6:20-26
3    Blessed are the poor in spirit:
for theirs is the kingdom of
heaven. 4 1Blessed are they that
mourn [see Isa. 61:3]: for they shall
be comforted. 5 Blessed are the
meek: for they shall inherit the
earth [see Ps. 37:11]. 6 Blessed are
they that hunger and thirst after
righteousness: for they shall be
filled [see Ps. 55]. 7 Blessed are the
merciful: for they shall obtain
mercy [see Ps. 18:25; Prov. 11:17].
8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for
they shall see God [see Ps. 24:3-5].
9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for
they shall be called sons of God.
10 Blessed are they that have been
persecuted for righteousness' sake:
for theirs is the kingdom of
heaven. 11 Blessed are ye when
men shall reproach you, and
persecute you, and say all manner
of evil against you falsely, for my
sake. 12 Rejoice, and be exceeding
glad: for great is your reward in
heaven: for so persecuted they the
prophets which were before you.
20    And he lifted up his eyes on
his disciples, and said, Blessed
are ye poor: for yours is the
kingdom of God. 21 Blessed are
ye that hunger now: for ye shall
be filled. Blessed are ye that
weep now: for ye shall laugh.
22 Blessed are ye, when men shall
hate you, and when they shall
separate you from their company,
and reproach you, and cast out
your name as evil, for the Son of
man's sake. 23 Rejoice in that day,
and leap for joy: for behold, your
reward is great in heaven: for in
the same manner did their fathers
unto the prophets. 24 But woe
unto you that are rich! for ye
have received your consolation.
25 Woe unto you, ye that are full
now! for ye shall hunger. Woe unto
you,
ye that laugh now! for ye
shall mourn and weep. 26 Woe
unto you, when all men shall
speak well of you! for in the same
manner did their fathers to the
false prophets.
1 Some ancient authorities transpose verses 4 and 5.

2. The Theme of the Sermon: Christ's Standard of Righteousness in Contrast with that of the Scribes and Pharisees


Matt. 5:13-20

13    Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under foot of men [see Mark 9:50; Jesus often repeated his sayings]. 14 Ye are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hid. 15 Neither do men light a lamp, and put it under the bushel, but on the stand; and it shineth unto all that are in the house [see Mark 4:21; Luke 8:16]. 16 Even so let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

17    Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets: I came not to destroy, but to fulfil. 18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass away from the law, till all things be accomplished. 19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 20 For I say unto you, that except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven.


3. Christ's Ethical Teaching Superior to that of the Scribes (both the Old Testament and the Oral Law) in Six Items or Illustrations (Murder, Adultery, Divorce, Oaths, Retaliation, Love of Enemies)


Matt. 5:21-48

21    Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgement [see Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17]: 22 but I say unto you, that every one who is angry with his brother1 shall be in danger of the judgement; and whosoever shall say to his brother, 2Raca, shall be in danger of the council; and whosoever shall say, 3Thou fool, shall be in danger 4of the 5hell of fire. 23 If therefore thou art offering thy gift at the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, 24 leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way, first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. 25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art with him in the way; lest haply the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge 6deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. 26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou have paid the last farthing.

27    Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt not commit adultery [see Ex. 20:14; Deut. 5:18]: 28 but I say unto you, that every one that looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. 29 And if thy right eye causeth thee to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not thy whole body be cast into 7hell. 30 And if thy right hand causeth thee to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not thy whole body go into 7hell. 31 It was said also, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement [see Deut. 24:1]: 32 but I say unto you, that every one that putteth away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, maketh her an adulteress: and whosoever shall marry her when she is put away committeth adultery.a

33    Again, ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths [see Lev. 19:12; Num. 30:2; Ex. 20:7; Deut. 5:11; 23:21]: 34 but I say unto you, Swear not at all [see Matt. 26:63-64]; neither by the heaven, for it is the throne of God; 35 nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor 8by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King [see Isa. 66:1]. 36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair white or black [see Ps. 48:2]. 37 9But let your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: and whatsoever is more than these is of 10the evil one.

38    Ye have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth [see Ex. 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21]: 39 but I say unto you, Resist not 11him that is evil: but whosoever smiteth thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also [see John 18:23]. 40 And if any man would go to law with thee, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also. 41 And whosoever shall 12compel thee to go one mile, go with him twain. 42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.

43    Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour [see Lev. 19:18; Deut. 23:6; 25:19],

Matt. 5:21-48 Luke 6:27-30, 32-36
and hate thine enemy: 44 but I say
unto you [see Luke 23:34], Love
your enemies, and pray for them that
persecute you; 45 that ye may be sons
of your Father which is in heaven:
for he maketh his sun to rise on the
evil and the good, and sendeth
rain on the just and the unjust.





46 For if ye love them that love
you, what reward have ye? do
not even the 13publicans the
same? 47 And if ye salute your
brethren only, what do ye more
than others? do not even the
Gentiles the same? 48 Ye therefore
shall be perfect, as your heavenly
Father is perfect.
27                     But I say
unto you which hear, Love your
enemies, do good to them that
hate you, 28 bless them that curse
you, pray for them that despitefully
use you. 29 To him that
smiteth thee on the one cheek
offer also the other; and from
him that taketh away thy cloke
withhold not thy coat also.
30 Give to every one that asketh
thee; and of him that taketh
away thy goods ask them not
again. 32 And if ye love them
that love you, what thank have
ye? for even sinners love those
that love them. 33 And if ye do
good to them that do good to
you, what thank have ye? for
even sinners do the same. 34 And
if ye lend to them of whom ye
hope to receive, what thank have
ye? even sinners lend to sinners,
to receive again as much. 35 But
love your enemies, and do them
good, and lend, 14never despairing;
and your reward shall be
great, and ye shall be sons of the
Most High: for he is kind toward
the unthankful and evil. 36 Be ye
merciful, even as your Father is
merciful.
1 Many ancient authorities insert without cause.
2 An expression of contempt.
3 Or, Moreh, a Hebrew expression of condemnation.
4 Gr. unto or into.
5 Gr. Gehenna of fire.
6 Some ancient authorities omit deliver thee.
7 Gr. Gehenna.
8 Or, toward.
9 Some ancient authorities read But your speech shall be.
10 Or, evil: as in ver. 39; 6:13.
11 Or, evil.
12 Gr. impress.
13 That is, collectors or renters of Roman taxes: and so elsewhere.
14 Some ancient authorities read despairing of no man.

a See further Mark 9:43-47; 10:11-12; Matt. 18:8-9; 19:9.


4. The Practice of Real Righteousness unlike the Ostentatious Hypocrisy of the Pharisees, as in Almsgiving, Prayer, Fasting


Matt. 6:1-18

1    Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men, to be seen of them: else ye have no reward with your Father which is in heaven.

2    When therefore thou doest alms, sound not a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have received their reward. 3 But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth: 4 that thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret shall recompense thee.

5    And when ye pray, ye shall not be as the hypocrites: for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have received their reward. 6 But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thine inner chamber, and having shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret shall recompense thee. 7 And in praying use not vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. 8 Be not therefore like unto them: for 1your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him. 9 After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed by thy name. 10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 11 Give us this day 2our daily bread. 12 And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. 13 And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from 3the evil one.4 14 For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 15 But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.

16    Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen of men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have received their reward. 17 But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy face; 18 that thou be not seen of men to fast, but of thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall recompense thee.

1 Some ancient authorities read God your Father.
2 Gr. our bread for the coming day.
3 Or, evil.
4 Many authorities, some ancient, but with variations, add For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.

5. Single-hearted Devotion to God, as Opposed to Worldly Aims and Anxieties


Matt. 6:19-34

19    Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon the earth, where moth and rust doth consume, and where thieves 1break through and steal: 20 but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth consume, and where thieves do not 1break through nor steal: 21 for where thy treasure is, there will thy heart be also. 22 The lamp of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. 23 But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is the darkness! 24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. 25 Therefore I say unto you, Be not anxious for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than the food, and the body than the raiment? 26 Behold the birds of the heaven, that they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; and your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are not ye of much more value than they? 27 And which of you by being anxious can add one cubit unto his 2stature? 28 And why are ye anxious concerning raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: 29 yet I say unto you, that even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 30 But if God doth so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith? 31 Be not therefore anxious, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed? 32 For after all these things do the Gentiles seek; for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things. 33 But seek ye first his kingdom, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. 34 Be not therefore anxious for the morrow: for the morrow will be anxious for itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

1 Gr. dig through.
2 Or, age.

6. Captious Criticism, or Judging Others

Matt. 7:1-6 Luke 6:37-42
1    Judge not, that ye be not judged.
2 For with what judgement ye
judge, ye shall be judged: and
with what measure ye mete, it
shall be measured unto you.













3 And why beholdest thou the
mote that is in thy brother's eye,
but considerest not the beam that
is in thine own eye? 4 Or how wilt
thou say to thy brother, Let me
cast out the mote out of thine
eye; and lo, the beam is in thine
own eye? 5 Thou hypocrite, cast
out first the beam out of thine
own eye; and then shalt thou see
clearly to cast out the mote out
of thy brother's eye.
6    Give not that which is holy
unto the dogs, neither cast your
pearls before the swine, lest haply
they trample them under their
feet, and turn and rend you.
37 And judge not, and ye shall not
be judged: and condemn not, and
ye shall not be condemned:
release, and ye shall be released:
38 give, and it shall be given unto
you; good measure, pressed down,
shaken together, running over,
shall they give into your bosom.
For with what measure ye mete
it shall be measured to you again.
39    And he spake also a parable
unto them, Can the blind guide
the blind? shall they not both
fall into a pit? 40 The disciple is
not above his 1master: but every
one when he is perfected shall
be as his 1master. 41 And why
beholdest thou the mote that is in
thy brother's eye, but considerest
not the beam that is in thine
own eye? 42 Or how canst thou
say to thy brother, Brother, let me
cast out the mote that is in thine
eye, when thou thyself beholdest
not the beam that is in thine own
eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out
first the beam out of thine own
eye, and then shalt thou see
clearly to cast out the mote that
is in thy brother's eye.
1 Or, teacher.

7. Prayer, and the Golden Rule

Matt. 7:7-12 Luke 6:31
7    Ask, and it shall be given you;
seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it
shall be opened unto you: 8 for every
one that asketh receiveth; and he
that seeketh findeth; and to him
that knocketh it shall be opened. 9 Or
what man is there of you, who, if his
son shall ask him for a loaf, will give
him a stone; 10 or if he shall ask for a
fish, will give him a serpent?
11 If ye then, being evil, know how
to give good gifts unto your children,
how much more shall your Father
which is in heaven give good things
to them that ask him? 12 All things
therefore whatsoever ye would
that men should do unto you,
even so do ye also unto them: for
this is the law and the prophets.















31    And as ye would that men
should do to you, do ye also to
them likewise.


8. The Conclusion of the Sermon. The Lesson of Personal Righteousness Driven Home by Powerful Parables

Matt. 7:13 to 8:1 Luke 6:43-49
13    Enter ye in by the narrow gate:
for wide 1is the gate, and broad is
the way, that leadeth to destruction,
and many be they that enter in
thereby. 14 2For narrow is the gate,
and straitened the way, that leadeth
unto life, and few be they that find it.
15    Beware of false prophets,
which come to you in sheep's
clothing, but inwardly are ravening
wolves. 16 By their fruits ye shall
know them. Do men gather grapes
of thorns, or figs of thistles? 17 Even
so every good tree bringeth forth
good fruit: but the corrupt tree
bringeth forth evil fruit. 18 A good
tree cannot bring forth evil fruit,
neither can a corrupt tree bring
forth good fruit. 19 Every tree that
bringeth not forth good fruit is
hewn down, and cast into the fire.
20 Therefore by their fruits ye shall
know them. 21 Not every one that
saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall
enter the kingdom of heaven; but
he that doeth the will of my Father
which is in heaven. 22 Many will say
to me in that day, Lord, Lord, did
we not prophesy by thy name, and
by thy name cast out 3devils, and
by thy name do many 4mighty
works? 23 And then will I profess
unto them, I never knew you: depart
from me, ye that work iniquity.
24 Every one therefore which
heareth these words of mine, and
doeth them, shall be likened unto
a wise man, which built his
house upon the rock: 25 and the
rain descended, and the floods
came, and the winds blew, and
beat upon that house; and it fell
not: for it was founded upon
the rock. 26 And every one that
heareth these words of mine,
and doeth them not, shall be
likened unto a foolish man,
which built his house upon the
sand: 27 and the rain descended,
and the floods came, and the
winds blew, and smote upon that
house; and it fell: and great was
the fall thereof.
28    And it came to pass, when
Jesus ended these words, the
multitudes were astonished at his
teaching: 29 for he taught them as
one having authority, and not as
their scribes.
1    And when he was come down
from the mountain, great multitudes
followed him.















43    For there is no good tree that
bringeth forth corrupt fruit; nor
again a corrupt tree that bringeth
forth good fruit. 44 For each
tree is known by its own fruit.
For of thorns men do not gather
figs, nor of a bramble bush gather
they grapes. 45 The good man out
of the good treasure of his heart
bringeth forth that which is good;
and the evil man out of the evil
treasure bringeth forth that which
is evil: for out of the abundance of
the heart his mouth speaketh.
46    And why call ye me, Lord,
Lord, and do not the things which
I say?


47    Every one that cometh unto
me, and heareth my words, and
doeth them, I will shew you to
whom he is like: 48 he is like a man
building a house, who digged and
went deep, and laid a foundation
upon a rock: and when a flood
arose, the stream brake against
that house, and could not shake
it: 5because it had been well
builded. 49 But he that heareth,
and doeth not, is like a man that
built a house upon the earth
without a foundation; against
which the stream brake, and
straightway it fell in; and the
ruin of that house was great.
1 Some ancient authorities omit is the gate.
2 Many ancient authorities read How narrow is the gate, &c.
3 Gr. demons.
4 Gr. powers.
5 Many ancient authorities read for it had been founded upon the rock: as in Matt. 7:25.




In sections 55 to 58 we see the rapid spread of Christ's influence and the inquiry from the Baptist in prison.a

a Here we have only Matthew and Luke, a block from the Logia of Matthew.





§ 55. JESUS HEALS A CENTURION'S SERVANT AT CAPERNAUM


Matt. 8:5-13 Luke 7:1-10
5    And when he was entered into
Capernaum, there came unto him
a centurion,






                 beseeching him, 6 and
saying, Lord, my 1servant lieth
in the house sick of the palsy,
grievously tormented.


7                             And he saith
unto him, I will come and heal
him.


8      And the centurion answered
and said, Lord, I am not 2worthy
that thou shouldest come under
my roof: but only say 3the word,
and my 1servant shall be healed.


9 For I also am a man 4under
authority, having under myself
soldiers: and I say to this one, Go,
and he goeth; and to another, Come,
and he cometh; and to my 5servant,
Do this, and he doeth it.
10 And when Jesus heard it,
he marvelled, and said to them
that followed, Verily I say unto
you, 6I have not found so great
faith, no, not in Israel. 11 And I
say unto you, that many shall come
from the east and the west, and
shall 7sit down with Abraham, and
Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of
heaven [see Ps. 107:3; Isa. 49:12]:
12 but the sons of the kingdom
shall be cast forth into the outer
darkness: there shall be weeping
and gnashing of teeth. 13 And Jesus
said unto the centurion, Go thy
way; as thou hast believed so be
it done unto thee. And the
1servant was healed in that hour.
1    After he had ended all his
sayings in the ears of the people,
he entered into Capernaum.
2    And a certain centurion's
5servant, who was 8dear unto him,
was sick and at the point of
death. 3 And when he heard
concerning Jesus, he sent unto
him elders of the Jews, asking
him that he would come and
save his 5servant. 4 And they,
when they came to Jesus,
besought him earnestly, saying,
He is worthy that thou shouldest
do this for him: 5 for he loveth
our nation, and himself built us
our synagogue. 6 And Jesus went
with them. And when he was
now not far from the house, the
centurion sent friends to him,
saying unto him, Lord, trouble
not thyself: for I am not 2worthy
that thou shouldest come under
my roof: 7 wherefore neither
thought I myself worthy to come
unto thee: but say 3the word,
and my 1servant shall be healed.
8 For I also am a man set under
authority, having under myself
soldiers: and I say to this one,
Go, and he goeth; and to another,
Come, and he cometh; and to my
5servant, Do this, and he doeth
it. 9 And when Jesus heard these
things, he marvelled at him, and
turned and said unto the multitude
that followed him, I say
unto you, I have not found so
great faith, no, not in Israel.









10 And they that were sent,
returning to the house, found the
5servant whole.
1 Or, boy.
2 Gr. sufficient.
3 Gr. with a word.
4 Some ancient authorities insert set: as in Luke 7:8.
5 Gr. bondservant.
6 Many ancient authorities read With no man in Israel have I found so great faith.
7 Gr. recline.
8 Or, precious to him; or, honourable with him.




§ 56. HE RAISES A WIDOW'S SON AT NAIN


Luke 7:11-17

11    And it came to pass 1soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain; and his disciples went with him, and a great multitude. 12 Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, there was carried out one that was dead, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with her. 13 And when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not. 14 And he came nigh and touched the bier: and the bearers stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. 15 And he that was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 16 And fear took hold on all: and they glorified God, saying, A great prophet is arisen among us: and, God hath visited his people. 17 And this report went forth concerning him in the whole of Judea, and the region round about.

1 Many ancient authorities read on the next day.




§ 57. THE MESSAGEa FROM THE BAPTIST AND THE EULOGY OF JESUS

Galilee


Matt. 11:2-19 Luke 7:18-35
2    Now when John heard in the
prisonb the works of the Christ,
he sent by his disciples, 3 and said
unto him, Art thou he that cometh,
or look we for another?









4 And Jesus answered and said
unto them, Go your way and tell
John the things which ye do
hear and see: 5 the blind receive
their sight, and the lame walk,
the lepers are cleansed, and the
deaf hear, and the dead are
raised up, and the poor have
1good tidings preached to them.
6 And blessed is he, whosoever
shall find none occasion of
stumbling in me.
7    And as these went their way,
Jesus began to say unto the
multitudes concerning John, What
went ye out into the wilderness
to behold? a reed shaken with
the wind? 8 But what went ye
out for to see? a man clothed
in soft raiment? Behold, they
that wear soft raiment are in
kings' houses. 9 2But wherefore
went ye out? to see a prophet?
Yea, I say unto you, and much
more than a prophet. 10 This is he,
of whom it is written,
    Behold, I send my messenger
        before thy face,
    Who shall prepare thy way
        before thee.
11 Verily I say unto you, Among
them that are born of women
there hath not arisen a greater
than John the Baptist: yet he
that is 3but little in the kingdom
of heaven is greater than he.
12 And from the days of John the
Baptist until now the kingdom of
heaven suffereth violence, and men
of violence take it by force [see
Luke 16:17
]. 13 For all the prophets
and the law prophesied until
John. 14 And if ye are willing to
receive 4it, this is Elijah, which is to
come [see Mal. 4:5]. 15 He that
hath ears 5to hear, let him hear.






16                         But whereunto
shall I liken this generation? It
is likec unto children sitting in
the marketplaces, which call unto
their fellows, and say, 17 We
piped unto you, and ye did not
dance; we wailed, and ye did not
6mourn.
18                         For John came
neither eating nor drinking, and
they say, He hath a 7devil. 19 The
Son of man came eating and
drinking, and they say, Behold, a
gluttonous man, and a winebibber,
a friend of publicans and sinners!

And wisdom 8is justified by her
9works.
18    And the disciples of John told
him of all these things. 19 And
John calling unto him 10two of
his disciples sent them to the
Lord, saying, Art thou he that
cometh, or look we for another?
20 And when the men were come
unto him, they said, John the
Baptist hath sent us unto thee,
saying, Art thou he that cometh,
or look we for another? 21 In that
hour he cured many of diseases
and 11plagues and evil spirits;
and on many that were blind he
bestowed sight. 22 And he answered
and said unto them, Go your
way, and tell John what things
ye have seen and heard [see Isa.
29:18-19; 35:5-6; 61:1
]; the blind
receive their sight, the lame
walk, the lepers are cleansed,
and the deaf hear, the dead are
raised up, the poor have 1good
tidings preached to them. 23 And
blessed is he, whosoever shall find
none occasion of stumbling in me.
24    And when the messengers of
John were departed, he began
to say unto the multitudes
concerning John, What went ye out
into the wilderness to behold? a
reed shaken with the wind? 25 But
what went ye out to see? a man
clothed in soft raiment? Behold,
they which are gorgeously
apparelled, and live delicately, are
in kings' courts. 26 But what went
ye out to see? a prophet? Yea,
I say unto you, and much more
than a prophet. 27 This is he of
whom it is written,
    Behold, I send my messenger
        before thy face,
    Who shall prepare thy way
        before thee [see Mal. 3:1].
28 I say unto you, Among them
that are born of women there is
none greater than John: yet he
that is 3but little in the kingdom
of God is greater than he.









29                             And all the
people when they heard, and the
publicans, justified God, 12being
baptized with the baptism of
John. 30 But the Pharisees and
the lawyers rejected for themselves
the counsel of God, 13being
not baptized of him. 31 Whereunto
then shall I liken the men of
this generation, and to what are
they like? 32 They are like unto
children that sit in the marketplace,
and call one to another;
which say, We piped unto you,
and ye did not dance; we wailed,
and ye did not weep. 33 For John
the Baptist is come eating no
bread nor drinking wine; and ye
say, He hath a 7devil. 34 The Son
of man is come eating and drinking;
and ye say, Behold, a gluttonous
man, and a winebibber, a
friend of publicans and sinners!
35 And wisdom 8is justified of all
her children.
1 Or, the gospel.
2 Many ancient authorities read But what went ye out to see? a prophet?
3 Gr. lesser.
4 Or, him.
5 Some ancient authorities omit to hear.
6 Gr. beat the breast.
7 Gr. demon.
8 Or, was.
9 Many ancient authorities read children: as in Luke 7:35.
10 Gr. certain two.
11 Gr. scourges.
12 Or, having been.
13 Or, not having been.

a Observe that his fame as having raised the dead, and as being "a great prophet," spread widely, and reaching John, led to his message of inquiry (connect Luke 7:17 and 18).

b John's prison was at Machærus, east of the Dead Sea. Jesus was somewhere in Galilee, probably near Nain, which was in the southern part of Galilee.

c Parable of the Children Playing in the Market Place.





§ 58. WOES UPON THE CITIES OF OPPORTUNITY. THE CLAIMS OF CHRIST AS THE TEACHER ABOUT THE FATHER.

Galilee


Matt. 11:20-30

20    Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his 1mighty works were done, because they repented not. 21 Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the 1mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. 22 Howbeit I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgement, than for you [see Isa. 14:13-15]. 23 And thou, Capernaum, shalt thou be exalted unto heaven? thou shalt 2go down unto Hades: for if the 1mighty works had been done in Sodom which were done in thee, it would have remained until this day. 24 Howbeit I say unto you, that it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgement, than for thee [see Gen. 19:24].

25    At that season Jesus answered and said, I 3thank thee, O Father [see John 3:35; 17:2], Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and understanding, and didst reveal them unto babes: 26 yea, Father, 4for so it was well-pleasing in thy sight. 27 All things have been delivered unto me of my Father: and no one knoweth the Son, save the Father; neither doth any know the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal him. 28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take my yokea upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. 30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light [see Jer. 6:16; Sirach 51:23].

1 Gr. powers.
2 Many ancient authorities read be brought down.
3 Or, praise.
4 Or, that.

a Rabbinical figure for going to school. Jesus thus definitely pictures himself as the expert on God in a Johannean passage (cf. Luke 10:21-24). He conceives himself as the Teacher who alone is able to interpret the Father.





§ 59. THE ANOINTINGa OF CHRIST'S FEET BY A SINFUL WOMAN IN THE HOUSE OF SIMON A PHARISEE. THE PARABLE OF THE TWO DEBTORS

Galilee


Luke 7:36-50

36    And one of the Pharisees desired him that he would eat with him. And he entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat down to meat. 37 And behold, a woman which was in the city, a sinner; and when she knew that he was sitting at meat in the Pharisee's house, she brought 1an alabaster cruse of ointment, 38 and standing behind at his feet, weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head, and 2kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. 39 Now when the Pharisee which had bidden him saw it, he spake within himself, saying, This man, if he were 3a prophet, would have perceived who and what manner of woman this is which toucheth him, that she is a sinner. 40 And Jesus answering said unto him, Simon, I have somewhat to say unto thee. And he saith, 4Master, say on. 41 A certain lender had two debtors: the one owed five hundred 5pence, and the other fifty. 42 When they had not wherewith to pay, he forgave them both. Which of them therefore will love him most? 43 Simon answered and said, He, I suppose, to whom he forgave the most. And he said unto him, Thou hast rightly judged. 44 And turning to the woman, he said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman? I entered into thine house, thou gavest me no water for my feet: but she hath wetted my feet with her tears, and wiped them with her hair. 45 Thou gavest me no kiss: but she, since the time I came in, hath not ceased to 6kiss my feet. 46 My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but she hath anointed my feet with ointment. 47 Wherefore I say unto thee, Her sins, which are many, are forgiven; for she loved much: but to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little. 48 And he said unto her, Thy sins are forgiven. 49 And they that sat at meat with him began to say 7within themselves, Who is this that even forgiveth sins? 50 And he said unto the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace.

1 Or, a flask.
2 Gr. kissed much.
3 Some ancient authorities read the prophet. See John 1:21, 25.
4 Or, Teacher.
5 The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about seventeen cents.
6 Gr. kiss much.
7 Or, among.

a This anointing in Galilee must be distinct from the anointing at Bethany, near Jerusalem, more than a year later. This sinful and penitent woman is represented by a very late tradition as being Mary Magdalene, and hence all the popular uses of the term Magdalen. But that notion has no historical support whatever, and it becomes violently improbable when we find that in the very next paragraph Luke introduces Mary Magdalene as a new figure in the history. Some men even identify Mary of Bethany with this woman that was a sinner and also with Mary Magdalene, a medley of medieval mysticism.





In sections 60 to 63 Jesus makes a second (three in all) tour of Galilee, this time with all the Twelve. Intense hostility of the Pharisees is aroused by the work. They make the blasphemous accusation that Jesus is in league with Satan. Even the kindred of Jesus fear that he is beside himself because of the excitement and the charges.





§ 60. THE SECOND TOUR OF GALILEE


Luke 8:1-3

1    And it came to pass soon afterwards, that he went about through cities and villages, preaching and bringing the 1good tidings of the kingdom of God, and with him the twelve, 2 and certain women which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary that was called Magdalene, from whom seven 2devils had gone out, 3 and Joanna the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, which ministered unto 3them of their substance.

1 Or, gospel.
2 Gr. demons.
3 Many ancient authorities read him.




Notice that the events of §§ 61-66 all occurred on the same day, called the Busy Day.a

a This "Busy Day" is just one of many such days in the Master's Ministry. See, for instance, the last day of his public ministry in the temple in Jerusalem. Observe Jesus in the forenoon teaching a crowded audience (Mark 3:19), some of whom insult and blaspheme him, and others demand a sign, and at length his mother and brethren try to carry him off as insane (comp. Mark 3:21); in the afternoon giving a group of most remarkable parables, several of which he interprets; towards night crossing the Lake in a boat, so tired and worn that he sleeps soundly amid the alarming storm; then healing the Gadarene demoniacs, and returning by boat, apparently the same evening. What a day of toil and trial.





§ 61. BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION OF LEAGUE WITH BEELZEBUB

Galilee


Mark 3:19-30 Matt. 12:22-37
19    And he cometh into a house.
20 And the multitude cometh
together again, so that they could
not so much as eat bread. 21 And
when his friends heard it, they
went out to lay hold on him: for
they said, He is beside himself.


22 And the scribes which came
down from Jerusalem said, He
hath Beelzebub, and, 3By the
prince of the 2devils casteth he
out the 2devils. 23 And he called
them unto him, and said unto
them in parables, How can Satan
cast out Satan? 24 And if a
kingdom be divided against itself,
that kingdom cannot stand. 25 And
if a house be divided against
itself, that house will not be able
to stand. 26 And if Satan hath
risen up against himself, and is
divided, he cannot stand, but
hath an end.





27                         But no one can
enter into the house of the strong
man, and spoil his goods, except he
first bind the strong man; and then
he will spoil his house.



28                     Verily I say unto
you, All their sins shall be
forgiven unto the sons of men, and
their blasphemies wherewith
soever they shall blaspheme: 29 but
whosoever shall blaspheme
against the Holy Spirit hath
never forgiveness, but is guilty
of an eternal sin: 30 because they
said, He hath an unclean spirit.







22    Then was brought unto him
1one possessed with a devil, blind
and dumb: and he healed him,
insomuch that the dumb man
spake and saw. 23 And all the
multitudes were amazed, and said,
Is this the son of David? 24 But
when the Pharisees heard it,
they said, This man doth not
cast out 2devils, but 3by Beelzebub
the prince of the 2devils
[see John 7:20; 8:48, 52; 10:20].a
25 And knowing their thoughts he
said unto them, Every kingdom
divided against itself is brought
to desolation; and every city or
house divided against itself shall
not stand: 26 and if Satan casteth
out Satan, he is divided against
himself; how then shall his kingdom
stand? 27 And if I 3by Beelzebub
cast out 2devils, 3by whom
do your sons cast them out?
therefore shall they be your judges.
28 But if I 3by the Spirit of God cast
out 2devils, then is the kingdom of
God come upon you. 29 Or how
can one enter into the house of the
strong man, and spoil his goods,
except he first bind the strong
man? and then he will spoil his
house. 30 He that is not with me
is against me; and he that gathereth
not with me scattereth. 31 Therefore
I say unto you, Every sin and
blasphemy shall be forgiven 4unto
men; but the blasphemy against
the Spirit shall not be forgiven.
32 And whosoever shall speak a
word against the Son of man, it
shall be forgiven him; but whosoever
shall speak against the Holy
Spirit, it shall not be forgiven
him, neither in this 5world, nor
in that which is to come. 33 Either
make the tree good, and its fruit
good; or make the tree corrupt, and
its fruit corrupt: for the tree is known
by its fruit. 34 Ye offspring of
vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak
good things? for out of the abundance
of the heart the mouth speaketh.
35 The good man out of his
good treasure bringeth forth good
things: and the evil man out of his
evil treasure bringeth forth evil
things. 36 And I say unto you, that
every idle word that men shall speak,
they shall give account thereof in the
day of judgement. 37 For by thy
words thou shalt be justified, and by
thy words thou shalt be condemned.
1 Or, a demoniac.
2 Gr. demons.
3 Or, in.
4 Some ancient authorities read unto you men.
5 Or, age.

a Luke (11:14-36) gives another blasphemous accusation later in Judea. Matthew (9:27-34) also has another blasphemous accusation. Note Christ's use of parables in replying to the accusations.





§ 62. SCRIBES AND PHARISEES DEMAND A SIGN

Same day. Galilee


Matt. 12:38-45

38    Then certain of the scribes and Pharisees answered him, saying, 1Master, we would see a sign from thee. 39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it but the sign of Jonah the prophet: 40 for as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the 2whale; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth [see Jonah 1:17; 2:1-2; 3:5; 4:3; 1 Kings 10:1-10]. 41 The men of Nineveh shall stand up in the judgement with this generation, and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, 3a greater than Jonah is here. 42 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgement with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, 3a greater than Solomon is here. 43 But the unclean spirit, when 4he is gone out of the man, passeth through waterless places, seeking rest, and findeth it not. 44 Then 4he saith, I will return into my house whence I came out; and when 4he is come, 4he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. 45 Then goeth 4he, and taketh with 5himself seven other spirits more evil than 5himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man becometh worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this evil generation.

1 Or, Teacher.
2 Gr. sea-monster.
3 Gr. more than.
4 Or, it.
5 Or, itself.




§ 63. CHRIST'S MOTHER AND BRETHREN SEEK TO TAKE HIM HOME

Same day. Galilee


Mark 3:31-35 Matt. 12:46-50 Luke 8:19-21

31    And there come
his mother and his
brethren; and, standing
without, they sent
unto him, calling him.
32 And a multitude
was sitting about him;
and they say unto
him, Behold, thy
mother and thy
brethren without seek
for thee.
33            And he
answereth them, and
saith, Who is my
mother and my
brethren?
34            And
looking round on
them which sat round
about him, he saith,
Behold, my mother
and my brethren!
35 For whosoever shall
do the will of God,
                the same
is my brother, and
sister, and mother.
46    While he was yet
speaking to the
multitudes, behold,
his mother and his
brethren stood without,
seeking to speak to
him. 47 1And one said
unto him, Behold,
thy mother and thy
brethren stand without,
seeking to speak
to thee.

48            But he
answered and said
unto him that told him,
Who is my mother?
and who are my
brethren? 49 And he
stretched forth his
hand towards his
disciples, and said,
Behold, my mother and
my brethren! 50 For
whosoever shall do
the will of my Father
which is in heaven, he
is my brother, and
sister, and mother.

19    And there came
to him his mother and
brethren, and they
could not come at
him for the crowd.
20 And it was told him,
Thy mother and thy
brethren stand without,
desiring to see thee.



21            But he
answered and said
unto them,








            My mother
and my brethren are
these which hear the
word of God, and do
it [see John 15:14].
1 Some ancient authorities omit ver. 47.




In §§ 64 to 69 we have the first great group of Parables with the visit to Gerasa and the return to Nazareth.





§ 64. THE FIRST GREAT GROUP OF PARABLESa

Same day. Beside the Sea of Galilee. Introduction to the Group


Mark 4:1, 2 Matt. 13:1-3 Luke 8:4
1    And again he
began to teach by the
sea side. And there
is gathered unto him
a very great multitude,
so that he entered
a boat, and
sat in the sea; and all
the multitude were by
the sea on the land.
2 And he taught them
many things in
parables, and said unto
them in his teaching,
Hearken:
1    On that day went
Jesus out of the
house, and sat by the
sea side. 2 And there
were gathered unto
him great multitudes,
so that he entered
into a boat, and sat;
and all the multitude
stood on the beach.
3 And he spake to them
many things in
parables, saying,


4 And when a great
multitude came
together, and they of
every city resorted
unto him,



                he spake
by a parable:

a We have met various separate parables heretofore, but here is a group of at least ten. Two other great groups will occur hereafter, one group given in Luke only, and the last group during the last week of our Lord's public ministry.


1. To the Crowds by the Sea

(a) Parable of the Sower

Mark 4:3-25 Matt. 13:3-23 Luke 8:5-18
3    Behold, the sower
went forth to sow:
4 and it came to pass,
as he sowed, some
seed fell by the way
side, and the birds
came and devoured
it. 5 And other fell
on the rocky ground,
where it had not
much earth; and
straightway it sprang
up, because it had no
deepness of earth: 6 and
when the sun was
risen, it was scorched;
and because it
had no root, it
withered away. 7 And
other fell among the
thorns, and the thorns
grew up, and choked
it, and it yielded no
fruit. 8 And others fell
into the good ground,
and yielded fruit,
growing up and
increasing; and brought
forth, thirtyfold, and
sixtyfold, and a
hundredfold. 9 And he
said, Who hath ears
to hear, let him hear.
10    And when he was
alone, they that were
about him with the
twelve asked of him
the parables.
                11 And he
said unto them,
Unto you is given the
mystery of the kingdom
of God: but unto
them that are without,
all things are
done in parables: 12 that









seeing they may see,
and not perceive; and
hearing they may
hear, and not under-
stand; lest haply they
should turn again,
and it should be
forgivena them. 13 And
he saith unto them,
Know ye not this
parable? and how
shall ye know all the
parables? 14 The sower
soweth the word.
15 And these are they
by the way side,
where the word is
sown; and when they
have heard, straightway
cometh Satan,
and taketh away the
word which hath been
sown in them. 16 And
these in like manner
are they that are
































sown upon the rocky
places, who, when
they have heard the
word, straightway
receive it with joy; 17 and
they have no root in
themselves, but
endure for a while;
then, when tribulation
or persecution
ariseth because of the
word, straightway
they stumble. 18 And
others are they that
are sown among the
thorns; these are they
that have heard the
word, 19 and the cares
of the 2world, and the
deceitfulness of riches,
and the lusts of other
things entering in,
choke the word, and
it becometh unfruitful.
20 And those are
they that were sown
upon the good
ground; such as hear
the word, and accept

it, and bear fruit,
thirtyfold, and sixtyfold,
and a hundredfold.

21    And he said unto
them, Is the lampb
brought to be put under
the bushel, or under
the bed, and not to be
put on the stand?
22 For there is nothing
hid, save that it should
be manifested; neither
was anything made
secret, but that it
should come to light.
23 If any man hath ears
to hear, let him hear.
24 And he said unto
them, Take heed what
ye hear: with what
measure ye mete it
shall be measured unto
you: and more shall be
given unto you. 25 For
he that hath, to him
shall be given: and he
that hath not, from him
shall be taken away
even that which he hath.
3    Behold, the sower
went forth to sow;
4 and as he sowed,
some seeds fell by the
way side, and the
birds came and
devoured them: 5 and
others fell upon the
rocky places, where
they had not much
earth: and straightway
they sprang up,
because they had no
deepness of earth:
6 and when the sun
was risen, they were
scorched; and because
they had no root,
they withered away.
7 And others fell upon
the thorns; and the
thorns grew up, and
choked them: 8 and
others fell upon the
good ground, and
yielded fruit, some a
hundredfold, some
sixty, some thirty.



9 He that hath ears1,
let him hear.
10    And the disciples
came, and said unto
him, Why speakest
thou unto them in
parables?
                11 And he
answered and said
unto them, Unto you
it is given to know
the mysteries of the
kingdom of heaven,
but to them it is not
given. 12 For
whosoever hath, to him
shall be given, and he
shall have abundance:
but whosoever hath
not, from him shall
be taken away even
that which he hath.
13 Therefore speak I to
them in parables;
because seeing they see
not, and hearing they
hear not, neither do
they understand. 14 And
unto them is fulfilled
the prophecy of
Isaiah, which saith,
    By hearing ye shall
        hear, and shall
        in no wise
        understand;
    And seeing ye shall
        see, and shall
        in no wise
        perceive:
15 For this people's
        heart is waxed
        gross,
    And their ears are
        dull of hearing,
    And their eyes they
        have closed;
    Lest haply they
        should perceive
        with their eyes,
    And hear with their
        ears,
    And understand with
        their heart,
    And should turn
        again,
    And I should heal them
        [see Isa. 6:9-10].
16 But blessed are
your eyes, for they see;
and your ears, for they
hear. 17 For verily I say
unto you, that many
prophets and righteous
men desired to see the
things which ye see, and
saw them not; and to
hear the things which ye
hear, and heard them
not. 18 Hear then ye the
parable of the sower.
19 When any one
heareth the word of the
kingdom, and
understandeth it not,
then cometh the evil one,
and snatcheth away that
which hath been sown
in his heart. This is he
that was sown by the
way side. 20 And he
that was sown upon
the rocky places, this
is he that heareth the
word, and straightway
with joy receiveth
it; 21 yet hath he
not root in himself,
but endureth for a while;
and when tribulation
or persecution
ariseth because of the
word, straightway he

stumbleth. 22 And he
that was sown among
the thorns, this is he
that heareth the
word; and the care
of the 2world, and the
deceitfulness of riches,


choke the
word, and he becometh
unfruitful. 23 And
he that was sown upon
the good ground,
this is he that heareth
the word, and
understandeth it; who
verily beareth fruit,
and bringeth forth,
some a hundredfold,
some sixty, some
thirty.
5    The sower went
forth to sow his seed:
and as he sowed, some
fell by the way side;
and it was trodden
under foot, and the
birds of the heaven
devoured it. 6 And
other fell on the rock;
and as soon as it
grew, it withered
away, because it had
no moisture.





7                     And
other fell amidst the
thorns; and the thorns
grew with it, and
choked it. 8 And other
fell into the good
ground, and grew,
and brought forth
fruit a hundredfold.
As he said these
things, he cried,

            He that hath
ears to hear, let him
hear.

9    And his disciples
asked him what this
parable might be.

10 And he said, Unto
you it is given to
know the mysteries
of the kingdom of
God: but to the rest












in parables; that seeing
they may not see,
and hearing they may
not understand. 11 Now
the parable is this:
The seed is the word
of God. 12 And those
by the way side are
they that have heard;
then cometh the devil,
and taketh away
the word from their
heart, that they may
not believe and be
saved.









































13                     And
those on the rock are
they which, when
they have heard,
receive the word with
joy; and these have
no root, which for a
while believe, and in

time of temptation
fall away.


14 And that which fell
among the thorns,
these are they that
have heard, and as
they go on their way
they are choked with
cares and riches and
pleasures of this life,
and bring no fruit to
perfection.

15 And that in the good
ground, these are
such as in an honest
and good heart, having
heard the word,
hold it fast, and bring
forth fruit with patience.




16    And no man, when
he hath lighted a lamp,
covereth it with a vessel,
or putteth it under a bed;
but putteth it on a
stand, that they which
enter in may see the
light. 17 For nothing is
hid, that shall not be
made manifest; nor
anything secret, that
shall not be known and
come to light. 18 Take



heed therefore how ye
hear: for whosoever
hath, to him shall be
given; and whosoever
hath not, from him
shall be taken away
even that which he
3thinketh he hath.
1 Some ancient authorities add here, and in ver. 43, to hear: as in Mark 4:9; Luke 8:8.
2 Or, age.
3 Or, seemeth to have.

a Observe that Jesus spoke these words just after the blasphemous accusation and on the same day (Matt. 13:1).

b Note here another brief parable of the lamp to enforce the lesson of the parable of the Sower. Preachers to-day sometimes tell one story to illustrate another.


(b) Parable of the Seed Growing of Itself

Mark 4:26-29

26    And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed upon the earth; 27 and should sleep and rise night and day, and the seed should spring up and grow, he knoweth not how. 28 The earth 1beareth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear. 29 But when the fruit 2is ripe, straightway he 3putteth forth the sickle, because the harvest is come [see Joel 3:13].

1 Or, yieldeth.
2 Or, alloweth.
3 Or, sendeth forth.

(c) Parable of the Tares

Matt. 13:24-30

24    Another parable set he before them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man that sowed good seed in his field: 25 but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed 1tares also among the wheat, and went away. 26 But when the blade sprang up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. 27 And the 2servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst thou not sow good seed in thy field? whence then hath it tares? 28 And he said unto them, 3An enemy hath done this. And the 2servants say unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? 29 But he saith, Nay; lest haply while ye gather up the tares, ye root up the wheat with them. 30 Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of the harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather up first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.

1 Or, darnel.
2 Gr. bondservants.
3 Gr. A man that is an enemy.

(d) Parable of the Mustard Seed

Mark 4:30-32 Matt. 13:31-32
30 And he said, How shall we liken
the kingdom of God? or in what
parable shall we set it forth? 31 1It
is like a grain of mustard seed,
which, when it is sown upon the
earth, though it be less than all
the seeds that are upon the earth,
32 yet when it is sown, groweth
up, and becometh greater than all
the herbs, and putteth out great
branches; so that the birds of
the heaven can lodge under the
shadow thereof.
31    Another parable set he before
them, saying, The kingdom of
heaven is like unto a grain of
mustard seed, which a man took,
and sowed in his field: 32 which
indeed is less than all seeds; but
when it is grown, it is greater
than the herbs, and becometh a
tree [see Dan. 4:12, 21], so that
the birds of the heaven come and
lodge in the branches thereof.
1 Gr. As unto.

(e) Parable of the Leaven and many such Parables

Mark 4:33-34 Matt. 13:33-35





33    And with manya such parables
spake he the word unto them, as
they were able to hear it: 34 and
without a parable spake he not
unto them: but privately to his
disciples he expounded all things.
33    Another parable spake he unto
them; The kingdom of heaven is
like unto leaven, which a woman
took, and hid in three 1measures
of meal, till it was all leavened.
34    All these things spake Jesus
in parables unto the multitudes;
and withouta a parable spake he
nothing unto them: 35 that it might
be fulfilled which was spoken 2by
the prophet, saying,
    I will open my mouth in parables;
    I will utter things hidden from
        the foundation 3of the world
        [see Ps. 78:2].
1 The word in the Greek denotes the Hebrew seah, a measure containing nearly a peck and a half.
2 Or, through.
3 Many ancient authorities omit of the world.

a Note the expression. Matthew gives nine in Chapter 13 and Mark another. There may have been still others on this day.


2. To the Disciples in the House

(a) Explanation of the Parable of the Tares

Matt. 13:36-43

36    Then he left the multitudes, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Explain unto us the parable of the tares of the field. 37 And he answered and said, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; 38 and the field is the world; and the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom; and the tares are the sons of the evil one; 39 and the enemy that sowed them is the devil: and the harvest is 1the end of the world; and the reapers are angels. 40 As therefore the tares are gathered up and burned with fire; so shall it be in 1the end of the world. 41 The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity, 42 and shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. 43 Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father [see Dan. 12:3]. He that hath ears, let him hear.

1 Or, the consummation of the age.

(b) The Parable of the Hid Treasure

Matt. 13:44

44    The kingdom of heaven is like unto a treasure hidden in the field; which a man found, and hid; and 1in his joy he goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.

1 Or, for joy thereof.

(c) The Parable of the Pearl of Great Price

Matt. 13:45-46

45    Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a merchant seeking goodly pearls: 46 and having found one pearl of great price, he went and sold all that he had, and bought it.


(d) The Parable of the Net

Matt. 13:47-50

47    Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a 1net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind: 48 which, when it was filled, they drew up on the beach; and they sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but the bad they cast away. 49 So shall it be in 2the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the righteous, 50 and shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth.

1 Gr. dragnet.
2 Or, consummation of the age.

(e) The Parable of the Householder

Matt. 13:51-53

51    Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea. 52 And he said unto them, Therefore every scribe who hath been made a disciple to the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.

53    And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished these parables,a he departed thence.

a Eight of these ten parables go in pairs (the sower and the seed growing of itself, the tares and the net, the mustard seed and the leaven, the hid treasure and the pearl of great price). But nothing can be made out of the number of the parables spoken on this day. We do not even know what the number was. Jesus had spoken various shorter and more or less isolated parables before this occasion. An immediate occasion for the use of so many and such extended parables at this point was the hostility of the Pharisees and the need of special instruction for the disciples who were taught by Jesus how to interpret parables, though they had much difficulty later in applying the instruction about the parabolic teaching.





§ 65. IN CROSSING THE LAKE, JESUS STILLS THE TEMPEST

Same day. Sea of Galilee


Mark 4:35-41 Matt. 8:18, 23-27 Luke 8:22-25
35    And on that day,
when even was come,
he saith unto them,
Let us go over unto
the other side.

36    And leaving the
multitude, they take
him with them, even
as he was, in the
boat. And other
boats were with him.




37 And there ariseth a
great storm of wind,
and the waves beat
into the boat, insomuch
that the boat was
now filling. 38 And
he himself was in the
stern, asleep on the
cushion: and they
awake him, and say
unto him, Master,
carest thou not that
we perish? 39 And he
awoke, and rebuked
the wind, and said
unto the sea, Peace,
be still. And the
wind ceased, and
there was a great
calm. 40 And he said
unto them, Why are
ye fearful? have ye
not yet faith?
41                 And they
feared exceedingly,
and said one
to another, Who then
is this, that even the
wind and the sea
obey him?
18    Now when Jesus
saw great multitudes
about him, he gave
commandment to
depart unto the other
side.
23    And when he was
entered into a boat,
his disciples followed
him.






24        And behold,
there arose a great
tempest in the sea,
insomuch that the
boat was covered
with the waves: but
he was asleep. 25 And
they came to him,
and awoke him,
saying, Save, Lord;
we perish.

26            And he
saith unto them, Why
are ye fearful, O ye
of little faith? Then
he arose, and rebuked
the winds and
the sea; and there
was a great calm.



27 And the men
marvelled, saying,
What manner of man
is this, that even the
winds and the sea
obey him?





22    Now it came to
pass on one of those
days, that he entered
into a boat, himself
and his disciples; and
he said unto them,
Let us go over to the
other side of the lake:
and they launched
forth. 23 But as they
sailed he fell asleep:
and there came down
a storm of wind on
the lake; and they
were filling with water,
and were in jeopardy.


24                     And
they came to him, and
awoke him, saying,
Master, master,
we perish. And he
awoke, and rebuked
the wind and the
raging of the water:
and they ceased, and
there was a calm.


25 And he said unto
them, Where is your
faith?
            And being
afraid they marvelled,
saying one to
another, Who then is
this, that he
commandeth even the
winds and the water,
and they obey him?





§ 66. BEYOND THE LAKE JESUS HEALS THE GERASENEa DEMONIACb

Gerasa (Khersa). Same day


Mark 5:1-20 Matt. 8:28-34 Luke 8:26-39
1    And they came to
the other side of the
sea, into the country
of the Gerasenes.
2 And when he was
come out of the boat,
straightway there
met him out of the
tombs a man with
an unclean spirit, 3 who
had his dwelling in
the tombs: and no
man could any more
bind him, no, not
with a chain; 4 because
that he had been
often bound with
fetters and chains, and
the chains had been
rent asunder by him,
and the fetters broken
in pieces: and no man
had strength to tame
him. 5 And always,
night and day, in the
tombs and in the
mountains, he was
crying out, and
cutting himself with
stones. 6 And when
he saw Jesus from
afar, he ran and
worshipped him; 7 and
crying out with a loud
voice, he saith, What
have I to do with
thee, Jesus, thou Son
of the Most High
God? I adjure thee
by God, torment me
not. 8 For he said
unto him, Come forth,
thou unclean spirit,
out of the man.








9        And he asked
him, What is thy
name? And he saith
unto him, My name
is Legion; for we are
many. 10 And he
be sought him much
that he would not send
them away out of
the country. 11 Now
there was there on
the mountain side a
great herd of swine
feeding. 12 And they
besought him, saying,
Send us into the
swine, that we may
enter into them.
13 And he gave them
leave. And the
unclean spirits came
out, and entered into
the swine: and the
herd rushed down the
steep into the sea,
in number about two
thousand; and they
were choked in the
sea. 14 And they that
fed them fled, and
told it in the city,
and in the country.
And they came to see
what it was that had
come to pass. 15 And
they come to Jesus,
and behold 3him that
was possessed with
devils sitting, clothed
and in his right mind,
even him that had the
legion: and they were
afraid. 16 And they
that saw it declared
unto them how it
befell 3him that was
possessed with devils,
and concerning the
swine. 17 And they
began to beseech him
to depart from their
borders. 18 And as he
was entering into the
boat, he that had
been possessed with
2devils besought him
that he might be with
him. 19 And he suffered
him not, but saith
unto him, Go to thy
house unto thy
friends, and tell them
how great things the
Lord hath done for
thee, and how he had
mercy on thee. 20 And
he went his way, and
began to publish in
Decapolis how great
things Jesus had done
for him: and all men
did marvel.c
28    And when he was
come to the other
side into the country
of the Gadarenes,
there met him two
1possessed with devils,
coming forth out of
the tombs, exceeding
fierce, so that no
man could pass by
that way.





















29        And behold,
they cried out,
saying, What have we
to do with thee, thou
Son of God? art thou
come hither to
torment us before the
time?





















30            Now there
was afar off from
them a herd of many
swine feeding. 31 And
the 2devils besought
him, saying, If thou
cast us out, send us
away into the herd
of swine. 32 And he
said unto them, Go.
And they came out,
and went into the
swine: and behold,
the whole herd rushed
down the steep
into the sea, and
perished in the waters.


33 And they that fed
them fled, and went
away into the city,
and told everything,
and what was befallen
to them that
were 1possessed with
devils. 34 And behold,
all the city came out
to meet Jesus:









                         and
when they saw him,
they besought him
that he would depart
from their borders.
26    And they arrived
at the country of the
4Gerasenes, which is
over against Galilee.
27 And when he was
come forth upon the
land, there met him
a certain man out of
the city, who had
2devils; and for a long
time he had worn no
clothes, and abode
not in any house, but
in the tombs.















28                     And
when he saw Jesus,
he cried out, and fell
down before him,
and with a loud voice
said, What have I to
do with thee, Jesus,
thou Son of the Most
High God? I
beseech thee, torment
me not. 29 For he
commanded the unclean
spirit to come out
of the man. For
5oftentimes it had seized
him: and he was kept
under guard, and
bound with chains
and fetters; and
breaking the bands
asunder, he was driven
of the 6devil into
the deserts. 30 And
Jesus asked him,
What is thy name?
And he said, Legion;
for many 2devils were
entered into him.
31 And they intreated
him that he would
not command them
to depart into the
abyss. 32 Now there was
there a herd of many
swine feeding on the
mountain: and they
intreated him that
he would give them
leave to enter into
them. And he gave
them leave. 33 And the
2devils came out from
the man, and entered
into the swine: and
the herd rushed down
the steep into the
lake, and were choked.
34 And when they that
fed them saw what
had come to pass,
they fled, and told it
in the city and in the
country. 35 And they
went out to see what
had come to pass; and
they came to Jesus,
and found the man,
from whom the 2devils
were gone out, sitting,
clothed and in
his right mind, at
the feet of Jesus: and
they were afraid.


36 And they that saw
it told them how he
that was possessed
with 2devils was
7made whole. 37 And
all the people of the
country of the
4Gerasenes round about
asked him to depart
from them; for they
were holden with
great fear: and he
entered into a boat,
and returned. 38 But
the man from whom
the 2devils were gone
out prayed him that
he might be with
him: but he sent him
away, saying, 39 Return
to thy house, and
declare how great
things God hath
done for thee. And
he went his way,
publishing throughout
the whole city how
great things Jesus had
done for him.

1 Or, demoniacs.
2 Gr. demons.
3 Or, the demoniac.
4 Many ancient authorities read Gergesenes; others Gadarenes.
5 Or, of a long time.
6 Gr. demon.
7 Or, saved.

a The long famous instance of "discrepancy" as to the place in this narrative has been cleared up in recent years by the decision of textual critics that the correct text in Luke is Gerasenes, as well as in Mark, and by Dr. Thomson's discovery of a ruin on the lake shore, named Khersa (Gerasa). If this village was included (a very natural supposition) in the district belonging to the city of Gadara, some miles south-eastward, then the locality could be described as either in the country of the Gadarenes, or in the country of the Gerasenes.

b Matthew mentions two demoniacs, Mark and Luke describe one, who was probably the prominent and leading one.

c Note in Mark the numerous vivid details and fulness of narrative.





§ 67. THE RETURN AND THE HEALING OF JAIRUS' DAUGHTER AND OF THE WOMAN WHO ONLY TOUCHED CHRIST'S GARMENT

Probably Capernaum


Mark 5:21-43 Matt. 9:18-26 Luke 8:40-56
21    And when Jesus
had crossed over
again in the boat unto
the other side, a great
multitude was gathered
unto him: and he
was by the sea.
22    And there cometh
one of the rulers of
the synagogue, Jairus
by name; and seeing
him, he falleth at his
feet, 23 and beseecheth
him much, saying,
My little daughter is
at the point of death:
I pray thee, that thou
come and lay thy
hands on her, that
she may be 2made
whole, and live. 24 And
he went with him;
and a great multitude
followed him, and
they thronged him.
25    And a woman,
which had an issue
of blood twelve years,
26 and had suffered
many things of many
physicians, and had
spent all that she
had, and was nothing
bettered, but rather
grew worse, 27 having
heard the things
concerning Jesus, came
in the crowd behind,
and touched his garment.
28 For she said,
If I touch but his
garments, I shall be
2made whole. 29 And
straightway the fountain
of her blood was
dried up; and she felt
in her body that she was
healed of her 5plague.
30 And straightway
Jesus, perceiving
in himself that the
power proceeding from
him had gone forth,
turned him about in
the crowd, and said,
Who touched my
garments? 31 And his
disciples said unto him,
Thou seest the multitude
thronging thee,
and sayest thou, Who
touched me? 32 And he
looked round about
to see her that had
done this thing. 33 But
the woman fearing
and trembling, knowing
what had been
done to her, came
and fell down before
him, and told him
all the truth. 34 And
he said unto her,
Daughter, thy faith
hath 3made thee
whole; go in peace,
and be whole of thy
5plague.
35    While he yet spake,
they come from the
ruler of the synagogue's
house, saying,
Thy daughter is dead:
why troublest thou
the 6Master any further?
36 But Jesus,
7not heeding the word
spoken, saith unto
the ruler of the
synagogue, Fear not,
only believe. 37 And he
suffered no man to
follow with him, save
Peter, and James, and
John the brother of
James. 38 And they
come to the house
of the ruler of the
synagogue; and he
beholdeth a tumult,
and many weeping
and wailing greatly.
39 And when he was
entered in, he saith
unto them, Why
make ye a tumult,
and weep? the child
is not dead, but sleepeth.
40 And they laughed
him to scorn. But
he, having put them
all forth, taketh the
father of the child
and her mother and
them that were with
him, and goeth in
where the child was.
41 And taking the child
by the hand, he saith
unto her, Talitha cumi;
which is, being
interpreted, Damsel,
I say unto thee, Arise.
42 And straightway the
damsel rose up, and
walked; for she was
twelve years old.
And they were amazed
straightway with
a great amazement.
43 And he charged them
much that no man
should know this: and
he commanded that
something should be
given her to eat.









18    While he spake
these things unto
them,a behold, there
came 1a ruler, and
worshipped him, saying,
My daughter is
even now dead: but
come and lay thy
hand upon her, and
she shall live. 19 And
Jesus arose, and
followed him, and so
did
his disciples.



20        And behold, a
woman, who had an
issue of blood twelve
years, came behind
him, and touched the
border of his garment:
21 for she said
within herself, If I do
but touch his
garment, I shall be 2made
whole.



































22                     But
Jesus turning and seeing
her said, Daughter,
be of good cheer;
thy faith hath 3made
thee whole. And the
woman was 2made
whole from that hour.
























23 And when Jesus came
into the ruler's house,
and saw the flute-
players, and the
crowd making a
tumult, 24 he said, Give
place: for the damsel
is not dead, but sleepeth.
And they laughed
him to scorn. 25 But
when the crowd was
put forth, he entered


in, and took her by
the hand; and the
damsel arose. 26 And
4the fame hereof went
forth into all that
land.
40    And as Jesus
returned, the multitude
welcomed him;
for they were all
waiting for him.




41    And behold, there
came a man named
Jairus, and he was
a ruler of the
synagogue: and he fell
down at Jesus' feet,
and besought him to
come into his house;
42 for he had an only
daughter, about
twelve years of age,
and she lay a dying.
But as he went the
multitudes thronged
him.

43    And a woman
having an issue of blood
twelve years, which
8had spent all her
living upon physicians,
and could not
be healed of any, came
behind him, 44 and
touched the border of
his garment: and
immediately the issue of
her blood stanched.


















45 And Jesus said, Who
is it that touched
me? And when all
denied, Peter said,
9and they that were
with him, Master,
the multitudes press
thee and crush thee.
46 But Jesus said, Some
one did touch me:
for I perceived that
power had gone forth
from me. 47 And when
the woman saw that
she was not hid, she
came trembling, and
falling down before
him declared in the
presence of all the
people for what cause
she touched him, and
how she was healed
immediately. 48 And
he said unto her,
Daughter, thy faith
hath 3made thee
whole; go in peace.








49    While he yet spake,
there cometh one
from the ruler of the
synagogue's house,
saying, Thy daughter
is dead; trouble not
the 6Master. 50 But
Jesus hearing it,
answered him, Fear not:
only believe, and she
shall be 2made whole.
51 And when he came
to the house, he
suffered not any man to
enter in with him,
save Peter, and John,
and James, and the
father of the maiden
and her mother.
52 And all were weeping,
and bewailing her:
but he said, Weep
not; for she is not
dead, but sleepeth.
53 And they laughed
him to scorn, knowing
that she was dead.
54 But he, taking her by
the hand, called, saying,
Maiden, arise.
55 And her spirit
returned, and she rose
up immediately: and
he commanded that
something be given
her to eat. 56 And her
parents were amazed:
but he charged them
to tell no man what
had been done.
1 Gr. one ruler.
2 Or, saved.
3 Or saved thee.
4 Gr. this fame.
5 Gr. scourge.
6 Or, Teacher.
7 Or, overhearing.
8 Some ancient authorities omit had spent all her living upon physicians, and.
9 Some ancient authorities omit and they that were with him.

a Broadus felt that the language in Matt. 9:18 compelled him to place 9:18 after 9:17. I do not think so, for "while he spake" may be merely an introductory phrase for a new paragraph. It is best to follow Mark's order, as Luke does, for Matthew is not chronological in this part of his Gospel.





§ 68. HE HEALS TWO BLIND MEN, AND A DUMB DEMONIAC. A BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION


Matt. 9:27-34

27    And as Jesus passed by from thence, two blind men followed him, crying out, and saying, Have mercy on us, thou son of David. 28 And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They say unto him, Yea, Lord. 29 Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it done unto you. 30 And their eyes were opened. And Jesus 1strictly charged them, saying, See that no man know it. 31 But they went forth, and spread abroad his fame in all that land.

32    And as they went forth, behold, there was brought to him a dumb man possessed with a 2devil. 33 And when the 2devil was cast out, the dumb man spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. 34 But the Pharisees said, 3By the prince of the 4devils casteth he out 4devils.

1 Or, sternly.
2 Gr. demon.
3 Or, In.
4 Gr. demons.




§ 69. THE LASTa VISIT TO NAZARETH


Mark 6:1-6 Matt. 13:54-58
1    And he went out from thence;
and he cometh into his own
country; and his disciples follow
him. 2 And when the sabbath
was come, he began to teach in
the synagogue: and 3many hearing
him were astonished, saying,
Whence hath this man these
things? and, What is the wisdom
that is given unto this man, and
what mean such 1mighty works
wrought by his hands? 3 Is not
this the carpenter, the son of
Mary, and brother of James, and
Joses, and Judas, and Simon?
and are not his sisters here with
us? And they were 2offended in
him. 4 And Jesus said unto them,
A prophet is not without honour,
save in his own country, and
among his own kin, and in his
own house. 5 And he could there
do no 4mighty work, save that
he laid his hands upon a few
sick folk, and healed them. 6 And
he marvelled because of their
unbelief.

54    And coming into his own
country he taught them in their
synagogue, insomuch that they
were astonished, and said,
Whence hath this man this wisdom,
and these 1mighty works?




55                             Is not this
the carpenter's son? is not his
mother called Mary? and his
brethren, James, and Joseph, and
Simon, and Judas? 56 And his
sisters, are they not all with us?
Whence then hath this man all
these things? 57 And they were
2offended in him. But Jesus said
unto them, A prophet is not
without honour, save in his own
country, and in his own house.
58 And he did not many 1mighty
works there because of their
unbelief.
1 Gr. powers.
2 Gr. caused to stumble.
3 Some ancient authorities insert the.
4 Gr. power.

a There is no sufficient occasion to identify this visit to Nazareth with that described by Luke. That was at the very beginning of the great ministry in Galilee, and this is near its close. The details are quite different. It is perfectly natural that after a long interval he should give the Nazarenes another opportunity to hear his teaching, and to witness miracles, which he would not work for them when demanded, but now voluntarily works in a few cases, so far as their now wonderful unbelief left it appropriate.





In Sections 70 to 71 we have the Third Tour of Galilee (Jesus following the Twelve) and the effect on Herod Antipas.





§ 70. THE THIRD TOUR OF GALILEE AFTER INSTRUCTING THE TWELVE AND SENDING THEM FORTH BY TWOS


Mark 6:6-13 Matt. 9:35 to 11:1 Luke 9:1-6
6    And he went round
about the villages
teaching.
























7    And he called unto
him the twelve, and
began to send them
forth by two and
two; and he gave
them authority over
the unclean spirits;
8 and he charged them

































that they
should take nothing
for their journey, save
a staff only; no bread,
no wallet, no 17money
in their 18purse; 9 but
to go shod with sandals:
and, said he,
put not on two coats.

10 And he said
unto them,
Wheresoever ye enter
into a house, there abide
till ye depart thence.
11 And whatsoever place








                shall not
receive you, and they
hear you not, as ye
go forth thence, shake
off the dust that is
under your feet for a
testimony unto them.
35    And Jesus went
about all the cities and
the villages,a teaching
in their synagogues,
and preaching
the gospel of the
kingdom, and healing
all manner of disease
and all manner of
sickness. 36 But when
he saw the multitudes,
he was moved with
compassion for them,
because they were
distressed and scattered,
as sheep not having a
shepherd [see Num.
27:17; Ezek. 34:5
].
37 Then saith he unto his
disciples, The harvest
truly is plenteous, but
the labourers are few.
38 Pray ye therefore the
Lord of the harvest,
that he send forth
labourers into his
harvest.
1    And he called unto
him his twelve
disciples, and gave them
authority over unclean
spirits, to cast
them out, and to heal
all manner of disease
and all manner of
sickness.
2    Now the names of
the twelve apostles
are these: The first,
Simon, who is called
Peter, and Andrew his
brother; James the son
of Zebedee, and John
his brother; 3 Philip,
and Bartholomew;
Thomas, and
Matthew the publican;
James the son
of Alphæus, and
Thaddæus; 4 Simon the
1Cananæan, and Judas
Iscariot, who also
2betrayed him. 5 These
twelve Jesus sent
forth, and charged
them, saying, Go not
into any way of the
Gentiles, and enter
not into any city of
the Samaritans: 6 but
go rather to the lost
sheep of the house of
Israel. 7 And as ye go,
preach, saying, The
kingdom of heaven is
at hand. 8 Heal the
sick, raise the dead,
cleanse the lepers,
cast out 3devils: freely
ye received, freely
give. 9 Get you no
gold, nor silver, nor
brass in your 4purses;
10 no wallet for your
journey, neither two
coats, nor shoes, nor
staff: for the labourer
is worthy of his food.
11 And into whatsoever
city or village ye
shall enter, search
out who in it is
worthy; and there
abide till ye go forth.
12 And as ye enter into
the house, salute it.
13 And if the house be
worthy, let your
peace come upon it:
but if it be not
worthy, let your
peace return to you.
14 And whosoever shall
not receive you, nor
hear your words, as
ye go forth out of
that house or that
city, shake off the
dust of your feet.
15 Verily I say unto
you, It shall be more
tolerable for the land
of Sodom and
Gomorrah in the day of
judgement, than for
that city.



























1    And he called the
twelve together, and
gave them power and
authority over all
3devils, and to cure
diseases. 2 And he
sent them forth to
preach the kingdom
of God, and to heal
19the sick. 3 And he
said unto them,
































Take nothing
for your journey,
neither staff, nor
wallet, nor bread, nor
money; neither have
two coats.

4                     And
into whatsoever
house ye enter, there
abide, and thence
depart. 5 And as many











as receive you not,
when ye depart from
that city,

            shake off
the dust from your
feet for a testimony
against them.
16    Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye
therefore wise as serpents, and 5harmless as doves. 17 But beware of men:
for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will
scourge you; 18 yea and before governors and kings shall ye be brought
for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. 19 But when they
deliver you up, be not anxious how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be
given you in that hour what ye shall speak. 20 For it is not ye that speak,
but the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you. 21 And brother shall
deliver up brother to death, and the father his child: and children shall rise
up against parents, and 6cause them to be put to death. 22 And ye shall be
hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end, the
same shall be saved. 23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee
into the next: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone through the
cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come.

24    A disciple is not above his 7master, nor a 8servant above his lord.
25 It is enough for the disciple that he be as his 7master, and the 8servant
as his lord. If they have called the master of the house 9Beelzebub, how
much more shall they call them of his household! 26 Fear them not
therefore: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid,
that shall not be known. 27 What I tell you in the darkness, speak ye in
the light: and what ye hear in the ear, proclaim upon the housetops. 28 And
be not afraid of them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul:
but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in 10hell.
29 Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and not one of them shall
fall on the ground without your Father: 30 but the very hairs of your head
are all numbered. 31 Fear not therefore; ye are of more value than many
sparrows. 32 Every one therefore who shall confess 11me before men,
12him will I also confess before my Father which is in heaven. 33 But
whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my
Father which is in heaven.

34    Think not that I came to 13send peace on the earth: I came not to
13send peace, but a sword. 35 For I came to set a man at variance against
his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law
against her mother in law: 36 and a man's foes shall be they of his own
household [see Micah 7:6]. 37 He that loveth father or mother more than
me is not worthy of me; and he that loveth son or daughter more than me
is not worthy of me. 38 And he that doth not take his cross and follow
after me, is not worthy of me. 39 He that 14findeth his 15life shall lose it;
and he that 16loseth his 15life for my sake shall find it [see John 12:25].

40    He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me
receiveth him that sent me [see John 13:20]. 41 He that receiveth a
prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet's reward; and he
that receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive
a righteous man's reward. 42 And whosoever shall give to drink unto one
of these little ones a cup of cold water only, in the name of a disciple,
verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward.
Mark 6:6-13 Matt. 9:35 to 11:1 Luke 9:1-6
12    And they went out,
and preached that
men should repent.
13 And they cast out
many 3devils, and
anointed with oil
many that were sick,
and healed them.
1    And it came to pass,
when Jesus had made
an end of commanding
his twelve disciples,
he departed
thence to teach and
preach in their cities.



6    And they departed,
and went throughout
the villages, preaching
the gospel, and
healing everywhere.
1 Or, Zealot. See Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13.
2 Or, delivered him up: and so always.
3 Gr. demons.
4 Gr. girdles.
5 Or, simple.
6 Or, put them to death.
7 Or, teacher.
8 Gr. bondservant.
9 Gr. Beelzebul: and so elsewhere.
10 Gr. Gehenna.
11 Gr. in me.
12 Gr. in him.
13 Gr. cast.
14 Or, found.
15 Or, soul.
16 Or, lost.
17 Gr. brass.
18 Gr. girdle.
19 Some ancient authorities omit the sick.

a This is certainly a second, and probably a third journey about Galilee. Dwell on Matt. 9:35 and 11:1 (end of this section), and try to realize the extent of the Saviour's work in teaching and healing. He "crowded into three short years actions and labours of love that might have adorned a century." (Ro. Hall.)





§ 71. THE GUILTY FEARS OF HEROD ANTIPAS IN TIBERIAS ABOUT JESUS BECAUSE HE HAD BEHEADED THE BAPTIST IN MACHÆRUS


Mark 6:14-29 Matt. 14:1-12 Luke 9:7-9
14    And king Herod
hearda thereof; for his
name had become
known: and 1he said,
John 2the Baptist is
risen from the dead,
and therefore do these
powers work in him.
15 But others said, It is
Elijah. And others
said, It is a prophet,
even as one of the
prophets. 16 But
Herod, when he heard
thereof, said, John,
whom I beheaded, he
is risen. 17 For Herod
himself had sent forth
and laid hold upon
John, and bound him
in prison for the sake
of Herodias, his
brother Philip's wife:
for he had married
her. 18 For John said
unto Herod,b It is
not lawful for thee to
have thy brother's wife
[see Lev. 18:16; 20:21].
19 And Herodias
set herself against
him, and desired to
kill him; and she
could not; 20 for Herod
feared John, knowing
that he was a righteous
man and a holy,
and kept him safe.
And when he heard
him, he 3was much
perplexed; and he
heard him gladly.
21    And when a
convenient day was
come, that Herod on
his birthday made a
supper to his lords,
and the 4high
captains, and the chief
men of Galilee; 22 and
when 5the daughter of
Herodias herself came
in and danced, 6she
pleased Herod and
them that sat at meat
with him; and the
king said unto the
damsel, Ask of me
whatsoever thou wilt,
and I will give it thee.
23 And he sware unto
her, Whatsoever thou
shalt ask of me, I will
give it thee, unto
the half of my kingdom.
24 And she went
out, and said unto
her mother, What
shall I ask? And she
said, The head of
John 2the Baptist.
25 And she came in
straightway with
haste unto the king,
and asked, saying, I
will that thou forthwith
give me in a
charger the head of
John 2the Baptist. 26 And
the king was exceeding
sorry; but for the
sake of his oaths, and
of them that sat at
meat, he would not
reject her. 27 And
straightway the king
sent forth a soldier
of his guard, and
commanded to bring his
head: and he went
and beheaded him in
the prison, 28 and
brought his head in a
charger, and gave it
to the damsel; and
the damsel gave it to
her mother. 29 And
when his disciples
heard thereof, they
came and took up his
corpse, and laid it in a
tomb.
1    At that season
Herod the tetrarch
heard the report
concerning Jesus,
2 and said unto his
servants, This is John
the Baptist; he is
risen from the dead;
and therefore do these
powers work in him.
3 For Herod had laid
hold on John, and
bound him, and put
him in prison for the
sake of Herodias, his
brother Philip's wife.








4 For John said unto
him, It is not lawful
for thee to have her.
5 And when he would
have put him to
death, he feared the
multitude, because
they counted him as
a prophet.
















6 But when Herod's
birthday came, the
daughter of Herodias
danced in the midst,
and pleased Herod.




7 Whereupon he
promised with an oath
to give her whatsoever
she should ask. 8 And
she, being put forward
by her mother,












saith, Give me here
in a charger the head
of John the Baptist.
9 And the king was
grieved; but for the
sake of his oaths, and
of them which sat at
meat with him, he
commanded it to be
given; 10 and he sent,
and beheaded John
in the prison. 11 And
his head was brought
in a charger, and
given to the damsel:
and she brought it to




her mother. 12 And
his disciples came,
and took up the
corpse, and buried
him; and they went
and told Jesus.
7    Now Herod the
tetrarch heard of all
that was done: and he
was much perplexed,
because that
it was said by some,
that John was risen
from the dead; 8 and
by some, that Elijah
had appeared; and
by others, that one
of the old prophets
was risen again. 9 And
Herod said, John I
beheaded: but who is
this, about whom I
hear such things?
And he sought to see
him.
1 Some ancient authorities read they.
2 Gr. the Baptizer.
3 Many ancient authorities read did many things.
4 Or, military tribunes. Gr. chiliarchs.
5 Some ancient authorities read his daughter Herodias.
6 Or, it.

a Mark's connection shows that Herod Antipas was impressed by the account of miracles which the disciples had wrought, as well as by those of Jesus himself.

b Josephus (Antiquities, Book XVIII, v., 2) says of John that Herod "thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it should be too late." Josephus in no wise controverts the picture in Mark where Herodias appears as the one who prods Antipas to put John out of the way to satisfy her resentment against him for his rebuke of her adulterous marriage. Josephus merely presents the public and political aspects of the imprisonment and death of John.





PART VIII
THE SPECIAL TRAINING OF THE TWELVE IN DISTRICTS AROUND GALILEE

Probably Passover in A.D. 29a to near Tabernacles in A.D. 29 or a year earlier (six months from spring to autumn). Just a year from the beginning of this Period till the Crucifixion. Emphasis now on the King of the Kingdom (the Person of the Messiah).

§§ 72-95. Four separate withdrawalsb from Galilee are given, in §§ 72, 78, 79, 81. Notice that in every case he keeps out of Herod's territory, and in every case he goes to the mountains.

a If the ministry of Jesus was three and a half years in length. If there were only three passovers in the ministry, then the year would be A.D. 28. This period begins just before a passover (John 6:4).

b There are five reasons for the withdrawals from Galilee. He withdraws from the jealousy of Herod Antipas (§ 71), from the fanaticism of would-be followers in Galilee (John 6:15), and the hostility of the Jewish rulers; and leaving the hot shores of the Lake of Galilee, he spent the summer in mountain districts around, resting, and instructing the Twelve.





§ 72. THE FIRST RETIREMENT. THE TWELVE RETURN, AND JESUS RETIRES WITH THEM BEYOND THE LAKE TO REST. FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND


Mark 6:30-44 Matt. 14:13-21 Luke 9:10-17 John 6:1-13
30    And the
apostles gather
themselves
together unto
Jesus; and they
told him all things,
whatsoever
they had done,
and whatsoever
they had
taught. 31 And
he saith unto
them, Come ye
yourselves
apart into a
desert place,
and rest a
while. For
there were
many coming
and going, and
they had no
leisure so
much as to eat.
32 And they went
away in the
boat to a desert
place apart.
33 And the people
saw them going,
and many
knew them,
and they ran
there together
1on foot from
all the cities,
and outwent
them. 34 And he
came forth and
saw a great
multitude, and
he had
compassion on
them, because
they were as
sheep not having
a shepherd:
and he began
to teach them
many things.
35 And when the
day was now
far spent, his
disciples came
unto him, and
said, The place
is desert, and
the day is now
far spent: 36 send
them away,
that they may
go into the
country and
villages round
about, and
buy themselves
somewhat to
eat. 37 But he
answered and
said unto them,
Give ye them
to eat. And
they say unto
him, Shall we
go and buy
two hundred
3pennyworth
of bread, and
give them to
eat? 38 And he
saith unto them,
How many
loaves have
ye? go and see.
And when
they knew,
they say, Five,
and two fishes.

39             And
he commanded
them that all
should 2sit
down by
companies upon
the green
grass. 40 And
they sat down
in ranks, by
hundreds, and
by fifties. 41 And
he took the
five loaves and
the two fishes,
and looking up
to heaven, he
blessed, and
brake the
loaves; and he
gave to the
disciples to set
before them;
and the two
fishes divided
he among
them all. 42 And
they did all
eat, and were
filled. 43 And
they took up
broken pieces,
twelve basketfuls,
and also
of the fishes.
44 And they that
ate the loaves
were five thousand
men.





















13    Now when
Jesus heard it,
he withdrew
from thence in
a boat, to a
desert place
apart: and
when the
multitudes heard
thereof, they
followed him
1on foot from
the cities. 14 And
he came forth,
and saw a great
multitude,
and he had
compassion
on them, and
healed their sick.








15 And when
even was come,
the disciples
came to
him, saying,

The place is
desert, and the
time is already
past; send the
multitudes
away, that they
may go into
the villages,
and buy
themselves food.


16 But Jesus said
unto them,
They have no
need to go
away; give ye
them to eat.








17 And they say
unto him, We
have here but
five loaves, and
two fishes. 18 And
he said, Bring
them hither

to me. 19 And
he commanded
the multitudes
to 2sit down on
the grass;






                and
he took the
five loaves, and
the two fishes,
and looking up
to heaven, he
blessed, and
brake and
gave the
loaves to the
disciples, and
the disciples to
the multitudes.
20 And
they did all
eat, and were
filled: and they
took up that
which remained
over of the
broken pieces,
twelve baskets


full. 21 And they
that did eat
were about
five thousand
men, beside
women and
children.
10    And the
apostles, when
they were
returned,
declared unto
him what things
they had done.















    And he took
them, and
withdrew
apart to a city
called Bethsaida.a

11 But the
multitudes
perceiving it
followed him:
and he welcomed
them, and
spake to them
of the kingdom
of God,
and them that
had need of
healing he
healed.







12            And
the day began
to wear away;
and the twelve
came, and said
unto him, Send
the multitude
away, that
they may go
into the
villages and
country round
about, and
lodge, and
get victuals:
for we are here
in a desert


place. 13 But he
said unto
them, Give ye
them to eat.










And they said,
We have no
more than five
loaves and two
fishes; except
we should go
and buy food for
all this people.
14 For they were
about five
thousand men.
And he said unto
his disciples,
Make them 2sit
down in
companies, about
fifty each. 15 And
they did so, and
made them all
2sit down. 16 And
he took the
five loaves and
the two fishes,
and looking up
to heaven, he
blessed them,
and brake; and
gave to the
disciples to set
before the
multitude.
17 And they did
eat, and were
all filled: and
there was taken
up that
which remained
over to
them of broken
pieces,
twelve baskets.



















1    After these
things Jesus
went away to
the other side
of the sea of
Galilee, which
is the sea of
Tiberias.
2          And a
great multitude
followed
him, because
they beheld
the signs
which he did
on them that
were sick. 3 And
Jesus went up
into the
mountain, and
there he sat with
his disciples.









4 Now the pass-
over, the feast
of the Jews
was at hand.
5 Jesus therefore
lifting up his
eyes, and seeing
that a
great multitude
cometh
unto him, saith
unto Philip,
Whence are
we to buy
4bread, that
these may eat?

6 And this he
said to prove
him: for he
himself knew
what he would
do. 7 Philip
answered him,
Two hundred
3pennyworth
of 4bread is not
sufficient for
them, that every
one may take a
little. 8 One
of his disciples,
Andrew,
Simon Peter's
brother, saith
unto him,
9 There is a lad
here, which
hath five barley
loaves, and
two fishes: but
what are these
among so
many? 10 Jesus
said, Make the
people sit
down. Now
there was
much grass in
the place. So
the men sat
down, in number
about five
thousand.
11 Jesus therefore
took the
loaves; and
having given
thanks,
distributed to
them that
were set down;
likewise also of
the fishes as
much as they
would. 12 And
when they
were filled, he
saith unto his
disciples,
Gather up the
broken pieces
which remain
over, that
nothing be
lost. 13 So they
gathered them
up, and filled
twelve baskets
with broken
pieces from
the five barley
loaves, which
remained over
unto them
that had eaten.b
1 Or, by land.
2 Gr. recline.
3 The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about seventeen cents.
4 Gr. loaves.

a The Bethsaida of Luke 9:10 was evidently the eastern Bethsaida, which the Tetrarch Philip had named Bethsaida Julias, while that of Mark 6:45 was the western Bethsaida, near Capernaum. The territory belonging to Bethsaida Julias would naturally extend some distance down the lake.

b Note that here for the first time John runs parallel with all the synoptic gospels. All four report this incident. See Passion Week.





§ 73. THE PREVENTION OF THE REVOLUTIONARY PURPOSE TO PROCLAIM JESUS KING (A POLITICAL MESSIAH)


Mark 6:45-46 Matt. 14:22-23 John 6:14-15
45    And straightway
he constrained his
disciples to enter into
the boat, and to go
before him unto the
other side to
Bethsaida, while he
himself sendeth the
multitude away.
46 And after he had
taken leave of them,
he departed into
the mountain to pray.
22    And straightway
he constrained the
disciples to enter
into the boat, and to
go before him unto
the other side, till
he should send the
multitudes away.
23 And after he had
sent the multitudes
away, he went up
into the mountain
apart to pray:
                       and
when even was come,
he was there alone.
14    When therefore
the people saw the 1sign
which he did, they said,
This is of a truth the
prophet that cometh
into the world [see
Deut. 18:15
].

15    Jesus therefore
perceiving that they
were about to come
and take him by
force, to make him
king, withdrew again
into the mountain
himself alone.
1 Some ancient authorities read signs.





§ 74. THE PERIL TO THE TWELVE IN THE STORM AT SEA AND CHRIST'S COMING TO THEM ON THE WATER IN THE DARKNESS


Mark 6:47-52 Matt. 14:24-33 John 6:16-21
47 And when even was
come, the boat was
in the midst of the
sea, and he alone on
the land. 48 And seeing
them distressed
in rowing, for the
wind was contrary
unto them, about the
fourth watch of the
night he cometh unto
them, walking on
the sea; and he would
have passed by them:
49 but they, when they
saw him walking on
the sea, supposed that
it was an apparition, and
cried out: 50 for they
all saw him, and were
troubled. But he
straightway spake
with them, and saith
unto them, Be of good
cheer: it is I; be not
afraid.






















51 And he went up unto
them into the boat;
and the wind ceased:
and they were sore
amazed in themselves;
52 for they understood
not concerning the
loaves, but their heart
was hardened.
24 But the boat 1was
now in the midst of
the sea, distressed by
the waves; for the
wind was contrary.



25 And in the fourth
watch of the night
he came unto them,
walking upon the sea.


26 And when the
disciples saw him
walking on the sea,
they were troubled,
saying, It is an appa-
rition; and they cried
out for fear. 27 But
straightway Jesus
spake unto them,
saying, Be of good
cheer; it is I; be not
afraid. 28 And Peter
answered him and
said, Lord, if it be
thou, bid me come
unto thee upon the
waters. 29 And he said,
Come. And Peter
went down from the
boat, and walked
upon the waters, 2to
come to Jesus. 30 But
when he saw the
3wind, he was afraid;
and beginning to sink,
he cried out, saying,
Lord, save me. 31 And
immediately Jesus
stretched forth his
hand, and took hold
of him, and saith unto
him, O thou of little
faith, wherefore
didst thou doubt?
32 And when they were
gone up into the
boat, the wind ceased.
33 And they that were
in the boat worshipped
him, saying, Of
a truth thou art the
Son of God.
16    And when evening
came, his disciples
went down unto the
sea; 17 and they entered
into a boat, and were
going over the sea
unto Capernaum.
And it was now dark,
and Jesus had not
yet come to them.
18 And the sea was
rising by reason of a
great wind that blew.
19 When therefore they
had rowed about five
and twenty or thirty
furlongs, they behold
Jesus walking on the
sea, and drawing nigh
unto the boat: and
they were afraid.

20 But he saith unto
them, It is I; be not
afraid.























21          They were
willing therefore to
receive him into the
boat:
        and straightway
the boat was at the
land whither they
were going.
1 Some ancient authorities read was many furlongs distant from the land.
2 Some ancient authorities read and came.
3 Many ancient authorities add strong.




§ 75. THE RECEPTION AT GENNESARET


Mark 6:53-56 Matt. 14:34-36
53    And when they had 1crossed
over, they came to the land unto
Gennesaret, and moored to the
shore. 54 And when they were come
out of the boat, straightway the
people
knew him, 55 and ran about
that whole region, and began to
carry about on their beds those
that were sick, where they heard
he was. 56 And wheresoevera he
entered, into villages, or into
cities, or into the country, they
laid the sick in the marketplaces,
and besought him that they might
touch if it were but the border of
his garment: and as many as
touched 2him were made whole.
34    And when they had crossed
over, they came to the land, unto
Gennesaret.





35                             And
when the men of that place knew
him, they sent unto all that region
round about, and brought unto
him all that were sick; 36 and they
besought him that they might
only touch the border of his
garment: and as many as touched
were made whole.
1 Or, crossed over to the land, they came unto Gennesaret.
2 Or, it.

a This general characterization applies to the Galilean work as a whole in Part VII rather than to the precise time at this juncture. But one must allow his imagination to enlarge upon the scope of Christ's work.





§ 76. THE COLLAPSE OF THE GALILEAN CAMPAIGN BECAUSE JESUS WILL NOT CONFORM TO POPULAR MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS

The next day in the Synagogue in Capernaum. The same crowd that had eaten the Loaves and the Fishes leave Christ in disgust on learning that He is the Bread of Life and not a Political Messiah.



John 6:22-71

22    On the morrow the multitude which stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was none other 1boat there, save one, and that Jesus entered not with his disciples into the boat, but that his disciples went away alone 23 (howbeit there came 2boats from Tiberias nigh unto the place where they ate the bread after the Lord had given thanks): 24 when the multitude therefore saw that Jesus was not there, neither his disciples, they themselves got into the 2boats, and came to Capernaum, seeking Jesus. 25 And when they found him on the other side of the sea, they said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou hither? 26 Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw signs, but because ye ate of the loaves, and were filled. 27 Work not for the meat which perisheth, but for the meat which abideth unto eternal life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him the Father, even God, hath sealed. 28 They said therefore unto him, What must we do, that we may work the works of God? 29 Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom 3he hath sent. 30 They said therefore unto him, What then doest thou for a sign, that we may see, and believe thee? what workest thou? 31 Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, He gave them bread out of heaven to eat [see Ex. 16:4, 15; Ps. 78:24; Neh. 9:15]. 32 Jesus therefore said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, It was not Moses that gave you the bread out of heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread out of heaven. 33 For the bread of God is that which cometh down out of heaven, and giveth life unto the world. 34 They said therefore unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. 35 Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall not hunger, and he that believeth on me shall never thirst. 36 But I said unto you, that ye have seen me, and yet believe not. 37 All that which the Father giveth me shall come unto me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out. 38 For I am come down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me. 39 And this is the will of him that sent me, that of all that which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. 40 For this is the will of my Father, that every one that beholdeth the Son, and believeth on him, should have eternal life; and 4I will raise him up at the last day.

41    The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, I am the bread which came down out of heaven. 42 And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? how doth he now say, I am come down out of heaven? 43 Jesus answered and said unto them, Murmur not among yourselves. 44 No man can come to me, except the Father which sent me draw him: and I will raise him up in the last day. 45 It is written in the prophets [see Isa. 54:13], And they shall all be taught of God. Every one that hath heard from the Father, and hath learned, cometh unto me. 46 Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is from God, he hath seen the Father. 47 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth hath eternal life. 48 I am the bread of life. 49 Your fathers did eat the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 50 This is the bread which cometh down out of heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die. 51 I am the living bread which came down out of heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: yea and the bread which I will give is my flesh, for the life of the world.

52    The Jews therefore strove one with another, saying, How can this man give us his flesh to eat? 53 Jesus therefore said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, ye have not life in yourselves. 54 He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. 55 For my flesh is 5meat indeed, and my blood is 6drink indeed. 56 He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood abideth in me, and I in him. 57 As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he that eateth me, he also shall live because of me. 58 This is the bread which came down out of heaven: not as the fathers did eat, and died: he that eateth this bread shall live for ever. 59 These things said he in 7the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.

60    Many therefore of his disciples, when they heard this, said, This is a hard saying; who can hear 8it? 61 But Jesus knowing in himself that his disciples murmured at this, said unto them, Doth this cause you to stumble? 62 What then if ye should behold the Son of man ascending where he was before? 63 It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I have spoken unto you are spirit, and are life. 64 But there are some of you that believe not. For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were that believed not, and who it was that should betray him. 65 And he said, For this cause have I said unto you, that no man can come unto me, except it be given unto him of the Father.

66    Upon this many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him. 67 Jesus said therefore unto the twelve, Would ye also go away? 68 Simon Peter answered him, Lord, to whom shall we go? thou 9hast the words of eternal life. 69 And we have believed and know that thou art the Holy One of God. 70 Jesus answered them, Did not I choose you the twelve, and one of you is a devil? 71 Now he spake of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot, for he it was that should betray him, being one of the twelve.

1 Gr. little boat.
2 Gr. little boats.
3 Or, he sent.
4 Or, that I should raise him up.
5 Gr. true meat.
6 Gr. true drink.
7 Or, a synagogue.
8 Or, him.
9 Or, hast words.




§ 77. PHARISEES FROM JERUSALEM REPROACH JESUS FOR ALLOWING HIS DISCIPLES TO DISREGARD THEIR TRADITIONS ABOUT CEREMONIAL DEFILEMENT OF THE HANDS. A PUZZLING PARABLE IN REPLY

Probably in Capernaum


Mark 7:1-23 Matt. 15:1-20 John 7:1
1    And there are gathered together
unto him the Pharisees, and certain
of the scribes, which had come
from Jerusalem, 2 and had seen that
some of his disciples ate their
bread with 6defiled, that is, unwashen,
hands. 3 For the Pharisees,
and all the Jews, except
they wash their hands 7diligently,
eat not, holding the tradition of
the elders: 4 and when they come
from the marketplace, except they
8wash themselves, they eat not:
and many other things there be,
which they have received to hold,
9washings of cups, and pots, and
brasen vessels.10 5 And the Pharisees
and the scribes ask him, Why
walk not thy disciples according
to the tradition of the elders, but
eat their bread with 6defiled
hands? 6 And he said unto them,
Well did Isaiah prophesy of you
hypocrites, as it is written,
    This people honoureth me with
        their lips,
    But their heart is far from me.
7  But in vain do they worship me,
    Teaching as their doctrines the
        precepts of men.
8 Ye leave the commandment of
God, and hold fast the tradition
of men. 9 And he said unto them,
Full well do ye reject the
commandment of God, that ye may
keep your tradition. 10 For Moses
[see Ex. 20:12; Deut. 5:16] said,
Honour thy father and thy mother;
and, He that speaketh evil of
father or mother, let him 1die the
death: 11 but ye say, If a man shall
say to his father or his mother,
That wherewith thou mightest
have been profited by me is Corban,
that is to say, Given to God
[see Ex. 21:17; Lev. 20:9]; 12 ye
no longer suffer him to do aught for
his father or his mother; 13 making
void the word of God by your
tradition, which ye have
delivered: and many such like things
ye do. 14 And he called to him the
multitude again, and said unto
them, Hear me all of you, and
understand: 15 there is nothing from
without the man, that going into
him can defile him: but the things
which proceed out of the man
are those that defile the man.11
17 And when he was entered into
the house from the multitude, his
disciples asked of him the parable.










18                                      And
he saith unto them, Are ye so
without understanding also?
Perceive ye not, that whatsoever
from without goeth into the man,
it cannot defile him; 19 because it
goeth not into his heart, but into
his belly, and goeth out into the
draught? This he said, making
all meats clean. 20 And he said,
That which proceedeth out of
the man, that defileth the man.
21 For from within, out of the heart
of men, 12evil thoughts proceed,
fornications, thefts, murders, adul-
teries, 22 covetings, wickednesses,
deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye,
railing, pride, foolishness: 23 all
these evil things proceed from
within, and defile the man.
1    Then there
come to Jesus
from Jerusalem
Pharisees
and scribes,
1    And after
these things
Jesus walked
in Galilee: for
he would not
walk in Judea,
because the
Jews sought
to kill him.







saying, 2 Why do thy disciples
transgress the tradition of the
elders? for they wash not their
hands when they eat bread. 3 And
he answered and said unto them,
7 Ye hypocrites, well did Isaiah
prophesy of you, saying [see Isa.
29:13
],
8  This people honoureth me with
        their lips;
    But their heart is far from me.
9  But in vain do they worship me,
    Teaching as their doctrines the
        precepts of men.
3 Why do ye also transgress the
commandment of God because
of your tradition?


4                            For God
said, Honour thy father and thy
mother: and, He that speaketh
evil of father or mother, let him
1die the death. 5 But ye say,
Whosoever shall say to his father or
his mother, That wherewith thou
mightest have been profited by
me is given to God; he shall not
honour his father2. 6 And ye have


made void the 3word of God
because of your tradition.

10                                And he
called to him the multitude, and
said unto them, Hear, and under-
stand: 11 Not that which entereth

into the mouth defileth the man;
but that which proceedeth out of
the mouth, this defileth the man.


12 Then came the disciples, and said
unto him, Knowest thou that the
Pharisees were 4offended, when
they heard this saying? 13 But he
answered and said, Every 5plant
which my heavenly Father planted
not, shall be rooted up. 14 Let
them alone: they are blind guides.
And if the blind guide the blind,
both shall fall into a pit. 15 And
Peter answered and said unto
him, Declare unto us the parable.
16 And he said, Are ye also even yet
without understanding? 17 Perceive
ye not, that whatsoever goeth
into the mouth passeth into the
belly, and is cast out into
the draught? 18 But the things
which proceed out of the mouth
come forth out of the heart; and
they defile the man. 19 For out of
the heart come forth evil thoughts,
murders, adulteries, fornications,
thefts, false witness, railings:





20                 these are the things
which defile the man:
                                 but to eat
with unwashen hands defileth
not the man.
1 Or, surely die.
2 Some ancient authorities add or his mother.
3 Some ancient authorities read law.
4 Gr. caused to stumble.
5 Gr. planting.
6 Or, common.
7 Or, up to the elbow. Gr. with the fist.
8 Gr. baptize. Some ancient authorities read sprinkle themselves.
9 Gr. baptizings.
10 Many ancient authorities add and couches.
11 Many ancient authorities insert ver. 16 If any man hath ears to hear, let him hear.
12 Gr. thoughts that are evil.




§ 78. THE SECOND WITHDRAWAL TO THE REGION OF TYRE AND SIDON AND THE HEALING OF THE DAUGHTER OF A SYRO-PHOENICIAN WOMAN


Mark 7:24-30 Matt. 15:21-28
24    And from thence he arose,
and went away into the borders of
Tyre 3and Sidon. And he entered
into a house, and would have
no man know it: and he could
not be hid. 25 But straightway a
woman, whose little daughter
had an unclean spirit, having
heard of him, came and fell down
at his feet. 26 Now the woman was
a 4Greek, a Syrophoenician by
race. And she besought him that
he would cast forth the 1devil out
of her daughter.




27                             And
he said unto her, Let the children
first be filled: for it is not meet
to take the children's 2bread and
cast it to the dogs. 28 But she
answered and saith unto him, Yea,
Lord: even the dogs under the
table eat of the children's crumbs.
29 And he said unto her, For this
saying go thy way; the 1devil is
gone out of thy daughter. 30 And
she went away unto her house,
and found the child laid upon the
bed, and the 1devil gone out.
21    And Jesus went out thence,
and withdrew into the parts of
Tyre and Sidon.a
22                     And behold, a
Canaanitish woman came out
from those borders, and cried,
saying, Have mercy on me, O
Lord, thou son of David; my
daughter is grievously vexed with
a 1devil. 23 But he answered her
not a word. And his disciples
came and besought him, saying,
Send her away; for she crieth
after us. 24 But he answered
and said, I was not sent but unto
the lost sheep of the house of
Israel. 25 But she came and
worshipped him, saying, Lord,
help me. 26 And he answered and
said, It is not meet to take the
children's 2bread and cast it to the

dogs. 27 But she said, Yea, Lord:
for even the dogs eat of the
crumbs which fall from their
masters' table. 28 Then Jesus
answered and said unto her, O
woman, great is thy faith: be it
done unto thee even as thou wilt.

                And her daughter
was healed from that hour.
1 Gr. demon.
2 Or, loaf.
3 Some ancient authorities omit and Sidon.
4 Or, Gentile.

a It used to be questioned whether he actually left the land of Israel. Matthew's expression ought to have settled the question, and the corrected text of Mark 7:31 leaves no doubt.





§ 79. THE THIRD WITHDRAWAL NORTH THROUGH PHOENICIA AND EAST TOWARDS HERMON AND SOUTH INTO DECAPOLIS (KEEPING OUT OF THE TERRITORY OF HEROD ANTIPAS) WITH THE HEALING OF THE DEAF AND DUMB MAN AND THE FEEDING OF THE FOUR THOUSAND


Mark 7:31-8:9 Matt. 15:29-38
31    And again he went out from
the borders of Tyre, and came
through Sidon unto the sea of
Galilee, through the midst of the
borders of Decapolis.a 32 And they
bring unto him one that was deaf,
and had an impediment in his
speech; and they beseech him to
lay his hand upon him. 33 And he
took him aside from the multitude
privately, and put his fingers into
his ears, and he spat, and touched
his tongue; 34 and looking up to
heaven, he sighed, and saith unto
him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened.
35 And his ears were opened,
and the bond of his tongue was
loosed, and he spake plain. 36 And
he charged them that they should
tell no man: but the more he
charged them, so much the more a
great deal they published it. 37 And
they were beyond measure
astonished, saying, He hath done
all things well: he maketh even
the deaf to hear, and the dumb
to speak.
1    In those days, when there was
againb a great multitude, and
they had nothing to eat, he called
unto him his disciples, and saith
unto them, 2 I have compassion
on the multitude, because they
continue with me now three days,
and have nothing to eat: 3 and
if I send them away fasting to
their home, they will faint in
the way; and some of them are
come from far. 4 And his disciples
answered him, Whence shall
one be able to fill these men
with 1bread here in a desert place?
5 And he asked them, How many
loaves have ye? And they said,
Seven. 6 And he commandeth the
multitude to sit down on the
ground: and he took the seven
loaves, and having given thanks,
he brake, and gave to his disciples,
to set before them; and they set
them before the multitude. 7 And
they had a few small fishes: and
having blessed them, he
commanded to set these also before
them. 8 And they did eat, and
were filled: and they took up, of
broken pieces that remained over,
seven baskets. 9 And they were
about four thousand: and he sent
them away.
29    And Jesus departed thence,
and came nigh unto the sea of
Galilee; and he went up into the
mountain, and sat there.














30 And there came unto him
great multitudes, having with them
the lame, blind, dumb, maimed,
and many others, and they cast
them down at his feet; and he
healed them: 31 insomuch that the
multitude wondered, when they
saw the dumb speaking, the
maimed whole, and the lame
walking, and the blind seeing: and
they glorified the God of Israel.
32    And Jesus called unto him his
disciples, and said, I have
compassion on the multitude,
because they continue with me now
three days and have nothing to eat:
and I would not send them away
fasting, lest haply they faint in
the way.
33            And the disciples say
unto him, Whence should we
have so many loaves in a desert
place, as to fill so great a multitude?
34 And Jesus saith unto them,
How many loaves have ye? And
they said, Seven, and a few small
fishes. 35 And he commanded the
multitude to sit down on the
ground; 36 and he took the seven
loaves and the fishes; and he
gave thanks and brake, and gave
to the disciples, and the disciples
to the multitudes.


37                                 And
they did all eat, and were filled:
and they took up that which
remained over of the broken pieces,
seven baskets full. 38 And they
that did eat were four thousand
men, beside women and children.
1 Gr. loaves.

a Observe how carefully he keeps away from the territory ruled by Herod Antipas. The tetrarch Philip, who governed the districts east of the Lake of Galilee and of the upper Jordan, was a better man than Antipas, and moreover had no cause to feel uneasy about Jesus.

b It is to be noted that Mark and Matthew give the feeding of the five thousand and of the four thousand. Mark and Matthew likewise report Jesus as referring to both incidents (Mark 8:19-20 = Matt. 16:9-10). Hence, it is hard to think of a mere confusion in the use of the data. There is no real reason why both incidents could not be true.





§ 80. THE BRIEF VISIT TO MAGADAN (DALMANUTHA) IN GALILEE AND THE SHARP ATTACK BY THE PHARISEES AND THE SADDUCEES (NOTE THEIR APPEARANCE NOW AGAINST JESUS)


Mark 8:10-12 Matt. 15:39-16:4
10 And straightway he entered into
the boat with his disciples, and
came into the parts of
Dalmanutha.
11    And the Pharisees came forth,
began to question with him,
seeking of him a sign from heaven,
tempting him.






12                             And he
sighed deeply in his spirit, and
saith, Why doth this generation
seek a sign? verily I say unto
you, There shall no sign be given
unto this generation.
39 And he sent away the multitudes,
and entered into the boat, and
came into the borders of
Magadan.a
1    And the Pharisees and
Sadducees came, and tempting
himb asked him to shew them a sign
from heaven. 2 But he answered
and said unto them, 1When it is
evening, ye say, It will be fair
weather: for the heaven is red.
3 And in the morning, It will be foul
weather to-day: for the heaven is
red and lowring. Ye know how
to discern the face of the heaven;
but ye cannot discern the signs of
the times. 4 An evil and adulterous
generation seeketh after a
sign; and there shall no sign be
given unto it, but the sign of
Jonah [see Jonah 3:4]. And he
left them, and departed.
1 The following words, to the end of ver. 3, are omitted by some of the most ancient and other important authorities.

a The situation of Magadan was unknown to some early students or copyists, as it is to us, and so they changed it to the familiar Magdala, found in our common texts.

b The moment he returns to Galilee the Jewish leaders begin to attack him.





§ 81. THE FOURTH RETIREMENT TO BETHSAIDA JULIAS IN THE TETRARCHY OF HEROD PHILIP WITH SHARP REBUKE OF THE DULNESS OF THE DISCIPLES ON THE WAY ACROSS AND THE HEALING OF A BLIND MAN IN BETHSAIDA


Mark 8:13-26 Matt. 16:5-12
13                             And
he left them, and again entering
into the boat departed to the other
side.
14    And they forgot to take bread;
and they had not in the boat
with them more than one loaf.
15 And he charged them, saying,
Take heed, beware of the leaven
of the Pharisees and the leaven
of Herod. 16 And they reasoned
one with another, 4saying. 5We
have no bread. 17 And Jesus
perceiving it saith unto them, Why
reason ye, because ye have no
bread? do ye not yet perceive,
neither understand? have ye your
heart hardened? 18 Having eyes, see
ye not? and having ears, hear
ye not? and do ye not remember
[see Jer. 5:21; Ezek. 12:2]? 19 When
I brake the five loaves among the
five thousand, how many 6baskets
full of broken pieces took ye up?
They say unto him, Twelve. 20 And
when the seven among the four
thousand, how many 6basketfuls
of broken pieces took ye up?
And they say unto him, Seven.
21 And he said unto them, Do ye
not yet understand?
22    And they come unto Bethsaida.a
And they bring to him a blind
man, and beseech him to touch
him. 23 And he took hold of the
blind man by the hand, and
brought him out of the village;
and when he had spit on his eyes,
and laid his hands upon him, he
asked him, Seest thou aught?
24 And he looked up, and said, I see
men; for I behold them as trees,
walking. 25 Then again he laid his
hands upon his eyes; and he
looked stedfastly, and was
restored, and saw all things clearly.
26 And he sent him away to his
home, saying, Do not even enter
into the village.




5    And the disciples came to the
other side and forgot to take
1bread. 6 And Jesus said unto
them, Take heed and beware of
the leaven of the Pharisees and
Sadducees. 7 And they reasoned
among themselves, saying, 2We
took no 1bread. 8 And Jesus
perceiving it said, O ye of little faith,
why reason ye among yourselves,
because ye have no 1bread? 9 Do
ye not yet perceive, neither
remember the five loaves of the five
thousand, and how many 3baskets
ye took up? 10 Neither the seven
loaves of the four thousand, and
how many 3baskets ye took up?
11 How is it that ye do not perceive
that I spake not to you concerning
1bread? But beware of the leaven
of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
12 Then understood they how that
he bade them not beware of the
leaven of 1bread, but of the
teaching of the Pharisees and
Sadducees.
1 Gr. loaves.
2 Or, It is because we took no bread.
3 Basket in ver. 9 and 10 represents different Greek words.
4 Some ancient authorities read because they had no bread.
5 Or, It is because we have no bread.
6 Basket in ver. 19 and 20 represents different Greek words.

a Jesus goes on to the region of Cæsarea Philippi on Mount Hermon, where no hostility had been aroused, and he could quietly instruct the Twelve. He probably remained in that vicinity several months, as this whole period of retirement lasted six months. He was near Bethsaida Julias in the First Retirement and now he stops here again on his way to Cæsarea Philippi. Each of the four retirements is into heathen territory (Ituræa twice, Phoenicia, Decapolis), where Greek influence prevails, and where the Greek language is dominant.





§ 82. NEAR CÆSAREA PHILIPPI JESUS TESTS THE FAITH OF THE TWELVE IN HIS MESSIAHSHIP


Mark 8:27-30 Matt. 16:13-20 Luke 9:18-21
27    And Jesus went
forth, and his disciples,
into the villages
of Cæsarea Philippi:
and in the way he
asked his disciples,
saying unto them,
Who do men say that
I am? 28 And they
told him, saying, John
the Baptist: and
others, Elijah: but
others, One of the
prophets. 29 And he
asked them, But who
say ye that I am?
Peter answereth and
saith unto him, Thou
art the Christ.

























30            And he
charged them that
they should tell no
man of him.
13    Now when Jesus
came into the parts
of Cæsarea Philippi,
he asked his disciples,
saying, Who do
men say 1that the
Son of man is? 14 And
they said, Some say
John the Baptist;
some, Elijah: and
others, Jeremiah, or
one of the prophets.
15 He saith unto them,
But who say ye that
I am? 16 And Simon
Peter answered and
said, Thou art the
Christ,a the Son of
the living God. 17 And
Jesus answered and
said unto him, Blessed
art thou, Simon
Bar-Jonah: for flesh
and blood hath not
revealed it unto thee,
but my Father which
is in heaven. 18 And I
also say unto thee,
that thou art 2Peter,
and upon this 3rock
I will buildb my
church [see Ps. 89:4,
26, 38, 48
]; and the
gates of Hades shall
not prevail against it.
19 I will give unto thee
the keys of the kingdom
of heaven: and
whatsoever thou shalt
bind on earth shall be
bound in heaven: and
whatsoever thou shalt
loose on earth shall
be loosed in heaven.
20 Then charged he the
disciples that they
should tell no man
that he was the Christ.
18    And it came to
pass, as he was praying
alone, the disciples
were with him: and
he asked them, saying,
Who do the multitudes
say that I am?
19 And they answering
said, John the Baptist;
but others say,
Elijah; and others,
that one of the old
prophets is risen
again. 20 And he said
unto them, But who
say ye that I am?
And Peter answering
said, The Christ of
God.

























21        But he charged
them, and commanded
them to tell this to
no man;
1 Many ancient authorities read that I the Son of man am. See Mark 8:27; Luke 9:18.
2 Gr. Petros.
3 Gr. petra.

a Some understand ver. 16f. as showing that they had never before believed him to be the Messiah, and so hold that the other Gospels here utterly conflict with John, who represents the first disciples (§§ 28, 35) as believing Jesus to be the Messiah. But it is easy to suppose that their early faith in his Messiahship was shaken by his continued failure to gather armies and set up the expected temporal kingdom, and while still believing him to have a divine mission they had questioned whether he was the Messiah, as John the Baptist did in prison (§ 57). Observe that in Matthew and Luke he long before this time distinctively implied that he was the Messiah, in response to the Forerunner's inquiries (§ 57). Besides, at the Baptism and the Temptation, the Synoptic Gospels represent Jesus as the Son of God.

b It is interesting to note that the imagery employed by Jesus here all appears in Ps. 89, a Messianic Psalm built on 2 Sam. 7. Thus note "build" in Ps. 89:4, "rock" in 89:26, "anointed" in 89:38, "the power of Sheol" in 89:48, and the Psalm discusses the perpetuity of the Davidic throne (Kingdom). Jesus applies this imagery to the spiritual Kingdom that He is building.





§ 83. JESUS DISTINCTLY FORETELLS THAT HE, THE MESSIAH, WILL BE REJECTED AND KILLED, AND WILL RISE THE THIRD DAY


Mark 8:31-37 Matt. 16:21-26 Luke 9:22-25

31    And he began to
teach them, that the
Son of man must
suffer many things,
and be rejected by the
elders, and the chief
priests, and the
scribes, and be killed,
and after three days
rise again. 32 And he
spake the saying
openly. And Peter
took him, and began
to rebuke him. 33 But
he turning about, and
seeing his disciples,
rebuked Peter, and
saith, Get thee behind
me, Satan: for thou
mindest not the
things of God, but
the things of men.
34 And he called unto
him the multitude
with his disciples, and
said unto them, If
any man would come
after me, let him
deny himself, and
take up his cross,
and follow me. 35 For
whosoever would save
his 3life shall lose it;
and whosoever shall
lose his 3life for my
sake and the gospel's
shall save it. 36 For
what doth it profit a
man, to gain the
whole world, and
forfeit his 3life? 37 For
what should a man
give in exchange for
his 3life?
21    From that time
began 1Jesus to shew
unto his disciples,
how that he must go
unto Jerusalem, and
suffer many things of
the elders and chief
priests and scribes,
and be killed, and
the third day be
raised up.
22                     And
Peter took him, and
began to rebuke him,
saying, 2Be it far
from thee, Lord: this
shall never be unto
thee. 23 But he turned,
and said unto Peter,
Get thee behind me,
Satan: thou art a
stumbling-block unto
me: for thou mindest
not the things of
God, but the things
of men. 24 Then said
Jesus unto his
disciples, If any man
would come after me,
let him deny himself,
and take up his cross,
and follow me. 25 For
whosoever would save
his 3life shall lose it:
and whosoever shall
lose his 3life for my
sake shall find it.
26 For what shall a man
be profited, if he shall
gain the whole world,
and forfeit his 3life?
or what shall a man
give in exchange for
his 3life?



22 saying, The Son
of man must suffer
many things, and be
rejected of the elders
and chief priests and
scribes, and be killed,
and the third day be
raised up.















23                 And he
said unto all, If any
man would come
after me, let him deny
himself, and take up
his cross daily, and
follow me. 24 For
whosoever would save
his 3life shall lose it;
but whosoever shall
lose his 3life for my
sake, the same shall
save it. 25 For what is
a man profited, if he
gain the whole
world, and lose or
forfeit his own self?
1 Some ancient authorities read Jesus Christ.
2 Or, God have mercy on thee.
3 Or, soul.




§ 84. THE COMING OF THE SON OF MAN IN THAT GENERATION


Mark 8:38-9:1 Matt. 16:27-28 Luke 9:26-27
38    For whosoever
shall be ashamed of
me and of my words
in this adulterous and
sinful generation, the
Son of man also shall
be ashamed of him,
when he cometh in
the glory of his Father
with the holy angels.
1 And he said unto
them, Verily I say
unto you, There be
some here of them
that stand by, which
shall in no wise taste
of death, till they
see the kingdom of
God come with power.




27             For the
Son of man shall
come in the glory of
his Father with his
angels; and then shall
he render unto every
man according to his
1deeds [see Ps. 62:12;
Prov. 24:12
]. 28 Verily
I say unto you, There
be some of them that
stand here, which
shall in no wise taste
of death, till they
see the Son of man
coming in his kingdom.
26    For whosoever
shall be ashamed of me
and of my words, of
him shall the Son of
man be ashamed, when
he cometh in his own
glory, and the glory
of the Father, and of
the holy angels. 27 But
I tell you of a truth,
There be some of
them that stand here,
which shall in no
wise taste of death,
till they see the
kingdom of God.
1 Gr. doing.




§ 85. THE TRANSFIGURATION OF JESUS ON A MOUNTAIN (PROBABLY HERMONa) NEAR CÆSAREA PHILIPPI


Mark 9:2-8 Matt. 17:1-8 Luke 9:28-36
2    And after six days
Jesus taketh with him
Peter, and James, and
John, and bringeth
them up into a high
mountain apart by
themselves: and he
was transfigured
before them: 3 and
his garments became
glistering, exceeding
white; so as no fuller
on earth can whiten
them. 4 And there
appeared unto them
Elijah with Moses:
and they were talking
with Jesus.









5    And Peter
answereth and saith
to Jesus, Rabbi, it
is good for us to be
here: and let us make
three 1tabernacles,b
one for thee, and one
for Moses, and one for
Elijah. 6 For he wist
not what to answer;
for they became sore
afraid. 7 And there
came a cloud
overshadowing them:
and there came a voice
out of the cloud, This
is my beloved Son:
hear ye him [see Deut.
18:15; Isa. 42:1;
Ps. 2:7
].c



8                     And
suddenly looking
round about, they
saw no one any more,
save Jesus only with
themselves.
1    And after six days
Jesus taketh with him
Peter, and James, and
John his brother, and
bringeth them up into
a high mountain
apart: 2 and he was
transfigured before
them: and his face did
shine as the sun, and
his garments became
white as the light.
3 And behold, there
appeared unto them
Moses and Elijah
talking with him.











4    And Peter
answered, and said unto
Jesus, Lord, it is good
for us to be here: if
thou wilt, I will make
here three 1tabernacles;
one for thee, and
one for Moses, and
one for Elijah.
5    While he was yet
speaking, behold, a
bright cloud
overshadowed them:
and behold, a voice out
of the cloud, saying,
This is my beloved
Son, in whom I am
well pleased; hear ye
him. 6 And when the
disciples heard it,
they fell on their
face, and were sore
afraid. 7 And Jesus
came and touched
them and said, Arise,
and be not afraid.
8 And lifting up their
eyes, they saw no
one, save Jesus only.
28    And it came to
pass about eight days
after these sayings, he
took with him Peter
and John and James,
and went up into the
mountain to pray.
29 And as he was
praying, the fashion
of his countenance was
altered, and his raiment
became white
and dazzling. 30 And
behold, there talked
with him two men,
which were Moses
and Elijah; 31 who
appeared in glory, and
spake of his 2decease
which he was about
to accomplish at
Jerusalem. 32 Now
Peter and they that
were with him, were
heavy with sleep: but
3when they were fully
awake, they saw his
glory, and the two
men that stood with
him. 33 And it came
to pass, as they were
parting from him,
Peter said unto Jesus,
Master, it is good for
us to be here: and let us
make three 1tabernacles;
one for thee,
and one for Moses,
and one for Elijah:
not knowing what he
said. 34 And while he
said these things,
there came a cloud,
and overshadowed
them: and they feared
as they entered into
the cloud. 35 And
a voice came out of
the cloud, saying,
This is 4my Son, my
chosen: hear ye him.


36    And when the
voice 5came, Jesus
was found alone.
1 Or, booths.
2 Or, departure.
3 Or, having remained awake.
4 Many ancient authorities read my beloved Son. See Matt. 17:5; Mark 9:7.
5 Or, was past.

a The tradition which places the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor is beyond question false.

b Probably not long before the feast of tabernacles (near end of September) and Peter may have meant that they celebrate the feast on the mountains instead of going to Jerusalem.

c See § 24 for similar language at the Baptism of Jesus.





§ 86. THE PUZZLE OF THE THREE DISCIPLES ABOUT THE RESURRECTION AND ABOUT ELIJAH ON THEIR WAY DOWN THE MOUNTAIN


Mark 9:9-13 Matt. 17:9-13 Luke 9:36
9    And as they were
coming down from
the mountain, he
charged them that
they should tell no
man what things
they had seen, save
when the Son of man
should have risen
again from the dead.
10 And they kept the
saying, questioning
among themselves
what the rising again
from the dead should
mean. 11 And they
asked him, saying,
1The scribes say that
Elijah must first come.
12 And he said unto
them, Elijah indeed
cometh first, and
restoreth all things:
and how is it written
of the Son of man,
that he should suffer
many things and be
set at nought? 13 But
I say unto you, that
Elijah is come, and
they have also done
unto him whatsoever
they listed, even as it
is written of him.
9    And as they were
coming down from
the mountain, Jesus
commanded them,
saying, Tell the vision
to no man, until
the Son of man be
risen from the dead.


10 And his disciples
asked him, saying,
Why then say the
scribes that Elijah
must first come [see
Mal. 4:5-6
]? 11 And
he answered and said,
Elijah indeed cometh,
and shall restore all
things: 12 but I say
unto you, that Elijah is
come already,a and
they knew him not,
but did unto him
whatsoever they listed
[see 1 Kings 19:2,
10
]. Even so shall the
Son of man also suffer
of them. 13 Then
understood the
disciples that he spake
unto them of John the
Baptist.


36                     And
they held their peace,
and told no man in
those days any of the
things which they had
seen.
1 Or, How is it that the scribes say ... come?

a The Baptist's disclaimer about being Elijah (John 1:21) means only that he was not Elijah in person come back to earth according to popular expectation.





§ 87. THE DEMONIAC BOY, WHOM THE DISCIPLES COULD NOT HEAL

In the region of Cæsarea Philippi


Mark 9:14-29 Matt. 17:14-20 Luke 9:37-43
14    And when they came
to the disciples, they
saw a great multitude
about them, and
scribes questioning
with them. 15 And
straightway all the
multitude, when
they saw him, were
greatly amazed, and
running to him
saluted him. 16 And he
asked them, What
question ye with
them? 17 And one of
the multitude
answered him, 3Master,
I brought unto thee
my son, which hath
a dumb spirit; 18 and
wheresoever it taketh
him, it 4dasheth him
down: and he foameth,
and grindeth his
teeth, and pineth
away: and I spake to
thy disciples that
they should cast it
out; and they were
not able. 19 And he
answereth them and
saith, O faithless
generation, how long
shall I be with you?
how long shall I bear
with you? bring him
unto me. 20 And they
brought him unto
him: and when he
saw him, straightway
the spirit 5tare him
grievously; and he
fell on the ground,
and wallowed foaming.
21 And he asked
his father, How long
time is it since this
hath come unto him?
And he said, From
a child. 22 And
oft-times it hath cast
him both into the fire
and into the waters,
to destroy him: but if
thou canst do anything,
have compassion
on us, and help
us. 23 And Jesus said
unto him, If thou
canst! All things are
possible to him that
believeth. 24 Straightway
the father of the
child cried out, and
said6, I believe; help
thou mine unbelief.
25 And when Jesus
saw that a multitude
came running
together, he rebuked
the unclean spirit,
saying unto him,
Thou dumb and deaf
spirit, I command
thee, come out of
him, and enter no
more into him. 26 And
having cried out, and
5torn him much, he
came out: and the
child
became as one
dead; insomuch that
the more part said,
He is dead. 27 But
Jesus took him by the
hand, and raised him
up; and he arose.
28 And when he was
come into the house,
his disciples asked
him privately, 7saying,
We could not cast
it out. 29 And he said
unto them, This kind
can come out by
nothing, save by
prayer.8











14    And when they were
come to the multitude,
there came to
him a man, kneeling
to him, and saying,
15 Lord, have mercy
on my son: for he is
epileptic, and suffereth
grievously: for oft-times
he falleth into
the fire, and oft-times
into the water.
16 And I brought him
to thy disciples, and
they could not cure
him.


17        And Jesus
answered and said, O
faithless and perverse
generation, how long
shall I be with you?
how long shall I bear
with you? bring him
hither to me.
































18 And Jesus rebuked
him; and the 1devil
went out from him:
and the boy was
cured from that hour.














19 Then came the
disciples to Jesus apart,
and said, Why could
not we cast it out?
20 And he saith unto
them, Because of
your little faith: for
verily I say unto you,
If ye have faith as a
grain of mustard seed,
ye shall say unto
this mountain, Remove
hence to yonder
place; and it shall
remove; and nothing
shall be impossible
unto you.2





37    And it came to
pass, on the next day,
when they were
come down from the
mountain, a great
multitude met him.



38 And behold, a man
from the multitude
cried, saying, 3Master,
I beseech thee
to look upon my son;
for he is mine only
child: 39 and behold, a
spirit taketh him, and
he suddenly crieth
out; and it 9teareth
him that he foameth,
and it hardly departeth
from him, bruising
him sorely. 40 And
I besought thy
disciples to cast it out;
and they could not.
41 And Jesus answered
and said, O faithless
and perverse generation,
how long shall
I be with you, and
bear with you? bring
hither thy son. 42 And
as he was yet a com-
ing, the 1devil 10dashed
him down, and 5tare
him grievously.



























But Jesus rebuked
the unclean spirit,
and healed the boy,
and gave him back
to his father. 43 And
they were all
astonished at the
majesty of God.
1 Gr. demon.
2 Many authorities, some ancient, insert ver. 21 But this kind goeth not out save by prayer and fasting. See Mark 9:29.
3 Or, Teacher.
4 Or, rendeth him.
5 Or, convulsed.
6 Many ancient authorities add with tears.
7 Or, How is it that we could not cast it out?
8 Many ancient authorities add and fasting.
9 Or, convulseth.
10 Or, rent him.




§ 88. RETURNING PRIVATELY THROUGH GALILEE, HE AGAIN FORETELLS HIS DEATH AND RESURRECTION


Mark 9:30-32 Matt. 17:22-23 Luke 9:43-45
30    And they went
forth from thence,
and passed through
Galilee; and he would
not that any man
should know it. 31 For
he taught his disciples,
and said unto
them, The Son of
man is delivered up
into the hands of
men, and they shall
kill him; and when
he is killed, after
three days he shall
rise again. 32 But they
understood not the
saying,


                         and
were afraid to ask
him.





22    And while they
1abode in Galilee,
Jesus said unto them,
The Son of man shall
be delivered up into
the hands of men;
23 and they shall kill
him, and the third
day he shall be raised
up. And they were
exceeding sorry.

43    But while all
were marvelling at
all the things which he
did, he said unto his
disciples, 44 Let these
words sink into your
ears: for the Son of
man shall be
delivered up into the
hands of men.




45                     But
they understood not
this saying, and it
was concealed from
them, that they
should not perceive
it: and they were
afraid to ask him
about this saying.
1 Some ancient authorities read were gathering themselves together.




The season of retirement from Galilee is now ended (§§ 72-88). The remaining events at this time (§§ 89-95) probably occupied only a few days.





§ 89. JESUS, THE MESSIAH, PAYS THE HALF-SHEKEL FOR THE TEMPLE

Capernaum


Matt. 17:24-27

24    And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received the 1half-shekel came to Peter, and said, Doth not your 2master pay the 1half-shekel [see Ex. 30:11-15]? 25 He saith, Yea. And when he came into the house, Jesus spake first to him, saying, What thinkest thou, Simon? the kings of the earth, from whom do they receive toll or tribute? from their sons, or from strangers? 26 And when he said, From strangers, Jesus said unto him, Therefore the sons are free. 27 But, lest we cause them to stumble, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a 3shekel: that take, and give unto them for me and thee.

1 Gr. didrachma.
2 Or, teacher.
3 Gr. stater.




§ 90. THE TWELVE CONTEND AS TO WHO SHALL BE THE GREATEST UNDER THE MESSIAH'S REIGN. HIS SUBJECTS MUST BE CHILDLIKE

Capernaum


Mark 9:33-37 Matt. 18:1-5 Luke 9:46-48
33    And they came
to Capernaum: and
when he was in the
house he asked them,
What were ye
reasoning in the way?
34 But they held their
peace: for they had
disputed one with
another in the way,
who was the 1greatest.
35 And he sat down,
and called the twelve;
and he saith unto them,
If any man would be
first, he shall be last
of all, and minister
of all. 36 And he took
a little child, and
set him in the midst
of them: and taking
him in his arms, he
said unto them,




37 Whosoever shall
receive one of such
little children in my
name, receiveth me:
and whosoever
receiveth me, receiveth
not me, but him
that sent me.
1    In that hour came
the disciples unto
Jesus, saying, Who
then is 1greatest in the
kingdom of heaven?






2 And he called to him
a little child, and set
him in the midst of
them, 3 and said,
Verily I say unto you,
Except ye turn, and
become as little
children, ye shall in no
wise enter into the
kingdom of heaven.
4 Whosoever therefore
shall humble himself
as this little child,
the same is the
1greatest in the kingdom
of heaven. 5 And
whoso shall receive
one such little child
in my name receiveth
me:
46    And there arose a
reasoning among
them, which of them
should be 1greatest.








47 But when Jesus saw
the reasoning of their
heart, he took a little
child, and set him by
his side, 48 and said
unto them,









Whosoever shall
receive this little child
in my name receiveth
me: and whosoever
shall receive me
receiveth him that sent
me: for he that is
2least among you all,
the same is great.
1 Gr. greater.
2 Gr. lesser.




§ 91. THE MISTAKEN ZEAL OF THE APOSTLE JOHN REBUKED BY JESUS IN PERTINENT PARABLES

Capernaum


Mark 9:38-50 Matt. 18:6-14 Luke 9:49-50
38    John said unto him,
7Master, we saw one
casting out 8devils
in thy name: and we
forbade him, because
he followed not us.
39 But Jesus said,
Forbid him not: for there
is no man which shall
do a 9mighty work in
my name, and be able
quickly to speak evil
of me. 40 For he that
is not against us is for
us. 41 For whosoever
shall give you a
cup of water to drink,
10because ye are
Christ's, verily I say
unto you, he shall in
no wise lose his reward.
42 And whosoever
shall cause one of
these little ones that
believe 11on me to
stumble, it were better
for him if 2a great
millstone were hanged
about his neck, and he
were cast into the sea.










43            And if
thy hand cause thee
to stumble, cut it off:
it is good for thee
to enter into life
maimed, rather than
having thy two hands
to go into 12hell, into
the unquenchable
fire.13 45 And if thy
foot cause thee to
stumble, cut it off:
it is good for thee to
enter into life halt,
rather than having
thy two feet to be
cast into 12hell. 47 And
if thine eye cause
thee to stumble, cast
it out: it is good for
thee to enter into the
kingdom of God with
one eye, rather than
having two eyes to
be cast into 12hell;
48 where their worm
dieth not, and the
fire is not quenched
[see Isa. 66:24]. 49 For
every one shall be
salted with fire14 [see
Lev. 2:13
]. 50 Salt is
good: but if the salt
have lost its saltness,
wherewith will ye
season it? Have salt in
yourselves, and be at
peace one with
another.





















6        but whoso
shall cause one of
these little ones which
believe on me to
stumble, it is profitable
for him that
2a great millstone
should be hanged
about his neck, and
that he should be
sunk in the depth of
the sea. 7 Woe unto
the world because of
occasions of
stumbling! for it must
needs be that the
occasions come; but
woe to that man through
whom the occasion
cometh! 8 And if thy
hand or thy foot
causeth thee to stumble,
cut it off, and
cast it from thee: it
is good for thee to
enter into life maimed
or halt, rather than
having two hands or
two feet to be cast
into the eternal fire.





9 And if thine
eye causeth thee to
stumble, pluck it out,
and cast it from thee:
it is good for thee to
enter into life with
one eye, rather than
having two eyes to
be cast into the 3hell
of fire.
10    See that ye despise
not one of these little
ones; for I say unto
you, that in heaven
their angels do always
behold the face
of my Father which
is in heaven.4 12 How
think ye? if any man
have a hundred
sheep,a and one of
them be gone astray,
doth he not leave the
ninety and nine, and
go unto the mountains,
and seek that
which goeth astray?
13 And if so be that he
find it, verily I say unto
you, he rejoiceth over
it more than over the
ninety and nine which
have not gone astray.
14 Even so it is not
5the will of 6your Father
which is in heaven, that
one of these little ones
should perish.
49    And John answered
and said, Master,
we saw one casting
out 8devils in thy
name; and we forbade
him, because he
followeth not with
us. 50 But Jesus said
unto him, Forbid him
not: for he that is
not against you is for
you.
1 Gr. greater.
2 Gr. a millstone turned by an ass.
3 Gr. Gehenna of fire.
4 Many authorities, some ancient, insert ver. 11 For the Son of man came to save that which was lost. See Luke 19:10.
5 Gr. a thing willed before your father.
6 Some ancient authorities read my.
7 Or, Teacher.
8 Gr. demons.
9 Gr. power.
10 Gr. in name that ye are.
11 Many ancient authorities omit on me.
12 Gr. Gehenna.
13 Ver. 44 and 46 (which are identical with ver. 48) are omitted by the best ancient authorities.
14 Many ancient authorities add and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. See Lev. 2:13.
15 Gr. lesser.

a Parable of the Lost Sheep.





§ 92. RIGHT TREATMENT OF A BROTHER WHO HAS SINNED AGAINST ONE, AND DUTY OF PATIENTLY FORGIVING A BROTHER (PARABLE OF THE UNMERCIFUL SERVANT)


Matt. 18:15-35

15    And if thy brother sin 1against thee, go, shew him his fault between thee and him alone: if he hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. 16 But if he hear thee not, take with thee one or two more, that at the mouth of two witnesses or three every word may be established [see Deut. 19:15]. 17 And if he refuse to hear them, tell it unto the 2church: and if he refuse to hear the 2church also, let him be unto thee as the Gentile and the publican. 18 Verily I say unto you, What things soever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and what things soever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19 Again I say unto you, that if two of you shall agree on earth as touching anything that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. 20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.

21    Then came Peter, and said to him, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? until seven times? 22 Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times; but, Until 3seventy times seven. 23 Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likeneda unto a certain king, which would make a reckoning with his 4servants. 24 And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand 5talents. 25 But forasmuch as he had not wherewith to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. 26 The 6servant therefore fell down and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. 27 And the lord of that 6servant, being moved with compassion, released him, and forgave him the 7debt. 28 But that 6servant went out, and found one of his fellow-servants, which owed him a hundred 8pence: and he laid hold on him, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay what thou owest. 29 So his fellow-servant fell down and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee. 30 And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay that which was due. 31 So when his fellow-servants saw what was done, they were exceeding sorry, and came and told unto their lord all that was done. 32 Then his lord called him unto him, and saith unto him, Thou wicked 6servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou besoughtest me: 33 shouldest not thou also have had mercy on thy fellow-servant, even as I had mercy on thee?b 34 And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due. 35 So shall also my heavenly Father do unto you, if ye forgive not every one his brother from your hearts.

1 Some ancient authorities omit against thee.
2 Or, congregation.
3 Or, seventy times and seven.
4 Gr. bondservants.
5 This talent was probably worth about $1200.
6 Gr. bondservant.
7 Or, loan.
8 The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about seventeen cents.

a Parable of the Unforgiving Servant.

b The king forgave the servant $1,200,000; the servant refused to forgive $17. We might say in round numbers, a million, and ten dollars.





§ 93. THE MESSIAH'S FOLLOWERS MUST GIVE UP EVERYTHING FOR HIS SERVICE


Matt. 8:19-22 Luke 9:57-62
19    And there came 1a scribe,
and said unto him, 2Master, I will
follow thee whithersoever thou
goest. 20 And Jesus saith unto
him, The foxes have holes, and the
birds of the heaven have 3nests;
but the Son of man hath not
where to lay his head. 21 And
another of the disciples saith unto
him, Lord, suffer me first to go
and bury my father. 22 But Jesus
saith unto him, Follow me; and
leave the dead to bury their own
dead.
57    And as they went in the way,
a certain man said unto him, I will
follow thee whithersoever thou
goest. 58 And Jesus said unto
him, The foxes have holes, and the
birds of the heaven have 3nests;
but the Son of man hath not
where to lay his head. 59 And he
said unto another, Follow me.
But he said, Lord, suffer me first
to go and bury my father. 60 But
he said unto him, Leave the
dead to bury their own dead; but
go thou and publish abroad the
kingdom of God. 61 And another
also said, I will follow thee, Lord;
but first suffer me to bid farewell to
them that are at my house. 62 But
Jesus said unto him, No man,
having put his hand to the plough,
and looking back, is fit for the
kingdom of God.
1 Gr. one scribe.
2 Or, Teacher.
3 Gr. lodging-places.




§ 94. THE UNBELIEVING BROTHERS OF JESUS COUNSEL HIM TO EXHIBIT HIMSELF IN JUDEA, AND HE REJECTS THE ADVICE


John 7:2-9

2    Now the feast of the Jews, the feast of tabernacles, was at hand. 3 His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judea, that thy disciples also may behold thy works which thou doest. 4 For no man doeth anything in secret, 1and himself seeketh to be known openly. If thou doest these things, manifest thyself to the world. 5 For even his brethren did not believe on him. 6 Jesus therefore saith unto them, My time is not yet come; but your time is alway ready. 7 The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I testify of it, that its works are evil. 8 Go ye up unto the feast: I go not up 2yet unto this feast; because my time is not yet fulfilled. 9 And having said these things unto them, he abode still in Galilee.

1 Some ancient authorities read and seeketh it to be known openly.
2 Many ancient authorities omit yet.




§ 95. HE GOES PRIVATELY TO JERUSALEM THROUGH SAMARIA


Luke 9:51-56 John 7:10
51    And it came to pass, when the
days 1were well-nigh come that
he should be received up, he
stedfastly set his face to go to
Jerusalem,a 52 and sent messengers
before his face: and they went, and
entered into a village of the
Samaritans, to make ready for him.
53 And they did not receive him,
because his face was as though he
were
going to Jerusalem. 54 And
when his disciples James and
John saw this, they said, Lord,
wilt thou that we bid fire to come
down from heaven, and consume
them2 [see 2 Kings 1:10-12]? 55 But
he turned, and rebuked them3.
56 And they went to another village.
10    But when his brethren were
gone up unto the feast, then
went he also up, not publicly,
but as it were in secret.
1 Gr. were being fulfilled.
2 Many ancient authorities add, even as Elijah did.
3 Some ancient authorities add, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. Some, but fewer, add also For the Son of man came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them.

a See note 10 at end of Harmony for the combination of Luke and John and the three journeyings in Luke toward Jerusalem.





PART IX
THE LATER JUDEAN MINISTRY

(Probably Tabernacles to Dedication, about three months, in A.D. 29 or 28 if Ministry only two and a half years in length)

This ministry is given only by John and Luke. John gives the Jerusalem ministry and Luke that in the country of Judea. §§ 96-111.





§ 96. THE COMING OF JESUS TO THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES CREATES INTENSE EXCITEMENT CONCERNING THE MESSIAHSHIP

The attempt of the rulers (the Jews, the chief priests, and Pharisees) to arrest him. Division of sentiment in the Galilean multitude at the feast. Impressions of the Jerusalem populace and the Roman officers and of Nicodemus.


John 7:11-52

11    The Jews therefore sought him at the feast, and said, Where is he? 12 And there was much murmuring among the multitudes concerning him: some said, He is a good man; others said, Not so, but he leadeth the multitude astray. 13 Howbeit no man spake openly of him for fear of the Jews.

14    But when it was now the midst of the feast Jesus went up into the temple, and taught. 15 The Jews therefore marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters, having never learned? 16 Jesus therefore answered them, and said, My teaching is not mine, but his that sent me. 17 If any man willeth to do his will, he shall know of the teaching, whether it be of God, or whether I speak from myself. 18 He that speaketh from himself seeketh his own glory: but he that seeketh the glory of him that sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him. 19 Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you doeth the law? Why seek ye to kill me? 20 The multitude answered, Thou hast a 1devil: who seeketh to kill thee? 21 Jesus answered and said unto them, I did one work, and ye all 2marvel. 22 For this cause hath Moses given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers); and on the sabbath ye circumcise a man [see Gen. 17:9-14; Lev. 12:1-3]. 23 If a man receiveth circumcision on the sabbath, that the law of Moses may not be broken; are ye wroth with me, because I made a man every whit whole on the sabbath? 24 Judge not according to appearance, but judge righteous judgement.

25    Some therefore of them of Jerusalem said, Is not this he whom they seek to kill? 26 And lo, he speaketh openly, and they say nothing unto him. Can it be that the rulers indeed know that this is the Christ? 27 Howbeit we know this man whence he is: but when the Christ cometh, no one knoweth whence he is. 28 Jesus therefore cried in the temple, teaching and saying, Ye both know me, and know whence I am; and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not. 29 I know him; because I am from him, and he sent me. 30 They sought therefore to take him: and no man laid his hand on him, because his hour was not yet come. 31 But of the multitude many believed on him; and they said, When the Christ shall come, will he do more signs than those which this man hath done? 32 The Pharisees heard the multitude murmuring these things concerning him; and the chief priests and the Pharisees sent officers to take him. 33 Jesus therefore said, Yet a little while am I with you, and I go unto him that sent me. 34 Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, ye cannot come. 35 The Jews therefore said among themselves, Whither will this man go that we shall not find him? will he go unto the Dispersion 3among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks? 36 What is this word that he said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, ye cannot come?

37    Now on the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. 38 He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. 39 But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believed on him were to receive: 4for the Spirit was not yet given; because Jesus was not yet glorified. 40 Some of the multitude therefore, when they heard these words, said, This is of a truth the prophet. 41 Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, What, doth the Christ come out of Galilee? 42 Hath not the scripture said that the Christ cometh of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem [see 2 Sam. 7:12, 17; Mic. 5:2], the village where David was? 43 So there arose a division in the multitude because of him. 44 And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.

45    The officers therefore came to the chief priestsa and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why did ye not bring him? 46 The officers answered, Never man so spake. 47 The Pharisees therefore answered them, Are ye also led astray? 48 Hath any of the rulers believed on him, or of the Pharisees? 49 But this multitude which knoweth not the law are accursed. 50 Nicodemus saith unto them (he that came to him before, being one of them), 51 Doth our law judge a man, except it first hear from himself and know what he doeth? 52 They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and 5see that out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.

1 Gr. demon.
2 Or, marvel because of this. Moses hath given you circumcision.
3 Gr. of.
4 Some ancient authorities read for the Holy Spirit was not yet given.
5 Or, see: for out of Galilee etc.

a The Sanhedrin included both Sadducees (chief priests) and Pharisees. Nicodemus was a member of the Sanhedrin and a Pharisee. Now both parties in the Sanhedrin were united against Jesus and the purpose was to bring Jesus before the Sanhedrin for trial.





§ 97. STORY OF AN ADULTERESS BROUGHT TO JESUS FOR JUDGMENT


John 7:53 to 8:11a

53 1[And they went every man unto his own house: 1 but Jesus went unto the mount of Olives. 2 And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the people came unto him; and he sat down, and taught them. 3 And the scribes and the Pharisees bring a woman taken in adultery; and having set her in the midst, 4 they say unto him, 2Master, this woman hath been taken in adultery, in the very act. 5 Now in the law Moses commanded us to stone such [see Lev. 20:10; Deut. 22:22-24]: what then sayest thou of her? 6 And this they said, 3tempting him, that they might have whereof to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. 7 But when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. 8 And again he stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. 9 And they, when they heard it, went out one by one, beginning from the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman, where she was, in the midst. 10 And Jesus lifted up himself, and said unto her, Woman, where are they? did no man condemn thee? 11 And she said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said, Neither do I condemn thee: go thy way; from henceforth sin no more.]

1 Most of the ancient authorities omit John 7:53-8:11. Those which contain it vary much from each other.
2 Or, Teacher.
3 Or, trying.

a This paragraph can no longer be considered a part of the Gospel of John, but it is in all probability a true story of Jesus, very likely drawn by early students from the collection of Papias, published about A.D. 140. See Hovey on John (American Comm. on N. T.). Observe that without it § 98 goes right on after § 96.





§ 98. AFTER THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES IN THE TEMPLE JESUS ANGERS THE PHARISEES BY CLAIMING TO BE THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD


John 8:12-20

12    Again therefore Jesus spake unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in the darkness, but shall have the light of life. 13 The Pharisees therefore said unto him, Thou bearest witness of thyself; thy witness is not true. 14 Jesus answered and said unto them, Even if I bear witness of myself, my witness is true; for I know whence I came, and whither I go; but ye know not whence I come, or whither I go. 15 Ye judge after the flesh; I judge no man. 16 Yea and if I judge, my judgement is true; for I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me. 17 Yea and in your law it is written, that the witness of two men is true [see Deut. 17:6; 19:15]. 18 I am he that beareth witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me. 19 They said therefore unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, Ye know neither me, nor my Father: if ye knew me, ye would know my Father also. 20 These words spake he in the treasury, as he taught in the temple: and no man took him; because his hour was not yet come.





§ 99. THE PHARISEES ATTEMPT TO STONE JESUS WHEN HE EXPOSES THEIR SINFULNESS

Jerusalem, probably in the Temple


John 8:21-59

21    He said therefore again unto them, I go away, and ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sin: whither I go, ye cannot come. 22 The Jews therefore said, Will he kill himself, that he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come? 23 And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world. 24 I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: for except ye believe that 1I am he, ye shall die in your sins. 25 They said therefore unto him, Who art thou? Jesus said unto them, 2Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning. 26 I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you: howbeit he that sent me is true; and the things which I heard from him, these speak I 3unto the world. 27 They perceived not that he spake to them of the Father. 28 Jesus therefore said, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that 4I am he, and that I do nothing of myself, but as the Father taught me, I speak these things. 29 And he that sent me is with me; he hath not left me alone; for I do always the things that are pleasing to him. 30 As he spake these things, many believed on him.

31    Jesus therefore said to those Jews which had believed him, If ye abide in my word, then are ye truly my disciples; 32 and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. 33 They answered unto him, We be Abraham's seed, and have never yet been in bondage to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free? 34 Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin. 35 And the bondservant abideth not in the house for ever: the son abideth for ever. 36 If therefore the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. 37 I know that ye are Abraham's seed; yet ye seek to kill me, because my word 5hath not free course in you. 38 I speak the things which I have seen with 6my Father: and ye also do the things which ye heard from your father. 39 They answered and said unto him, Our Father is Abraham. Jesus saith unto them, If ye 7were Abraham's children, 8ye would do the works of Abraham. 40 But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth, which I heard from God: this did not Abraham. 41 Ye do the works of your father. They said unto him, We were not born of fornication; we have one Father, even God. 42 Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me: for I came forth and am come from God; for neither have I come of myself, but he sent me. 43 Why do ye not 9understand my speech? Even because ye cannot hear my word. 44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father it is your will to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and 10stood not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. 11When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father thereof. 45 But because I say the truth, ye believe me not. 46 Which of you convicteth me of sin? If I say truth, why do ye not believe me? 47 He that is of God heareth the words of God: for this cause ye hear them not, because ye are not of God. 48 The Jews answered and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a 12devil? 49 Jesus answered, I have not a 12devil; but I honour my Father, and ye dishonour me. 50 But I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth. 51 Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep my word, he shall never see death. 52 The Jews said unto him, Now we know that thou hast a 12devil. Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my word, he shall never taste of death. 53 Art thou greater than our father Abraham, which is dead? and the prophets are dead: whom makest thou thyself? 54 Jesus answered, If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing: it is my Father that glorifieth me; of whom ye say, that he is your God; 55 and ye have not known him: but I know him; and if I should say, I know him not, I shall be like unto you, a liar: but I know him, and keep his word. 56 Your father Abraham rejoiced 13to see my day; and he saw it, and was glad. 57 The Jews therefore said unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? 58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham 14was, I am. 59 They took up stones therefore to cast at him: but Jesus 15hid himself, and went out of the temple16.

1 Or, I am.
2 Or, How is it that I even speak to you at all?
3 Gr. into.
4 Or, I am. Or I am he: and I do.
5 Or, hath no place in you.
6 Or, the Father: do ye also therefore the things which ye heard from the Father.
7 Gr. are.
8 Some ancient authorities read ye do the works of Abraham.
9 Or, know.
10 Some ancient authorities read standeth.
11 Or, When one speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for his father also is a liar.
12 Gr. demon.
13 Or, that he should see.
14 Gr. was born.
15 Or, was hidden, and went etc.
16 Many ancient authorities add and going through the midst of them went his way, and so passed by.




§ 100. JESUS HEALS A MAN BORN BLIND WHO OUTWITS THE PHARISEES. THE RULERS FORBID THE RECOGNITION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH. THE CONVERSION OF THE HEALED MAN

Jerusalem


John 9:1-41

1    And as he passed by, he saw a man blind from his birth. 2 And his disciples asked him, saying, Rabbi, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he should be born blind? 3 Jesus answered, Neither did this man sin, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him. 4 We must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work. 5 When I am in the world, I am the light of the world. 6 When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, 1and anointed his eyes with the clay, 7 and said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of Siloam (which is by interpretation, Sent). He went away therefore, and washed, and came seeing. 8 The neighbours therefore, and they which saw him aforetime, that he was a beggar, said, Is not this he that sat and begged? 9 Others said, It is he: others said, No, but he is like him. He said, I am he. 10 They said therefore unto him, How then were thine eyes opened? 11 He answered, The man that is called Jesus made clay, and anointed mine eyes, and said unto me, Go to Siloam, and wash: so I went away and washed, and I received sight. 12 And they said unto him, Where is he? He saith, I know not.

13    They bring to the Pharisees him that aforetime was blind. 14 Now it was the sabbath on the day when Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes. 15 Again therefore the Pharisees also asked him how he received his sight. And he said unto them, He put clay upon mine eyes, and I washed, and do see. 16 Some therefore of the Pharisees said, This man is not from God, because he keepeth not the sabbath. But others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such signs? And there was a division among them. 17 They say therefore unto the blind man again, What sayest thou of him, in that he opened thine eyes? And he said, He is a prophet. 18 The Jews therefore did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and had received his sight, until they called the parents of him that had received his sight, 19 and asked them, saying, Is this your son, who ye say was born blind? how then doth he now see? 20 His parents answered and said, We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind: 21 but how he now seeth, we know not; or who opened his eyes, we know not: ask him; he is of age; he shall speak for himself. 22 These things said his parents, because they feared the Jews: for the Jews had agreed already, that if any man should confess him to be Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue. 23 Therefore said his parents, He is of age; ask him. 24 So they called the second time the man that was blind, and said unto him, Give glory to God: we know that this man is a sinner. 25 He therefore answered, Whether he be a sinner, I know not: one thing I know, that, whereas I was blind, now I see. 26 They said therefore unto him, What did he to thee? how opened he thine eyes? 27 He answered them, I told you even now, and ye did not hear: wherefore would ye hear it again? would ye also become his disciples? 28 And they reviled him, and said, Thou art his disciple; but we are disciples of Moses. 29 We know that God hath spoken unto Moses: but as for this man, we know not whence he is. 30 The man answered and said unto them, Why, herein is the marvel, that ye know not whence he is, and yet he opened mine eyes. 31 We know that God heareth not sinners: but if any man be a worshipper of God, and do his will, him he heareth. 32 Since the world began it was never heard that any one opened the eyes of a man born blind. 33 If this man were not from God, he could do nothing. 34 They answered and said unto him, Thou wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they cast him out.

35    Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and finding him, he said, Dost thou believe on 2the Son of God? 36 He answered and said, And who is he, Lord, that I may believe on him? 37 Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and he it is that speaketh with thee. 38 And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him. 39 And Jesus said, For judgement came I into this world, that they which see not may see; and that they which see may become blind. 40 Those of the Pharisees which were with him heard these things, and said unto him, Are we also blind? 41 Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye would have no sin: but now ye say, We see: your sin remaineth.

1 Or, and with the clay thereof anointed his eyes.
2 Many ancient authorities read the Son of man.




§ 101. IN THE PARABLE (ALLEGORY) OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD JESUS DRAWS THE PICTURE OF THE HOSTILE PHARISEES AND INTIMATES THAT HE IS GOING TO DIE FOR HIS FLOCK AND COME TO LIFE AGAIN

Jerusalem


John 10:1-21

1    Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the fold of the sheep, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. 2 But he that entereth in by the door is 1the shepherd of the sheep. 3 To him the porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out. 4 When he hath put forth all his own, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice. 5 And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him: for they know not the voice of strangers. 6 This 2parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them.

7    Jesus therefore said unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep. 8 All that came before me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them. 9 I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and go out, and shall find pasture. 10 The thief cometh not, but that he may steal, and kill, and destroy: I came that they may have life, and may 3have it abundantly. 11 I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep. 12 He that is a hireling, and not a shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, beholdeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, and the wolf snatcheth them, and scattereth them: 13 he fleeth because he is a hireling, and careth not for the sheep. 14 I am the good shepherd; and I know mine own, and mine own know me, 15 even as the Father knoweth me, and I know the Father; and I lay down my life for the sheep. 16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold [see Ezek. 34:23; 37:24]: them also I must 4bring, and they shall hear my voice; and 5they shall become one flock, one shepherd. 17 Therefore doth the Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. 18 No one 6taketh it away from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have 7power to lay it down, and I have 7power to take it again. This commandment received I from my Father.

19    There arose a division again among the Jews because of these words. 20 And many of them said, He hath a 8devil, and is mad; why hear ye him? 21 Others said, These are not the sayings of one possessed with a 8devil. Can a 8devil open the eyes of the blind?

1 Or, a shepherd.
2 Or, proverb.
3 Or, have abundance.
4 Or, lead.
5 Or, there shall be one flock.
6 Some ancient authorities read took it away.
7 Or, right.
8 Gr. demon.




In §§ 102-110 we have matters given by Luke only, which probably occurred in Judea. Several of them are similar to events and discourses of the ministry in Galilee, given by Matthew and Mark.a

a Observe that here, as in previous portions of the history, we possess only a few specimens from what must have been the great mass of our Lord's doings and sayings.





§ 102. MISSION OF THE SEVENTY. CHRIST'S JOY IN THEIR WORK ON THEIR RETURN

(Compare Mission of the Twelve in § 70.)

Probably in Judea


Luke 10:1-24

1    Now after these things the Lord appointed seventy1 others, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself was about to come. 2 And he said unto them, The harvest is plenteous, but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he send forth labourers into his harvest. 3 Go your ways: behold, I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves. 4 Carry no purse, no wallet, no shoes: and salute no man on the way. 5 And into whatsoever house ye shall 2enter, first say, Peace be to this house. 6 And if a son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon 3him: but if not, it shall turn to you again. 7 And in that same house remain, eating and drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house. 8 And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before you: 9 and heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. 10 But into whatsoever city ye shall enter, and they receive you not, go out into the streets thereof and say, 11 Even the dust from your city, that cleaveth to our feet, we do wipe off against you: howbeit know this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh. 12 I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable in that day for Sodom, than for that city [see Gen. 19:24]. 13 Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the 4mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which were done in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14 Howbeit it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgement, than for you. 15 And thou, Capernaum, shalt thou be exalted unto heaven? thou shalt be brought down unto Hades [see Isa. 14:13-15]. 16 He that heareth you heareth me; and he that rejecteth you rejecteth me; and he that rejecteth me rejecteth him that sent me.

17    And the seventy returned with joy, saying, Lord, even the 5devils are subject unto us in thy name. 18 And he said unto them, I beheld Satan fallen as lightning from heaven. 19 Behold, I have given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall in any wise hurt you. 20 Howbeit in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.

21    In that same hour he rejoiced 6in the Holy Spirit, and said, I 7thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and understanding, and didst reveal them unto babes: yea, Father; 8for so it was well-pleasing in thy sight. 22 All things have been delivered unto me of my Father: and no one knoweth who the Son is, save the Father; and who the Father is, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal him. 23 And turning to the disciples, he said privately, Blessed are the eyes which see the things that ye see: 24 for I say unto you, that many prophets and kings desired to see the things which ye see, and saw them not; and to hear the things which ye hear, and heard them not.

1 Many ancient authorities add and two: and so in verse 17.
2 Or, enter first, say.
3 Or, it.
4 Gr. powers.
5 Gr. demons.
6 Or, by.
7 Or, praise.
8 Or, that.




§ 103. JESUS ANSWERS A LAWYER'S QUESTION AS TO ETERNAL LIFE, GIVING THE PARABLE OF THE GOOD SAMARITAN

Probably in Judea


Luke 10:25-37

25    And behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tempted him, saying, 1Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 26 And he said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? 27 And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God 2with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself [see Deut. 6:5; Lev. 19:18]. 28 And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live [see Lev. 18:5]. 29 But he, desiring to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour? 30 Jesus made answer and said, A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho; and he fell among robbers, which both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 31 And by chance a certain priest was going down that way: and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 32 And in like manner a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 33 But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and when he saw him, he was moved with compassion, 34 and came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on them oil and wine; and he set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35 And on the morrow he took out two 3pence, and gave them to the host, and said, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, I, when I come back again, will repay thee. 36 Which of these three, thinkest thou, proved neighbour unto him that fell among the robbers? 37 And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. And Jesus said unto him, Go, and do thou likewise.

1 Or, Teacher.
2 Gr. from.
3 The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about seventeen cents.




§ 104. JESUS THE GUEST OF MARTHA AND MARY

Bethany, near Jerusalema


Luke 10:38-42

38    Now as they went on their way, he entered into a certain village: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 39 And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at the Lord's feet, and heard his word. 40 But Martha was 1cumbered about much serving; and she came up to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister did leave me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me. 41 But the Lord answered and said unto her, 2Martha, Martha, thou art anxious and troubled about many things: 42 3but one thing is needful: for Mary hath chosen the good part, which shall not be taken away from her.

1 Gr. distracted.
2 A few ancient authorities read, Martha, Martha, thou art troubled: Mary hath chosen etc.
3 Many ancient authorities read but few things are needful, or one.

a There was another Bethany beyond Jordan (John 1:28, § 26). We shall see Jesus in Bethany near Jerusalem again (John 12:1-8). It was his Jerusalem home in the early days of Passion Week.





§ 105. JESUS AGAIN GIVES A MODEL OF PRAYER (COMP. § 54), AND ENCOURAGES HIS DISCIPLES TO PRAY. PARABLE OF THE IMPORTUNATE FRIEND

Probably in Judea


Luke 11:1-13

1    And it came to pass, as he was praying in a certain place, that when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, even as John also taught his disciples. 2 And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, 1Father, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdom come.2 3 Give us day by day 3our daily bread. 4 And forgive us our sins; for we ourselves also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And bring us not into temptation4.a

5    And he said unto them, Which of you shall have a friend, and shall go unto him at midnight, and say to him, Friend, lend me three loaves; 6 for a friend of mine is come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him; 7 and he from within shall answer and say, Trouble me not: the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed; I cannot rise and give thee? 8 I say unto you, Though he will not rise and give him, because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity he will arise and give him 5as many as he needeth. 9 And I say unto you, Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you. 10 For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. 11 And of which of you that is a father shall his son ask 6a loaf, and he give him a stone? or a fish, and he for a fish give him a serpent? 12 Or if he shall ask an egg, will he give him a scorpion? 13 If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?

1 Many ancient authorities read Our Father, which art in heaven. See Matt. 6:9.
2 Many ancient authorities add Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. See Matt. 6:10.
3 Gr. our bread for the coming day.
4 Many ancient authorities add but deliver us from the evil one (or, from evil). See Matt. 6:13.
5 Or, whatsoever things.
6 Some ancient authorities omit a loaf, and he give him a stone? or.

a The language here is different from that in Matt. 6 (§ 54), but the ideas are the same. Evidently the disciples were slow to learn Christ's teaching about prayer.





§ 106. BLASPHEMOUS ACCUSATION OF LEAGUE WITH BEELZEBUB

(Compare § 61)a

Probably in Judea


Luke 11:14-36

14    And he was casting out a 1devil which was dumb. And it came to pass, when the 1devil was gone out, the dumb man spake; and the multitudes marvelled. 15 But some of them said, 2By Beelzebub the prince of the 3devils casteth he out 3devils. 16 And others, tempting him, sought of him a sign from heaven. 17 But he, knowing their thoughts, said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; 4and a house divided against a house falleth. 18 And if Satan also is divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? because ye say that I cast out 3devils 2by Beelzebub. 19 And if I 2by Beelzebub cast out 3devils, by whom do your sons cast them out? therefore shall they be your judges. 20 But if I by the finger of God cast out 3devils, then is the kingdom of God come upon you. 21 When the strong man fully armed guardeth his own court, his goods are in peace: 22 but when a stronger than he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him his whole armour wherein he trusted, and divideth his spoils. 23 He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth. 24 The unclean spirit when 5he is gone out of the man, passeth through waterless places, seeking rest; and finding none, 5he saith, I will turn back unto my house whence I came out. 25 And when 5he is come, 5he findeth it swept and garnished. 26 Then goeth 5he, and taketh to him seven other spirits more evil than 6himself; and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man becometh worse than the first.

27    And it came to pass, as he said these things, a certain woman out of the multitude lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the breasts which thou didst suck. 28 But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it.

29    And when the multitudes were gathering together unto him, he began to say, This generation is an evil generation: it seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it but the sign of Jonah [see Jonah 3:1-4]. 30 For even as Jonah became a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation. 31 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgement with the men of this generation, and shall condemn them: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon [see 1 Kings 10:1-3]; and behold, 7a greater than Solomon is here. 32 The men of Nineveh shall stand up in the judgement with this generation, and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah [see Jonah 3:5-10]; and behold, 7a greater than Jonah is here.

33    No man, when he hath lighted a lamp, putteth it in a cellar, neither under the bushel, but on the stand, that they which enter in may see the light. 34 The lamp of thy body is thine eye: when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light; but when it is evil, thy body also is full of darkness. 35 Look therefore whether the light that is in thee be not darkness. 36 If therefore thy whole body be full of light, having no part dark, it shall be wholly full of light, as when the lamp with its bright shining doth give thee light.

1 Gr. demon.
2 Or, in.
3 Gr. demons.
4 Or, and house falleth upon house.
5 Or, it.
6 Or, itself.
7 Gr. more than.

a It is perfectly natural that the blasphemous accusation made in Galilee (§ 61), and probably more than once (§ 68, Matt. 9:34), should be repeated a year or so afterward in Judea or Perea, and that Jesus should make substantially the same argument in reply. This sort of thing occurs to every travelling religious teacher. Our Lord does not here give the solemn warning that such an accusation is really blaspheming against the Holy Spirit, and is unpardonable. (See Luke 12:10.) And the subsequent occurrences are quite different in the two cases. In § 64 he afterwards goes out by the lake-side and gives the great group of parables, presently explaining some of them to the disciples in a house, and then crosses the lake to Gerasa, etc. Here in § 107 he breakfasts with a Pharisee, and utters such solemn woes against the Pharisees as are found only in the closing months of his ministry, and then gives to vast multitudes a series of instructions wholly unlike the great group of parables. So it is quite unsuitable to identify this occurrence with that of § 61.





§ 107. WHILE BREAKFASTING WITH A PHARISEE, JESUS SEVERELY DENOUNCES THE PHARISEES AND LAWYERS, AND EXCITES THEIR ENMITY

Probably in Judea


Luke 11:37-54

37    Now as he spake, a Pharisee asketh him to 1dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to meat. 38 And when the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that he had not washed before 1dinner. 39 And the Lord said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter; but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. 40 Ye foolish ones, did not he that made the outside make the inside also? 41 Howbeit give for alms those things which 2are within; and behold, all things are clean unto you.

42    But woe unto you Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and every herb, and pass over judgement and the love of God [see Lev. 27:30; Mic. 6:8]: but these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. 43 Woe unto you Pharisees! for ye love the chief seats in the synagogues, and the salutations in the marketplaces. 44 Woe unto you! for ye are as the tombs which appear not, and the men that walk over them know it not.

45    And one of the lawyers answering saith unto him, 3Master, in saying this thou reproachest us also. 46 And he said, Woe unto you lawyers also! for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers. 47 Woe unto you! for ye build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 48 So ye are witnesses and consent unto the works of your fathers: for they killed them, and ye build their tombs. 49 Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send unto them prophets and apostles; and some of them they shall kill and persecute; 50 that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; 51 from the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zachariah [see Gen. 4:8; 2 Chron. 24:20-21], who perished between the altar and the 4sanctuary: yea, I say unto you, it shall be required of this generation. 52 Woe unto you lawyers! for ye took away the key of knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in ye hindered.

53    And when he was come out from thence, the scribes and the Pharisees began to 5press upon him vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of 6many things; 54 laying wait for him, to catch something out of his mouth.

1 Gr. breakfast.
2 Or, ye can.
3 Or, Teacher.
4 Gr. house.
5 Or, set themselves vehemently against him.
6 Or, more.




§ 108. HE SPEAKS TO HIS DISCIPLES AND A VAST THRONG, ABOUT HYPOCRISY, COVETOUSNESS (PARABLE OF THE RICH FOOL), WORLDLY ANXIETIES, WATCHFULNESS (PARABLE OF THE WAITING SERVANTS, AND OF THE WISE STEWARD), AND HIS OWN APPROACHING PASSIONa

Probably in Judea


Luke 12

1    In the mean time, when 1the many thousands of the multitude were gathered together, insomuch that they trode one upon another, he began to 2say unto his disciples first of all, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. 2 But there is nothing covered up, that shall not be revealed: and hid, that shall not be known. 3 Wherefore whatsoever ye have said in the darkness shall be heard in the light; and what ye have spoken in the ear in the inner chambers shall be proclaimed upon the housetops. 4 And I say unto you my friends, Be not afraid of them which kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do. 5 But I will warn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath 3power to cast into 4hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him. 6 Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings? and not one of them is forgotten in the sight of God. 7 But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not: ye are of more value than many sparrows. 8 And I say unto you, Every one who shall confess 5me before men, 6him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God: 9 but he that denieth me in the presence of men shall be denied in the presence of the angels of God. 10 And every one who shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit it shall not be forgiven. 11 And when they bring you before the synagogues, and the rulers, and the authorities, be not anxious how or what ye shall answer, or what ye shall say: 12 for the Holy Spirit shall teach you in that very hour what ye ought to say.

13    And one out of the multitude said unto him, 7Master, bid my brother divide the inheritance with me. 14 But he said unto him, Man, who made me a judge or a divider over you? 15 And he said unto them, Take heed, and keep yourselves from all covetousness: 8for a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth. 16 And he spake a parable unto them, saying, The ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully: 17 and he reasoned within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have not where to bestow my fruits? 18 And he said, This will I do: I will pull down my barns, and build greater; and there will I bestow all my corn and my goods. 19 And I will say to my 9soul, 9Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, be merry. 20 But God said unto him, Thou foolish one, this night 10is thy 9soul required of thee; and the things which thou hast prepared, whose shall they be? 21 So is he that layeth up treasure for himself, and is not rich toward God.

22    And he said unto his disciples, Therefore I say unto you, Be not anxious for your 11life, what ye shall eat; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. 23 For the 11life is more than the food, and the body than the raiment. 24 Consider the ravens, that they sow not, neither reap; which have no store-chamber nor barn; and God feedeth them: of how much more value are ye than the birds! 25 And which of you by being anxious can add a cubit unto his 12stature? 26 If then ye are not able to do even that which is least, why are ye anxious concerning the rest? 27 Consider the lilies, how they grow: they toil not, neither do they spin; yet I say unto you, Even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 28 But if God doth so clothe the grass in the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven; how much more shall he clothe you, O ye of little faith? 29 And seek not ye what ye shall eat, and what ye shall drink, neither be ye of doubtful mind. 30 For all these things do the nations of the world seek after: but your Father knoweth that ye have need of these things. 31 Howbeit seek ye 13his kingdom, and these things shall be added unto you. 32 Fear not, little flock; for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom. 33 Sell that ye have, and give alms; make for yourselves purses which wax not old, a treasure in the heavens that faileth not, where no thief draweth near, neither moth destroyeth. 34 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

35    Let your loins be girded about, and your lamps burning; 36 and be ye yourselves like unto men looking for their lord, when he shall return from the marriage feast; that, when he cometh and knocketh, they may straightway open unto him. 37 Blessed are those 14servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them sit down to meat, and shall come and serve them. 38 And if he shall come in the second watch, and if in the third, and find them so, blessed are those servants. 39 15But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what hour the thief was coming, he would have watched, and not have left his house to be 16broken through. 40 Be ye also ready: for in an hour that ye think not the Son of man cometh.

41    And Peter said, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even unto all? 42 And the Lord said, Who then is 17the faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall set over his household, to give them their portion of food in due season? 43 Blessed is that 18servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. 44 Of a truth I say unto you, that he will set him over all that he hath. 45 But if that 18servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat the menservants and the maidservants, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken; 46 the lord of that 18servant shall come in a day when he expecteth not, and in an hour when he knoweth not, and shall 19cut him asunder, and appoint his portion with the unfaithful. 47 And that 18servant, which knew his lord's will, and made not ready, nor did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes; 48 but he that knew not, and did things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. And to whomsoever much is given, of him shall much be required: and to whom they commit much, of him will they ask the more.

49    I came to cast fire upon the earth; and what will I, if it is already kindled? 50 But I have a baptism to be baptized with; and how am I straitened till it be accomplished! 51 Think ye that I am come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division: 52 for there shall be from henceforth five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three [see Mic. 7:6]. 53 They shall be divided, father against son, and son against father; mother against daughter, and daughter against her mother; mother in law against her daughter in law, and daughter in law against her mother in law.

54    And he said to the multitudes also, When ye see a cloud rising in the west, straightway ye say, There cometh a shower; and so it cometh to pass. 55 And when ye see a south wind blowing, ye say, There will be a 20scorching heat; and it cometh to pass. 56 Ye hypocrites, ye know how to 21interpret the face of the earth and the heaven; but how is it that ye know not how to 21interpret this time? 57 And why even of yourselves judge ye not what is right? 58 For as thou art going with thine adversary before the magistrate, on the way give diligence to be quit of him; lest haply he hale thee unto the judge, and the judge shall deliver thee to the 22officer, and the 22officer shall cast thee into prison. 59 I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou have paid the very last mite.

1 Gr. the myriads of.
2 Or, say unto his disciples, First of all beware ye.
3 Or, authority.
4 Gr. Gehenna.
5 Gr. in me.
6 Gr. in him.
7 Or, Teacher.
8 Gr. for not in a man's abundance consisteth his life, from the things which he possesseth.
9 Or, life.
10 Gr. they require thy soul.
11 Or, soul.
12 Or, age.
13 Many ancient authorities read the kingdom of God.
14 Gr. bondservants.
15 Or, But this ye know.
16 Or, digged through.
17 Or, the faithful steward, the wise man whom etc.
18 Gr. bondservant.
19 Or, severely scourge him.
20 Or, hot wind.
21 Gr. prove.
22 Gr. exactor.

a Here we have a series of discourses to the disciples (1-12), to one of the crowd (13-21), to the disciples (22-40), to Peter (41-53), to the multitudes (54-59). The constant interruption is typical of the teaching of Jesus. This address, as often, repeats some of Christ's favorite sayings.

Besides the Parable of the Rich Fool (12:16-21) note those of the Waiting Servants (37-40) and of the Wise Steward (42-48).





§ 109. ALL MUST REPENT OR PERISH (TWO CURRENT TRAGEDIES); PARABLE OF THE BARREN FIG TREE

Probably in Judea


Luke 13:1-9

1    Now there were some present at that very season which told him of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. 2 And he answered and said unto them, Think ye that these Galileans were sinners above all the Galileans, because they have suffered these things? 3 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all in like manner perish. 4 Or those eighteen, upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and killed them, think ye that they were 1offenders above all the men that dwell in Jerusalem? 5 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.

6    And he spake this parable; A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came seeking fruit thereon, and found none. 7 And he said unto the vinedresser, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why doth it also cumber the ground? 8 And he answering saith unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it, and dung it: 9 and if it bear fruit thenceforth, well; but if not, thou shalt cut it down.

1 Gr. debtors.




§ 110. JESUS HEALS A CRIPPLED WOMAN ON THE SABBATH AND DEFENDS HIMSELF AGAINST THE RULER OF THE SYNAGOGUE (COMP. §§ 49 TO 51 AND 114). REPETITION OF THE PARABLES OF THE MUSTARD SEED AND OF THE LEAVEN


Luke 13:10-21

10    And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath day. 11 And behold, a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years; and she was bowed together, and could in no wise lift herself up. 12 And when Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, Woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity. 13 And he laid his hands upon her: and immediately she was made straight, and glorified God. 14 And the ruler of the synagogue, being moved with indignation because Jesus had healed on the sabbath [see Ex. 20:8-11; Deut. 5:12-15], answered and said to the multitude, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the day of the sabbath. 15 But the Lord answered him, and said, Ye hypocrites, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the 1stall, and lead him away to watering? 16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound, lo, these eighteen years, to have been loosed from this bond on the day of the sabbath? 17 And as he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame: and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him.

18    He said therefore, Unto what is the kingdom of God like? and whereunto shall I liken it? 19 It is like unto a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and cast into his own garden; and it grew, and became a tree; and the birds of the heaven lodged in the branches thereof [see Dan. 4:10-12; 20-22]. 20 And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God? 21 It is like unto leaven, which a woman took and hid in three 2measures of meal, till it was all leavened.

1 Gr. manger.
2 The word in the Gr. denotes the Hebrew seah, a measure containing nearly a peck and a half (cf. in Matt. 13:33).




Here again the Gospel of John takes us up, and carries us to Jerusalem, and then to Perea.





§ 111. AT THE FEAST OF DEDICATION, JESUS WILL NOT YET OPENLY SAY THAT HE IS THE MESSIAH. THE JEWS TRY TO STONE HIM

Jerusalem


John 10:22-39

22    1And it was the feast of the dedication at Jerusalem:a 23 it was winter; and Jesus was walking in the temple in Solomon's porch. 24 The Jews therefore came round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou hold us in suspense? If thou art the Christ, tell us plainly. 25 Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believe not: the works that I do in my Father's name, these bear witness of me. 26 But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep. 27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: 28 and I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, and no one shall snatch them out of my hand. 29 2My Father, which hath given them unto me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch 3them out of the Father's hand. 30 I and the Father are one. 31 The Jews took up stones again to stone him. 32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from the Father; for which of those works do ye stone me? 33 The Jews answered him, For a good work we stone thee not, but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. 34 Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods [see Ps. 82:6]? 35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came (and the scripture cannot be broken), 36 say ye of him, whom the Father 4sanctified and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God? 37 If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not. 38 But if I do them, though you believe not me, believe the works: that ye may know and understand that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 39 They sought again to take him: and he went forth out of their hand.

1 Some ancient authorities read At that time was the feast.
2 Some ancient authorities read That which my Father hath given unto me.
3 Or, aught.
4 Or, consecrated.

a Some scholars think that the events in John 9 and 10:1-21 belong to the time of the feast of dedication rather than soon after tabernacles. But the language of John 10:24 seems to call for an interval.





PART X
THE LATER PEREAN MINISTRY

Probably Dedication in A.D. 29 to Last Journey in A.D. 30 (about three and a half months), §§ 112-127.





§ 112. THE WITHDRAWAL FROM JERUSALEM TO BETHANY BEYOND JORDAN

Perea


John 10:40-42

40    And he went away again beyond Jordan into the place where John was at the first baptizing; and there he abode. 41 And many came unto him; and they said, John indeed did no sign: but all things whatsoever John spake of this man were true. 42 And many believed on him there.





§ 113. TEACHING IN PEREA, ON A JOURNEYa TOWARD JERUSALEM. WARNED AGAINST HEROD ANTIPAS


Luke 13:22-35

22    And he went on his way through cities and villages, teaching, and journeying on unto Jerusalem.b 23 And one said unto him, Lord, are they few that be saved? And he said unto them, 24 Strive to enter in by the narrow door: for many, I say unto you, shall seek to enter in, and shall not be 1able. 25 When once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, open to us; and he shall answer and say to you, I know you not whence ye are; 26 then shall ye begin to say, We did eat and drink in thy presence, and thou didst teach in our streets; 27 and he shall say, I tell you, I know not whence ye are; depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity [see Ps. 6:8]. 28 There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and yourselves cast forth without. 29 And they shall come from the east and west, and from the north and south, and shall 2sit down in the kingdom of God [see Ps. 107:3; Isa. 49:12]. 30 And behold, there are last which shall be first, and there are first which shall be last.

31    In that very hour there came certain Pharisees, saying to him, Get thee out, and go hence: for Herod would fain kill thee. 32 And he said unto them, Go and say to that fox, Behold, I cast out 3devils and perform cures to-day and to-morrow, and the third day I am perfected. 33 Howbeit I must go on my way to-day and to-morrow and the day following: for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem. 34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killeth the prophets, and stoneth them that are sent unto her! how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her own brood under her wings, and ye would not! 35 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate: and I say unto you, Ye shall not see me, until ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord [see Ps. 118:26; Jer. 12:7; 22:5].

1 Or, able, when once.
2 Gr. recline.
3 Gr. demons.

a See note 10 at end of Harmony for the combination of Luke and John. After the Feast of the Dedication Jesus retired beyond Jordan (John 10:40), whence he goes to the raising of Lazarus (John 11:17). Luke seems to give incidents that belong to this journey.

b The period of three to four months from the Dedication to the final Passover is divided by another visit to Jerusalem. We cannot tell how many weeks preceded this event. All along here we have only a few specimens of the Saviour's teaching and works.





§ 114. WHILE DINING (BREAKFASTING) WITH A CHIEF PHARISEE, HE AGAIN HEALS ON THE SABBATH, AND DEFENDS HIMSELF (COMP. §§ 49 TO 51 AND 110). THREE PARABLES SUGGESTED BY THE OCCASION

Probably in Perea


Luke 14:1-24

1    And it came to pass, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. 2 And behold, there was before him a certain man which had the dropsy. 3 And Jesus answering spake unto the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath, or not? 4 But they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go. 5 And he said unto them, Which of you shall have 1an ass or an ox fallen into a well, and will not straightway draw him up on a sabbath day? 6 And they could not answer again unto these things.

7    And he spake a parable unto those which were bidden, when he marked how they chose out the chief seats; saying unto them, 8 When thou art bidden of any man to a marriage feast, 2sit not down in the chief seat; lest haply a more honourable man than thou be bidden of him, 9 and he that bade thee and him shall come and say to thee, Give this man place; and then thou shalt begin with shame to take the lowest place. 10 But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest place; that when he that hath bidden thee cometh, he may say to thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have glory in the presence of all that sit at meat with thee. 11 For every one that exalteth himself shall be humbled; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.

12    And he said to him also that had bidden him, When thou makest a dinner or a supper,a call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, nor thy kinsmen, nor rich neighbours; lest haply they also bid thee again, and a recompense be made thee. 13 But when thou makest a feast, bid the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind: 14 and thou shalt be blessed; because they have not wherewith to recompense thee: for thou shalt be recompensed in the resurrection of the just.

15    And when one of them that sat at meat with him heard these things, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. 16 But he said unto him, A certain man made a great supper; and he bade many: 17 and he sent forth his 3servant at supper time to say to them that were bidden, Come; for all things are now ready. 18 And they all with one consent began to make excuse. The first said unto him, I have bought a field, and I must needs go out and see it: I pray thee have me excused. 19 And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them: I pray thee have me excused. 20 And another said, I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come. 21 And the 3servant came, and told his lord these things. Then the master of the house being angry said to his 3servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor and maimed and blind and lame. 22 And the 3servant said, Lord, what thou didst command is done, and yet there is room. 23 And the lord said unto the 3servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and constrain them to come in, that my house may be filled. 24 For I say unto you, that none of those men which were bidden shall taste of my supper.

1 Many ancient authorities read a son. See ch. 13:15.
2 Gr. recline not.
3 Gr. bondservant.

a More exactly, "a breakfast or a dinner." The two principal meals of the Jews answered to the present English breakfast (in the forenoon and often near noon), and dinner (at or after dark); and so in our cities. In the time of King James, as in many of our country homes now, the meal towards noon answered to dinner, and the night meal to supper. Hence a certain confusion in the older and more recent English versions. In verses 16, 17 the right word would be dinner, according to city usage, and so elsewhere.





§ 115. GREAT CROWDS FOLLOW HIM, AND HE WARNS THEM TO COUNT THE COST OF DISCIPLESHIP TO HIM (COMP. §§ 70 and 83)

Probably in Perea


Luke 14:25-35

25    Now there went with him great multitudes: and he turned, and said unto them, 26 If any man cometh unto me, and hateth not his own father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple. 27 Whosoever doth not bear his own cross, and come after me, cannot be my disciple. 28 For which of you, desiring to build a tower, doth not first sit down and count the cost, whether he have wherewith to complete it? 29 Lest haply, when he hath laid a foundation, and is not able to finish, all that behold begin to mock him, 30 saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish. 31 Or what king, as he goeth to encounter another king in war, will not sit down first and take counsel whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand? 32 Or else, while the other is yet a great way off, he sendeth an ambassage, and asketh conditions of peace. 33 So therefore whosoever he be of you that renounceth not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple. 34 Salt therefore is good: but if even the salt have lost its savour, wherewith shall it be seasoned? 35 It is fit neither for the land nor for the dunghill: men cast it out. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.





§ 116. THE PHARISEES AND THE SCRIBES MURMUR AGAINST JESUS FOR RECEIVING SINNERS. HE DEFENDS HIMSELF BY THREE GREAT PARABLES (THE LOST SHEEP, THE LOST COIN, THE LOST SON)

Probably in Perea


Luke 15:1-32

1    Now all the publicans and sinners were drawing near unto him for to hear him. 2 And both the Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them.

3    And he spake unto them this parable, saying, 4 What man of you, having a hundred sheep, and having lost one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it? 5 And when he hath found it, he layeth it on his shoulders, rejoicing. 6 And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and his neighbours, saying unto them, Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost. 7 I say unto you, that even so there shall be joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine righteous persons, which need no repentance.

8    Or what woman having ten 1pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a lamp, and sweep the house, and seek diligently until she find it? 9 And when she hath found it, she calleth together her friends and neighbours, saying, Rejoice with me, for I have found the piece which I had lost. 10 Even so, I say unto you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth.

11    And he said, A certain man had two sons: 12 and the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of 2thy substance that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living. 13 And not many days after the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country; and there he wasted his substance with riotous living. 14 And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that country; and he began to be in want. 15 And he went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine. 16 And he would fain have been filled with 3the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him. 17 But when he came to himself he said, How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and to spare, and I perish here with hunger! 18 I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight: 19 I am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants. 20 And he arose, and came to his father. But while he was yet afar off, his father saw him, and was moved with compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and 4kissed him. 21 And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight: I am no more worthy to be called thy son.5 22 But the father said to his 6servants, Bring forth quickly the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet: 23 and bring the fatted calf, and kill it, and let us eat, and make merry: 24 for this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry. 25 Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard music and dancing. 26 And he called to him one of the 6servants, and inquired what these things might be. 27 And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound. 28 But he was angry, and would not go in: and his father came out, and intreated him. 29 But he answered and said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, and I never transgressed a commandment of thine: and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends: 30 but when this thy son came, which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou killedst for him the fatted calf. 31 And he said unto him, 7Son, thou art ever with me, and all that is mine is thine. 32 But it was meet to make merry and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.

1 Gr. drachma, a coin worth about sixteen cents.
2 Gr. the.
3 Gr. the pods of the carob tree.
4 Gr. kissed him much.
5 Some ancient authorities add make me as one of thy hired servants. See ver. 19.
6 Gr. bondservants.
7 Gr. Child.




§ 117. THREE PARABLES ON STEWARDSHIP (TO THE DISCIPLES, THE PARABLE OF THE UNJUST STEWARD; TO THE PHARISEES, THE PARABLE OF THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS; TO THE DISCIPLES, THE PARABLE OF THE UNPROFITABLE SERVANTS)

Probably in Perea


Luke 16:1-17:10

1    And he said also unto the disciples, There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he was wasting his goods. 2 And he called him, and said unto him, What is this that I hear of thee? render the account of thy stewardship; for thou canst be no longer steward. 3 And the steward said within himself, What shall I do, seeing that my lord taketh away the stewardship from me? I have not strength to dig; to beg I am ashamed. 4 I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. 5 And calling to him each one of his lord's debtors, he said to the first, How much owest thou unto my lord? 6 And he said, A hundred 1measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy 2bond, and sit down quickly and write fifty. 7 Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, A hundred 3measures of wheat. He saith unto him, Take thy 2bond, and write fourscore. 8 And his lord commended 4the unrighteous steward because he had done wisely: for the sons of this 5world are for their own generation wiser than the sons of the light. 9 And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends 6by means of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when it shall fail, they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles. 10 He that is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much: and he that is unrighteous in a very little is unrighteous also in much. 11 If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? 12 And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is 7your own? 13 No 8servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

14    And the Pharisees, who were lovers of money, heard all these things; and they scoffed at him. 15 And he said unto them, Ye are they that justify yourselves in the sight of men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is exalted among men is an abomination in the sight of God. 16 The law and the prophets were until John: from that time the gospel of the kingdom of God is preached, and every man entereth violently into it [see Matt. 11:12]. 17 But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away, than for one tittle of the law to fall. 18 Every one that putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery: and he that marrieth one that is put away from a husband committeth adultery.

19    Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, 9faring sumptuously every day: 20 and a certain beggar named Lazarus was laid at his gate, full of sores, 21 and desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table; yea, even the dogs came and licked his sores. 22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels into Abraham's bosom: and the rich man also died, and was buried. 23 And in Hades he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. 24 And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am in anguish in this flame. 25 But Abraham said, 10Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and Lazarus in like manner evil things: but now here he is comforted, and thou art in anguish. 26 And 11beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that they which would pass from hence to you may not be able, and that none may cross over from thence to us. 27 And he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house; 28 for I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. 29 But Abraham saith, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. 30 And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one go to them from the dead, they will repent. 31 And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, if one rise from the dead.

1    And he said unto his disciples, It is impossible but that occasions of stumbling should come: but woe unto him, through whom they come! 2 It were well for him if a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were thrown into the sea, rather than that he should cause one of these little ones to stumble. 3 Take heed to yourselves: if thy brother sin, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him. 4 And if he sin against thee seven times in the day, and seven times turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt forgive him.

5    And the apostles said unto the Lord, Increase our faith. 6 And the Lord said, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye would say unto this sycamine tree, Be thou rooted up, and be thou planted in the sea; and it would have obeyed you. 7 But who is there of you, having a 12servant plowing or keeping sheep, that will say unto him, when he is come in from the field, Come straightway and sit down to meat; 8 and will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, and serve me, till I have eaten and drunken; and afterward thou shalt eat and drink? 9 Doth he thank the 12servant because he did the things that were commanded? 10 Even so ye also, when ye shall have done all the things that are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable 13servants; we have done that which it was our duty to do.

1 Gr. baths, the bath being a Hebrew measure. See Ezek. 45:10, 11, 14.
2 Gr. writings.
3 Gr. cors, the cor being a Hebrew measure. See Ezek. 45:14.
4 Gr. the steward of unrighteousness.
5 Or, age.
6 Gr. out of.
7 Some ancient authorities read, our own.
8 Gr. household-servant.
9 Or, living in mirth and splendour every day.
10 Gr. Child.
11 Or, in all these things.
12 Gr. bondservant.
13 Gr. bondservants.




§ 118. JESUS RAISES LAZARUS FROM THE DEAD

From Pereaa to Bethany near Jerusalem


John 11:1-44

1    Now a certain man was sick, Lazarus of Bethany, of the village of Mary and her sister Martha. 2 And it was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick. 3 The sisters therefore sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. 4 But when Jesus heard it, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God may be glorified thereby. 5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. 6 When therefore he heard that he was sick, he abode at that time two days in the place where he was. 7 Then after this he saith to the disciples, Let us go into Judea again. 8 The disciples say unto him, Rabbi, the Jews were but now seeking to stone thee; and goest thou thither again? 9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If a man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world. 10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because the light is not in him. 11 These things spake he: and after this he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus is fallen asleep; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. 12 The disciples therefore said unto him, Lord, if he is fallen asleep, he will 1recover. 13 Now Jesus had spoken of his death: but they thought that he spake of taking rest in sleep. 14 Then Jesus therefore said unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead. 15 And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him. 16 Thomas therefore, who is called 2Didymus, said unto his fellow-disciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him.

17    So when Jesus came, he found that he had been in the tomb four days already. 18 Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off; 19 and many of the Jews had come to Martha and Mary, to console them concerning their brother. 20 Martha therefore, when she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary still sat in the house. 21 Martha therefore said unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. 22 And even now I know that, whatsoever thou shalt ask of God, God will give thee. 23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again. 24 Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day. 25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth on me, though he die, yet shall he live: 26 and whosoever liveth and believeth on me shall never die. Believest thou this? 27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I have believed that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, even he that cometh into the world. 28 And when she had said this, she went away, and called Mary 3her sister secretly, saying, The 4Master is here, and calleth thee. 29 And she, when she heard it, arose quickly, and went unto him. 30 (Now Jesus was not yet come into the village, but was still in the place where Martha met him.) 31 The Jews then which were with her in the house, and were comforting her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up quickly and went out, followed her, supposing that she was going unto the tomb to 5weep there. 32 Mary therefore, when she came where Jesus was, and saw him, fell down at his feet, saying unto him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. 33 When Jesus therefore saw her 6weeping, and the Jews also 6weeping which came with her, he 7groaned in the spirit, and 8was troubled, 34 and said, Where have ye laid him? They say unto him, Lord, come and see. 35 Jesus wept. 36 The Jews therefore said, Behold how he loved him! 37 But some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of him that was blind, have caused that this man also should not die? 38 Jesus therefore again 9groaning in himself cometh to the tomb. Now it was a cave, and a stone lay 10against it. 39 Jesus saith, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days. 40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, if thou believedst, thou shouldest see the glory of God? 41 So they took away the stone. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou heardest me. 42 And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the multitude which standeth around I said it, that they may believe that thou didst send me. 43 And when he had thus spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. 44 He that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with 11grave-clothes; and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go.

1 Gr. be saved.
2 That is, Twin.
3 Or, her sister, saying secretly.
4 Or, Teacher.
5 Gr. wail.
6 Gr. wailing.
7 Or, was moved with indignation in the spirit.
8 Gr. troubled himself.
9 Or, being moved with indignation in himself.
10 Or, upon.
11 Or, grave-bands.

a Our Lord was apparently at a distance of two or three days' journey (verses 6, 17) from Bethany; and he was probably in Perea. This visit to Bethany, a suburb of Jerusalem, may be that to which Luke pointed in 13:22.





§ 119. THE EFFECT OF THE RAISING OF LAZARUS (ON THE PEOPLE, ON THE SANHEDRIN, ON THE MOVEMENTS OF JESUS)

Jerusalem and Ephraim in Judea.


John 11:45-54

45    Many therefore of the Jews, which came to Mary and beheld 1that which he did, believed on him. 46 But some of them went away to the Pharisees, and told them the thing which Jesus had done.

47    The chief priests therefore and the Pharisees gathered a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many signs. 48 If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation. 49 But a certain one of them, Caiaphas, being high priest that year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, 50 nor do ye take account that it is expedient for you that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not. 51 Now this he said not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for the nation; 52 and not for the nation only, but that he might also gather together into one the children of God that are scattered abroad. 53 So from that day forth they took counsel that they might put him to death.

54    Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews, but departed thence into the country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim; and there he tarried with the disciples.

1 Many ancient authorities read the things which he did.




§ 120. JESUS STARTS ON THE LAST JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM BY WAY OF SAMARIA AND GALILEE

He heals the Ten Lepers and explains the Nature of the Kingdom of God to the Pharisees and the Disciples.

In Samaria or Galilee


Luke 17:11-37

11    And it came to pass, 1as they were on the way to Jerusalem, that he was passing 2through the midst of Samaria and Galilee.a 12 And as he entered into a certain village, there met him ten men that were lepers, which stood afar off [see Lev. 13:45-46]: 13 and they lifted up their voices, saying, Jesus, Master, have mercy on us. 14 And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go and shew yourselves unto the priests [see Lev. 13:49; 14:1-3]. And it came to pass, as they went, they were cleansed. 15 And one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, with a loud voice glorifying God; 16 and he fell upon his face at his feet, giving him thanks: and he was a Samaritan. 17 And Jesus answering said, Were not the ten cleansed? but where are the nine? 18 3Were there none found that returned to give glory to God, save this 4stranger? 19 And he said unto him, Arise, and go thy way: thy faith hath 5made thee whole.

20    And being asked by the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God cometh, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with observation: 21 neither shall they say, Lo, here! or, There! for lo, the kingdom of God is 6within you.

22    And he said unto the disciples, The days will come, when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, and ye shall not see it. 23 And they shall say to you, Lo, there! Lo, here! go not away, nor follow after them: 24 for as the lightning, when it lighteneth out of the one part under the heaven, shineth unto the other part under heaven; so shall the Son of man be 7in his day. 25 But first must he suffer many things and be rejected of this generation. 26 And as it came to pass in the days of Noah, even so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man [see Gen. 6:11-13; 7:21-23]. 27 They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all. 28 Likewise even as it came to pass in the days of Lot; they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded [see Gen. 18:20-22]; 29 but in the day that Lot went out from Sodom [see Gen. 19:24-25] it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all: 30 after the same manner shall it be in the day that the Son of man is revealed. 31 In that day, he which shall be on the housetop, and his goods in the house, let him not go down to take them away: and let him that is in the field likewise not return back. 32 Remember Lot's wife [see Gen. 19:26]. 33 Whosoever shall seek to gain his 8life shall lose it: but whosoever shall lose his 8life shall 9preserve it. 34 I say unto you, In that night there shall be two men on one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left. 35 There shall be two women grinding together; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left10. 37 And they answering say unto him, Where, Lord? And he said unto them, Where the body is, thither will the 11eagles also be gathered together.

1 Or, as he was.
2 Or, between.
3 Or, There were none found ... save this stranger.
4 Or, alien.
5 Or, saved thee.
6 Or, in the midst of you.
7 Some ancient authorities omit in his day.
8 Or, soul.
9 Gr. save it alive.
10 Some ancient authorities add ver. 36 There shall be two men in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left.
11 Or, vultures.

a As Ephraim (§ 119) was pretty certainly in the northern part of Judea, it has been reasonably supposed (Wieseler, Clark, and others) that, when the Passover was approaching, Jesus went from that region northward through Samaria into the southern or southeastern part of Galilee, so as to fall in with the pilgrims going from Galilee through Perea to Jerusalem. We thus again combine Luke's account with that of John in easy agreement. And this explains Luke's mention of Samaria first, which would be strange in describing a journey from Galilee through Samaria to Jerusalem, while the marginal translation, "between Samaria and Galilee," would he obscure and hard to account for. From this point he is making his final journey to Jerusalem, for the Passover of the crucifixion.





§ 121. TWO PARABLES ON PRAYER (THE IMPORTUNATE WIDOW, THE PHARISEE AND THE PUBLICAN)


Luke 18:1-14

1    And he spake a parable unto them to the end that they ought always to pray, and not to faint; 2 saying, There was in a city a judge, which feared not God, and regarded not man: 3 and there was a widow in that city; and she came oft unto him, saying, 1Avenge me of mine adversary. 4 And he would not for a while: but afterward he said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man; 5 yet because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her, lest she 2wear me out by her continual coming. 6 And the Lord said, Hear what 3the unrighteous judge saith. 7 And shall not God avenge his elect, which cry to him day and night, and he is longsuffering over them? 8 I say unto you, that he will avenge them speedily. Howbeit when the Son of man cometh, shall he find 4faith on the earth?

9    And he spake also this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and set 5all others at nought: 10 Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. 11 The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as the rest of men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. 12 I fast twice in the week; I give tithes of all that I get. 13 But the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote his breast, saying, God, 6be merciful to me 7a sinner. 14 I say unto you, This man went down to his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be humbled; but he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.

1 Or, Do me justice of: and so in verses 5, 7, 8.
2 Gr. bruise.
3 Gr. the judge of unrighteousness.
4 Or, the faith.
5 Gr. the rest.
6 Or, be propitiated.
7 Or, the sinner.




§ 122. GOING FROM GALILEE THROUGH PEREA,a HE TEACHES CONCERNING DIVORCE

Perea


Mark 10:1-12 Matt. 19:1-12
1    And he arose from thence, and
cometh into the borders of Judea
and beyond Jordan: and
multitudes come together unto him
again; and, as he was wont, he
taught them again.

2    And there came unto him
Pharisees, and asked him, Is it
lawful for a man to put away his
wife? tempting him. 3 And he
answered and said unto them,
What did Moses command you
[see Deut. 24:1]? 4 And they said,
Moses suffered to write a bill
of divorcement, and to put her
away. 5 But Jesus said unto them,
For your hardness of heart he
wrote you this commandment.
6 But from the beginning of the
creation, Male and female made
he them [see Gen. 1:27]. 7 For
this cause shall a man leave his
father and mother, 5and shall
cleave to his wife; 8 and the twain
shall become one flesh [see Gen.
2:24
]: so that they are no more
twain, but one flesh. 9 What
therefore God hath joined together,
let not man put asunder. 10 And in
the house the disciples asked him
again of this matter.





11 And he saith unto them,
Whosoever shall put away his wife,
and marry another, committeth
adultery against her: 12 and if she
herself shall put away her
husband, and marry another, she
committeth adultery.
1    And it came to pass when
Jesus had finished these words, he
departed from Galilee, and came
into the borders of Judea beyond
Jordan; 2 and great multitudes
followed him; and he healed them
there.
3    And there came unto him
1Pharisees, tempting him, and
saying, Is it lawful for a man to
put away his wife for every cause?
4 And he answered and said, Have






ye not read, that he which 2made
them from the beginning made
them male and female, 5 and said,
For this cause shall a man leave
his father and mother, and shall
cleave to his wife; and the twain
shall become one flesh? 6 So that
they are no more twain, but one
flesh. What therefore God hath
joined together, let not man put
asunder.
7                 They say unto him,
Why then did Moses command
to give a bill of divorcement,
and to put her away? 8 He
saith unto them, Moses for your
hardness of heart suffered you
to put away your wives: but from
the beginning it hath not been so.
9 And I say unto you, Whosoever
shall put away his wife,
3except for fornication, and shall
marry another, committeth
adultery: 4and he that marrieth her
when she is put away committeth
adultery. 10 The disciples say unto
him, If the case of the man is so
with his wife, it is not expedient
to marry. 11 But he said unto them,
All men cannot receive this saying,
but they to whom it is given.
12 For there are eunuchs, which were
so born from their mother's womb:
and there are eunuchs, which were
made eunuchs by men: and there
are eunuchs, which made themselves
eunuchs for the kingdom of
heaven's sake. He that is able to
receive it, let him receive it.
1 Many authorities, some ancient, insert the.
2 Some ancient authorities read created.
3 Some ancient authorities read saving for the cause of fornication, maketh her an adulteress: as in ch. 5:32, § 54.
4 The following words, to the end of the verse, are omitted by some ancient authorities.
5 Some ancient authorities omit and shall cleave to his wife.

a Matthew expressly states that he went from Galilee through Perea, and soon afterwards carries him forward to Jericho and Jerusalem. (Comp. Mark also.) Yet he says that Jesus did this when he had finished the parable of the unforgiving servant, which we have placed nearly six months earlier (§ 92). Luke here presently agrees with Matthew and Mark, and they go on together to the end, while heretofore Matthew and Mark have given us nothing since Jesus went to the Feast of Tabernacles. In one way or another we must suppose quite a break in their narrative. See Broadus' commentary on Matthew 19:1, and compare note 10 at end of Harmony.





§ 123. CHRIST AND CHILDREN AND THE FAILURE OF THE DISCIPLES TO UNDERSTAND THE ATTITUDE OF JESUS

Perea


Mark 10:13-16 Matt. 19:13-15 Luke 18:15-17a
13    And they brought
unto him little children,
that he should
touch them: and the
disciples rebuked
them. 14 But when
Jesus saw it, he was
moved with indignation,
and said unto
them, Suffer the
little children to come
unto me; forbid them
not: for of such is the
kingdom of God.
15 Verily I say unto you,
Whosoever shall not
receive the kingdom
of God as a little
child, he shall in no
wise enter therein.
16 And he took them in
his arms, and blessed
them, laying his
hands upon them.
13    Then were there
brought unto him
little children, that
he should lay his
hands on them, and
pray: and the disciples
rebuked them.

14                     But
Jesus said, Suffer
the little children,
and forbid them not,
to come unto me:
for of such is the
kingdom of heaven.






15 And he laid his
hands on them, and
departed thence.
15    And they brought
unto him also their
babes, that he should
touch them: but when
the disciples saw it,
they rebuked them.

16            But Jesus
called them unto him,
saying, Suffer the
little children to come
unto me, and forbid
them not: for of such
is the kingdom of
God. 17 Verily I say
unto you, Whosoever
shall not receive the
kingdom of God as a
little child, he shall in
no wise enter therein.

a From this point Matthew, Mark and Luke will be parallel more frequently than they were even during the great ministry in Galilee.





§ 124. THE RICH YOUNG RULER, THE PERILS OF RICHES, AND AMAZEMENT OF THE DISCIPLES. THE REWARDS OF FORSAKING ALL TO FOLLOW THE MESSIAH WILL BE GREAT, BUT WILL BE SOVEREIGN (PARABLE OF THE LABORERS IN THE VINEYARD)

In Perea


Mark 10:17-31 Matt. 19:16 to 20:16 Luke 18:18-30
17    And as he was
going forth 8into the
way, there ran one
to him, and kneeled
to him, and asked
him, Good 2Master,
what shall I do that
I may inherit eternal
life? 18 And Jesus said
unto him, Why callest
thou me good? none
is good save one,
even God.

19 Thou knowest the
commandments [see
Ex. 20:12-16; Deut.
5:16-20
],

                     Do not
kill, Do not commit
adultery,
                     Do not
steal, Do not bear
false witness, Do not
defraud, Honour thy
father and mother.
20            And he said
unto him, 2Master,
all these things have
I observed from my
youth. 21 And Jesus
looking upon him
loved him, and said
unto him, One thing
thou lackest: go, sell
whatsoever thou
hast, and give to the
poor, and thou shalt
have treasure in
heaven: and come,
follow me. 22 But his
countenance fell at
the saying, and he
went away sorrowful:
for he was one that
had great possessions.
23    And Jesus looked
round about, and
saith unto his disciples,
How hardly
shall they that have
riches enter into the
kingdom of God!
24 And the disciples
were amazed at his
words. But Jesus
answereth again, and
saith unto them,
Children, how hard
is it 9for them that
trust in riches to enter
into the kingdom
of God! 25 It is easier
for a camel to go
through a needle's
eye, than for a rich
man to enter into
the kingdom of God.
26 And they were
astonished exceedingly,
saying 10unto him,
Then who can be
saved? 27 Jesus looking
upon them saith,
With men it is
impossible, but not
with God: for all things
are possible with
God [see Gen. 18:24;
Job, 42:2
]. 28 Peter
began to say unto him,
Lo, we have left all,
and followed thee.
29                 Jesus
said, Verily I say
unto you,






                There is
no man that hath
left house, or brethren,
or sisters, or
mother, or father, or
children, or lands,
for my sake, and for
the gospel's sake,
30 but he shall receive
a hundredfold now in
this time, houses, and
brethren, and sisters,
and mothers, and
children, and lands,
with persecutions;
and in the 11world to
come eternal life.
31            But many
that are first shall
be last; and the last
first.



16    And behold, one
came to him and said,
1 2Master, what good
thing shall I do, that
I may have eternal
life? 17 And he said
unto him, 3Why askest
thou me concerning
that which is
good? One there is
who is good: but if
thou wouldest enter
into life, keep the
commandments.
18 He saith unto him,
Which? And Jesus
said, Thou shalt not
kill, Thou shalt not
commit adultery, Thou
shalt not steal, Thou
shalt not bear false
witness, 19 Honour
thy father and thy
mother: and, Thou
shalt love thy neighbor
as thyself. 20 The
young man saith unto
him, All these
things have I
observed: what lack I
yet? 21 Jesus said unto
him, If thou wouldest
be perfect, go, sell
that thou hast, and
give to the poor, and
thou shalt have treasure
in heaven: and
come, follow me.

22                     But
when the young man
heard the saying, he
went away sorrowful:
for he was one that
had great possessions.
23    And Jesus said
unto his disciples,
Verily I say unto you,
It is hard for a rich
man to enter into the
kingdom of heaven.









24 And again I say unto
you, It is easier for a
camel to go through
a needle's eye, than
for a rich man to enter
into the kingdom
of God. 25 And when
the disciples heard
it, they were
astonished exceedingly,
saying, Who then can
be saved? 26 And Jesus
looking upon them
said to them, With
men this is
impossible; but with
God all things are
possible. 27 Then
answered Peter and said
unto him, Lo, we have
left all, and followed
thee; what then shall
we have? 28 And Jesus
said unto them, Verily
I say unto you,
that ye which have
followed me, in the
regeneration when
the Son of man shall
sit on the throne of
his glory, ye also
shall sit upon twelve
thrones, judging the
twelve tribes of Israel.
29 And every one
that hath left houses,
or brethren, or sisters,
or father, or
mother,4 or children,
or lands, for my
name's sake, shall
receive 5a hundredfold,



        and shall inherit
eternal life.
30                 But
many shall be last
that are first; and
first that are last.



18    And a certain ruler
asked him, saying,
Good 2Master, what
shall I do to inherit
eternal life? 19 And
Jesus said unto him,
Why callest thou me
good? none is good
save one, even God.



20      Thou knowest
the commandments,



Do not commit
adultery, Do not kill,
Do not steal, Do not
bear false witness,
Honour thy father
and mother.



21        And he said,
All these things have
I observed from my
youth up. 22 And when
Jesus heard it, he
said unto him, One
thing thou lackest
yet: sell all that thou
hast, and distribute
unto the poor, and
thou shalt have
treasure in heaven: and
come, follow me.

23 But when he heard
these things, he
became exceeding
sorrowful; for he was
very rich.

24            And Jesus
seeing him said, How
hardly shall they that
have riches enter into
the kingdom of God!









25            For it is
easier for a camel to
enter in through a
needle's eye, than for
a rich man to enter
into the kingdom of
God.
26            And they
that heard it said,
Then who can be
saved?


27            But he said,
The things that are
impossible with men
are possible with God.
28 And Peter said, Lo,
we have left 12our
own, and followed
thee.

29                     And
he said unto them,
Verily I say unto you,









    There is no man
that hath left house,
or wife, or brethren,
or parents, or children,
for the kingdom
of God's sake,

30 who shall not receive
manifold more in this
time,
            and in
the 11world to come
eternal life.
1 For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard. 2 And when he had agreed with the labourers for a 6penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. 3 And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing in the marketplace idle; 4 and to them he said, Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way. 5 Again he went out about the sixth and the ninth hour, and did likewise. 6 And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing; and he saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? 7 They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard. 8 And when even was come, the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and pay them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first. 9 And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a 6penny. 10 And when the first came, they supposed that they would receive more; and they likewise received every man a 6penny. 11 And when they received it, they murmured against the householder, 12 saying, These last have spent but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden of the day and the 7scorching heat. 13 But he answered and said to one of them, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a 6penny? 14 Take up that which is thine, and go thy way; it is my will to give unto this last, even as unto thee. 15 Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? or is thine eye evil, because I am good? 16 So the last shall be first, and the first last.
1 Some ancient authorities read Good Master. See Mark 10:17; Luke 18:18.
2 Or, Teacher.
3 Some ancient authorities read Why callest thou me good? None is good save one, even God. See Mark 10:18; Luke 18:19.
4 Many ancient authorities add or wife: as in Luke 18:29.
5 Some ancient authorities read manifold.
6 The Roman denarius, about seventeen cents of our money.
7 Or, hot wind.
8 Or, on his way.
9 Some ancient authorities omit for them that trust in riches.
10 Many ancient authorities read among themselves.
11 Or, age.
12 Or, our own homes.




§ 125. JESUS AGAIN FORETELLS TO THE DISCIPLES HIS DEATH AND RESURRECTION (COMP. §§ 83, 85, 86, 88), AND REBUKES THE SELFISH AMBITION OF JAMES AND JOHN

Probably in Perea


Mark 10:32-45 Matt. 20:17-28 Luke 18:31-34
32    And they were
in the way, going up
to Jerusalem;a and
Jesus was going
before them: and they
were amazed; 3and
they that followed
were afraid. And he
took again the
twelve, and began to
tell them the things
that were to happen
unto him, 33 saying,
Behold, we go up
to Jerusalem; and the
Son of man shall be
delivered unto the
chief priests and the
scribes; and they
shall condemn him to
death, and shall
deliver him unto the
Gentiles: 34 and they
shall mock him,
and shall spit upon
him, and shall
scourge him, and shall
kill him; and after
three days he shall
rise again.
17    And as Jesus was
going up to Jerusalem,






            he took the
twelve disciples
apart, and in the way
he said unto them,

18 Behold, we go up
to Jerusalem; and the
Son of man shall be
delivered unto the
chief priests and
scribes; and they
shall condemn him
to death, 19 and shall
deliver him unto the
Gentiles to mock,



and to scourge, and
to crucify: and the
third day he shall
be raised up.








31    And he took unto
him the twelve, and
said unto them,
Behold, we go up to
Jerusalem, and all the
things that are written
5by the prophets
shall be accomplished
unto the Son of man.



32        For he shall be
delivered up unto the
Gentiles, and shall
be mocked, and
shamefully, entreated,
and spit upon: 33 and
they shall scourge and
kill him: and the
third day he shall
rise again. 34 And they
understood none of
these things; and this
saying was hid from
them, and they
perceived not the
things that were said.
35    And there come near unto him
James and John, the sons of
Zebedee, saying unto him, 4Master,
we would that thou shouldest do
for us whatsoever we shall ask of
thee. 36 And he said unto them,
What would ye that I should do for
you? 37 And they said unto him,
Grant unto us that we may sit, one
on thy right hand, and one on thy
left hand, in thy glory. 38 But
Jesus said unto them, Ye know
not what ye ask. Are ye able
to drink the cup that I drink?
or to be baptized with the baptism
that I am baptized with? 39 And
they said unto him, We are able.
And Jesus said unto them, The cup
that I drink ye shall drink; and
with the baptism that I am
baptized withal shall ye be baptized:
40 but to sit on my right hand or on
my left hand is not mine to give:
but it is for them for whom it hath
been prepared. 41 And when the ten
heard it, they began to be moved
with indignation concerning
James and John. 42 And Jesus called
them to him, and saith unto them,
Ye know that they which are
accounted to rule over the Gentiles
lord it over them; and their great
ones exercise authority over them.
43 But it is not so among you: but
whosoever would become great
among you, shall be your 1minister:
44 and whosoever would be first
among you, shall be 2servant of
all. 45 For verily the Son of man
came not to be ministered unto,
but to minister, and to give his life
a ransom for many.
20    Then came to him the mother
of the sons of Zebedee with her
sons, worshipping him, and
asking a certain thing of him.
21                             And he
said unto her, What wouldest thou?
She saith unto him, Command that
these my two sons may sit, one on
thy right hand, and one on thy
left hand, in thy kingdom.

22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye
know not what ye ask. Are ye
able to drink the cup that I am
about to drink?
                             They say
unto him, We are able.
23                             He saith
unto them, My cup indeed ye shall
drink:

            but to sit on my right
hand, and on my left hand, is not
mine to give, but it is for them
for whom it hath been prepared of
my Father. 24 And when the ten
heard it, they were moved with
indignation concerning the two
brethren. 25 But Jesus called them
unto him, and said, Ye know that
the rulers of the Gentiles lord it
over them, and their great ones
exercise authority over them. 26 Not
so shall it be among you: but who-
soever would become great among
you shall be your 1minister; 27 and
whosoever would be first among
you shall be your 2servant: 28 even
as the Son of man came not to
be ministered unto, but to minister,
and to give his life a ransom
for many.
1 Or, servant.
2 Gr. bondservant.
3 Or, but some as they followed were afraid.
4 Or, Teacher.
5 Or, through.

a He left Galilee in § 122, crossing the Jordan into Perea, probably in company with many Jews from Galilee (who regularly went this way to Jerusalem), and will now soon cross the river again and reach Jericho (§ 126).





§ 126. BLIND BARTIMÆUS AND HIS COMPANION HEALED

At Jericho


Mark 10:46-52 Matt. 20:29-34 Luke 18:35-43
46    And they come
to Jericho: and as he
went out from Jericho,
with his disciples
and a great multitude,
the son of Timæus,
Bartimæus,
a blind beggar, was
sitting by the way
side.


47        And when he
heard that it was Jesus
of Nazareth, he
began to cry out, and
say, Jesus, thou son
of David, have mercy
on me. 48 And many
rebuked him, that he
should hold his peace:
but he cried out the
more a great deal,
Thou son of David,
have mercy on me.
49            And Jesus
stood still, and said,
Call ye him. And
they call the blind
man, saying unto him,
Be of good cheer: rise,
he calleth thee. 50 And
he, casting away his
garment, sprang up,
and came to Jesus.
51 And Jesus answered
him, and said, What
wilt thou that I should
do unto thee? And
the blind man said
unto him, 1Rabboni,
that I may receive
my sight. 52 And
Jesus said unto him,
Go thy way; thy
faith hath 2made thee
whole. And straightway
he received his
sight, and followed
him in the way.
29    And as they went
out from Jericho, a
great multitude
followed him.


30            And behold,
twoa blind men
sitting by the way
side,


        when they heard
that Jesus was passing
by, cried out,
saying, Lord, have
mercy on us, thou
Son of David. 31 And
the multitude rebuked
them, that they should
hold their peace:
but they cried out
the more, saying,
Lord, have mercy on
us, thou son of David.
32 And Jesus stood
still, and called them,









            and said,
What will ye that I
should do unto you?
33 They say unto him,
Lord, that our eyes
may be opened. 34 And
Jesus, being moved
with compassion,
touched their eyes:
and straightway they
received their sight,
and followed him.
35    And it came to
pass, as he drew nigh
unto Jericho,



a certain
blind man sat by
the way side begging:
36 and hearing a
multitude going by, he
inquired what this
meant. 37 And they
told him, that Jesus
of Nazareth passeth
by. 38 And he cried,
saying, Jesus, thou
son of David, have
mercy on me. 39 And
they that went before
rebuked him, that he
should hold his peace:
but he cried out the
more a great deal,
Thou son of David,
have mercy on me.
40 And Jesus stood,
and commanded him to
be brought unto him:




            and when
he was come near, he
asked him, 41 What wilt
thou that I should do
unto thee? And he
said, Lord, that I
may receive my sight.
42 And Jesus said unto
him, Receive thy
sight: thy faith hath
2made thee whole.
43 And immediately he
received his sight, and
followed him, glorifying
God: and all the
people, when they
saw it, gave praise
unto God.
1 See John 20:16.
2 Or, saved thee.

a Matthew mentions two blind men, while Mark and Luke describe one, probably the more conspicuous one.—The discrepancy as to place, "as he went out from Jericho," "as he drew nigh unto Jericho," is best explained by the recent suggestion that the healing occurred after he left the old Jericho, and as he was approaching the new Jericho which Herod the Great had built at some distance away. An older, and also possible explanation was that the blind men made application when he was approaching the city, but were not then healed, and only when he had left the city were they healed. (Comp. Matt. 15:23 ff., and Mark 8:22 f.)





§ 127. JESUS VISITS ZACCHÆUS, AND SPEAKS THE PARABLE OF THE POUNDS,a AND SETS OUT FOR JERUSALEM

Jericho


Luke 19:1-28

1    And he entered and was passing through Jericho. 2 And behold, a man called by name Zacchæus; and he was a chief publican, and he was rich. 3 And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not for the crowd, because he was little of stature. 4 And he ran on before, and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him: for he was to pass that way. 5 And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and said unto him, Zacchæus, make haste, and come down; for to-day I must abide at thy house. 6 And he made haste, and came down, and received him joyfully. 7 And when they saw it, they all murmured, saying, He is gone in to lodge with a man that is a sinner. 8 And Zacchæus stood, and said unto the Lord, Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have wrongfully exacted aught of any man, I restore fourfold [see Ex. 22:1; Num. 5:6-7]. 9 And Jesus said unto him, To-day is salvation come to this house, forasmuch as he also is a son of Abraham. 10 For the Son of man came to seek and to save that which was lost [Ezek. 34:16].

11    And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they supposed that the kingdom of God was immediately to appear. 12 He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country, to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return. 13 And he called ten 1servants of his, and gave them ten 2pounds, and said unto them, Trade ye herewith till I come. 14 But his citizens hated him, and sent an ambassage after him, saying, We will not that this man reign over us. 15 And it came to pass, when he was come back again, having received the kingdom, that he commanded these 1servants, unto whom he had given the money, to be called to him, that he might know what they had gained by trading. 16 And the first came before him, saying, Lord, thy pound hath made ten pounds more. 17 And he said unto him, Well done, thou good 3servant: because thou wast found faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities. 18 And the second came, saying, Thy pound, Lord, hath made five pounds. 19 And he said unto him also, Be thou also over five cities. 20 And 4another came, saying, Lord, behold, here is thy pound, which I kept laid up in a napkin: 21 for I feared thee, because thou art an austere man: thou takest up that thou layedst not down, and reapest that thou didst not sow. 22 He saith unto him, Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, thou wicked 3servant. Thou knewest that I am an austere man, taking up that I laid not down, and reaping that I did not sow; 23 then wherefore gavest thou not my money into the bank, and 5I at my coming should have required it with interest? 24 And he said unto them that stood by, Take away from him the pound, and give it unto him that hath the ten pounds. 25 And they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds. 26 I say unto you, that unto every one that hath shall be given; but from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away from him. 27 Howbeit these mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me.

28    And when he had thus spoken, he went on before, going up to Jerusalem.

1 Gr. bondservants.
2 Mina, here translated a pound, is equal to one hundred drachmas. See ch. 15:8.
3 Gr. bondservant.
4 Gr. the other.
5 Or, I should have gone and required.

a The similar parable of the Talents was given several days later. See § 139. On this first occasion the illustration has a specific design (ver. 11 f.), which will not appear on the second, viz., to check the wild enthusiasm of the multitude to make Jesus King in Jerusalem as they had once planned a year ago (John 6:15. § 73).





PART XI
THE LAST PUBLIC MINISTRY IN JERUSALEM

Friday before to Tuesday of Passion Week, Spring of A.D. 30 (or A.D. 29).a Just before Passover. §§ 128a-138.

a If the feast of John 5:1 was a Passover, and so his ministry lasted over three years, then his death was pretty certainly in A.D. 30; otherwise in A.D. 29.





§ 128a. JESUS ARRIVES AT BETHANY,a NEAR JERUSALEM

Friday afternoon


John 11:55 to 12:1, 9-11

55    Now the passover of the Jews was at hand: and many went up to Jerusalem out of the country before the passover, to purify themselves. 56 They sought therefore for Jesus, and spake one with another, as they stood in the temple, What think ye? That he will not come to the feast? 57 Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given commandment, that, if any man knew where he was, he should shew it, that they might take him.

1    Jesus therefore six days before the passover came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus raised from the dead.b

9    The common people therefore of the Jews learned that he was there: and they came, not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he raised from the dead. 10 But the chief priests took counsel that they might put Lazarus also to death; 11 because that by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and believed on Jesus.

a Compare former visits to this Bethany, §§ 104, 118, and see also below, § 141.

b John (12:2-8) gives the supper in the house of Simon the leper at this stage, probably because it is the last mention of Bethany in his Gospel. It seems better to follow the order of Mark here in the location of the anointing of Jesus by Mary of Bethany.





In §§ 128b-138 we have the Saviour's movements and teachings on Sunday, Monday and Tuesday—the close of his public ministry, except the little that he said during the Jewish and Roman trial. All of his teaching thereafter will be given to his disciples.





§ 128b. HIS TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM AS THE MESSIAHa

From Bethany to Jerusalem and back (Sunday). A Day of Messianic Demonstration


Mark 11:1-11 Matt. 21:1-11,
14-17
Luke 19:29-44 John 12:12-19
1    And when
they draw nigh
unto Jerusalem,
unto
Bethphage and
Bethany, at the
mount of Olives,
he sendeth
two of his
disciples, 2 and
saith unto
them, Go your
way into the
village that is
over against
you: and
straightway as
ye enter into
it, ye shall find
a colt tied,
whereon no
man ever yet
sat; loose him,
and bring him.
3 And if any one
say unto you,
Why do ye
this? say ye,
The Lord hath
need of him;
and straightway
he 2will
send him 3back
hither. 4 And
they went away,
and found
a colt tied at
the door without
in the open
street; and
they loose
him. 5 And
certain of them
that stood
there said unto
them, What do
ye, loosing the
colt? 6 And they
said unto them
even as Jesus
had said: and
they let them
go. 7 And they
bring the colt
unto Jesus, and
cast on him
their garments;
and he
sat upon him.























8 And many
spread their
garments upon
the way; and
others 4branches,
which they
had cut from
the fields. 9 And
they that went
before, and
they that
followed, cried,
Hosanna; Blessed
is he that
cometh in the
name of the
Lord [see Ps.
118:25-26
]:
10 Blessed is the
kingdom that
cometh, the
kingdom
of our
father David:
Hosanna in the
highest.
1    And when
they drew nigh
unto Jerusalem,
and came
unto Bethphage,
unto
the mount of
Olives, then
Jesus sent two
disciples,
2 saying unto
them, Go into
the village that
is over against
you, and
straightway ye
shall find an
ass tied, and a
colt with her:
loose them, and
bring them unto
me.


3        And if
any one say
aught unto
you, ye shall
say, The Lord
hath need of
them; and
straightway he
will send them.
6 And the
disciples went,
and did even as
Jesus appointed
them,













7            and
brought the
ass, and the
colt, and put
on them their
garments; and
he sat thereon.
4 Now this is
come to pass,
that it might
be fulfilled
which was
spoken 1by the
prophet [see
Isa. 62:11;
Zech. 9:9
],
saying:
5   Tell ye the
         daughter
         of Zion,
     Behold, thy
         King
         cometh
         unto thee,
     Meek, and
         riding upon
         an ass,
     And upon a
         colt the
         foal of an
         ass.
8 And the most
part of the
multitude
spread their
garments in
the way; and
others cut
branches from
the trees, and
spread them
in the way.
9 And the
multitudes that
went before
him, and that
followed, cried,
saying,
Hosanna to the
son of David:
Blessed is he
that cometh in
the name of
the Lord;
Hosanna in the
highest.
29    And it came
to pass, when
he drew nigh
unto
Bethphage and
Bethany, at
the mount
that is called the
mount
of Olives,
he sent two of
the disciples,
30 saying,
Go your way
into the village
over against
you; in the
which as ye
enter ye shall
find a colt tied,
whereon no
man ever yet
sat: loose him,
and bring him.

31 And if any one
ask you, Why
do ye loose
him? thus shall
ye say, The
Lord hath
need of him.


32 And they that
were sent went
away, and
found even as
he had said unto
them. 33 And
as they were
loosing the
colt, the owners
thereof said
unto them,
Why loose ye
the colt? 34 And
they said, The
Lord hath
need of him.
35 And they
brought him
to Jesus: and
they threw
their garments
upon the colt,
and set Jesus
thereon.

























36 And as he
went, they
spread their
garments in
the way. 37 And
as he was now
drawing nigh,
even at the
descent of the
mount of
Olives, the
whole multitude
of the disciples
began to
rejoice and
praise God
with a loud
voice for all
the 5mighty
works which
they had seen;
38 saying,
Blessed is the
King that cometh
in the name of
the Lord:
peace in heaven,
and glory in the
highest.






































12    On the
morrow 9a great
multitude that
had come to the
feast, when they
heard that Jesus
was coming
to Jerusalem,
13 took
the branches
of the palm
trees, and went
forth to meet
him, and cried
out, Hosanna:
Blessed is he
that cometh in
the name of
the Lord, even
the King of
Israel. 14 And
Jesus, having
found a young
ass, sat thereon;
as it is
written, 15 Fear
not, daughter
of Zion: behold,
thy King cometh,
sitting on
an ass's colt.
16 These things
understood not
his disciples at
the first: but
when Jesus
was glorified,
then
remembered
they that these
things were
written of him,
and that they
had done these
things unto
him. 17 The
multitude
therefore that
was with him
when he called
Lazarus out of
the tomb, and
raised him
from the dead,
bare witness.
18 For this cause
also the
multitude went
and met him, for
that they heard
that he had done
this sign. 19 The
Pharisees
therefore
said among
themselves,
10Behold how
ye prevail
nothing: lo, the
world is gone
after him.
39 And some of the Pharisees from the multitude said unto him, 6Master,
rebuke thy disciples. 40 And he answered and said, I tell you that, if these
shall hold their peace, the stones will cry out.
41    And when he drew nigh, he saw the city and wept over it, 42 saying,
7If thou hadst known in this day, even thou, the things which belong unto
peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes. 43 For the days shall come
upon thee, when thine enemies shall cast up a 8bank about thee, and
compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, 44 and shall dash
thee to the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in
thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy
visitation [see Ps. 139:9].
Mark 11:11 Matt. 21:10-11, 14-17
11    And he entered into Jerusalem,






into the temple;











                             and when
he had looked round about upon
all things, it being now eventide,
he went out unto Bethany with
the twelve.
10    And when he was come into
Jerusalem, all the city was stirred,
saying, Who is this? 11 And the
multitudes said, This is the
prophet, Jesus, from Nazareth
of Galilee. 14 And the blind and
the lame came to him in the
temple: and he healed them.
15 But when the chief priests and
the scribes saw the wonderful
things that he did, and the children
that were crying in the
temple and saying, Hosanna to
the son of David; they were
moved with indignation, 16 and
said unto him, Hearest thou
what these are saying? And
Jesus saith unto them, Yea: did ye
never read [see Ps. 8:2], Out of the
mouths of babes and sucklings thou
hast perfected praise? 17 And he
left them, and went forth out of
the city to Bethany, and lodged
there.
1 Or, through.
2 Gr. sendeth.
3 Or, again.
4 Gr. layers of leaves.
5 Gr. powers.
6 Or, Teacher.
7 Or, O that thou hadst known.
8 Gr. palisade.
9 Some ancient authorities read the common people.
10 Or, Ye behold.

a Jesus now makes a formal challenge to the Jerusalem leaders who have so long opposed his claims. This was a Day of Triumph that seemed to the excited crowds to mean the establishment of a political Messianic Kingdom.





§ 129. THE BARREN FIG TREE CURSED, AND THE SECONDa CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE. (COMP. § 31)

Bethany and Jerusalem (Monday). A Day of Messianic Power


Mark 11:12-18 Matt. 21:18, 19, 12, 13 Luke 19:45-48
12    And on the
morrow, when they
were come out from
Bethany, he hungered.
13 And seeing a fig tree
afar off having leaves,
he came, if haply he
might find anything
thereon: and when
he came to it, he
found nothing but
leaves; for it was not
the season of figs.
14 And he answered
and said unto it, No
man eat fruit from thee
henceforward for
ever. And his
disciples heard it.
15    And they come to
Jerusalem: and he
entered into the temple,
and began to
cast out them that
sold and them that
bought in the temple,
and overthrew the
tables of the
money-changers, and
the seats of them that
sold the doves; 16 and
he would not suffer
that any man should
carry a vessel through
the temple. 17 And he
taught, and said unto
them, Is it not
written, My house
shall be called a house
of prayer for all the
nations? but ye have
made it a den of
robbers. 18 And the
chief priests and the
scribes heard it, and
sought how they
might destroy him:
for they feared him,
for all the multitude
was astonished at
his teaching.
18    Now in the
morning as he returned
to the city, he hungered.

19 And seeing 1a fig tree
by the way side,



        he came to it,
and found nothing
thereon, but leaves
only;
            and he saith
unto it, Let there be
no fruit from thee
henceforward for
ever.

12    And Jesus entered
into the temple 2of
God, and cast out all
them that sold and
bought in the temple,
and overthrew the
tables of the
money-changers, and
the seats of them that
sold the doves;





13 and he saith unto
them, It is written,
My house shall be
called a house of
prayer: but ye make
it a den of robbers.



















45    And he entered
into the temple, and
began to cast out
them that sold,











46                saying
unto them, It is
written [see Isa. 56:7;
Jer. 7:11
], And my
house shall be a house
of prayer: but ye
have made it a den
of robbers.
47    And he was
teaching daily in the
temple. But the chief
priests and the scribes
and the principal
men of the people
sought to destroy
him: 48 and they could
not find what they
might do; for the
people all hung upon
him, listening.
1 Or, a single.
2 Many ancient authorities omit of God.

a Once more at the close of the Ministry in Jerusalem, as at the beginning, Jesus asserts his authority over the Temple as the Messiah. In both instances his authority is sharply challenged by the Jewish rulers.





§ 130. THE DESIRE OF SOME GREEKS TO SEE JESUS PUZZLES THE DISCIPLES AND LEADS JESUS IN AGITATION OF SOUL TO INTERPRET LIFE AND DEATH AS SACRIFICE AND TO SHOW HOW BY BEING "LIFTED UP" HE WILL DRAW ALL MEN TO HIM

Jerusalem (Monday)


John 12:20-50

20    Now there were certain Greeks among those that went up to worship at the feast: 21 these therefore came to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus. 22 Philip cometh and telleth Andrew: Andrew cometh, and Philip, and they tell Jesus. 23 And Jesus answereth them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. 24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a grain of wheat fall into the earth and die, it abideth by itself alone; but if it die, it beareth much fruit. 25 He that loveth his 1life loseth it; and he that hateth his 1life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal. 26 If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will the Father honour. 27 Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say [see Ps. 42:6]? Father, save me from this 2hour. But for this cause came I unto this hour. 28 Father, glorify thy name. There came therefore a voice out of heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again. 29 The multitude therefore, that stood by, and heard it, said that it had thundered: others said, An angel hath spoken to him. 30 Jesus answered and said, This voice hath not come for my sake, but for your sakes. 31 Now is 3the judgement of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. 32 And I, if I be lifted up 4from the earth, will draw all men unto myself. 33 But this he said, signifying by what manner of death he should die. 34 The multitude therefore answered him, We have heard out of the law that the Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man? 35 Jesus therefore said unto them, Yet a little while is the light 5among you. Walk while ye have the light, that darkness overtake you not: and he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. 36 While ye have the light, believe on the light, that ye may become sons of light.

    These things spake Jesus, and he departed and 6hid himself from them. 37 But though he had done so many signs before them, yet they believed nota on him: 38 that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled [see Isa. 53:1], which he spake,

        Lord, who hath believed our report?
        And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?

39 For this cause they could not believe, for that Isaiah said again,

40    He hath blinded their eyes, and he hardened their heart;
        Lest they should see with their eyes, and perceive with their heart,
        And should turn,
        And I should heal them.

41 These things said Isaiah [see Isa. 6:1, 10], because he saw his glory; and he spake of him. 42 Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess 7it, lest they should be put out of the synagogue: 43 for they loved the glory of men more than the glory of God.

44    And Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. 45 And he that beholdeth me beholdeth him that sent me. 46 I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me may not abide in the darkness. 47 And if any man hear my sayings, and keep them not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. 48 He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my sayings, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I spake, the same shall judge him in the last day. 49 For I spake not from myself; but the Father which sent me, he hath given me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. 50 And I know that his commandment is life eternal: the things therefore which I speak, even as the Father hath said unto me, so I speak.

1 Or, soul.
2 Or, hour?
3 Or, a judgement.
4 Or, out of.
5 Or, in.
6 Or, was hidden from them.
7 Or, him.

a The rejection of Jesus by the Jews is clearly set forth by John's Gospel. The Pharisees made many timid and afraid.





§ 131. THE BARREN FIG TREE FOUND TO HAVE WITHERED

On the way from Bethany to Jerusalem. (Tuesdaya)


Mark 11:19-25 Matt. 21:19-22 Luke 21:37, 38
19    And 1every
evening 2he went forth
out of the city. 20 And
as they passed by in
the morning, they
saw the fig tree
withered away from
the roots. 21 And Peter
calling to remembrance
saith unto
him, Rabbi, behold,
the fig tree which
thou cursedst is
withered away. 22 And
Jesus answering saith
unto them, Have
faith in God. 23 Verily
I say unto you,
Whosoever shall say
unto this mountain, Be
thou taken up and
cast into the sea; and
shall not doubt in his
heart, but shall
believe that what he
saith cometh to pass;
he shall have it.
24 Therefore I say unto
you, All things
whatsoever ye pray and
ask for, believe that ye
have received them,
and ye shall have them.
25 And whensoever ye
stand praying, forgive,
if ye have aught against
any one; that your
Father also which is in
heaven may forgive
you your trespasses.3




19    And immediately
the fig tree withered
away. 20 And when
the disciples saw it,
they marvelled, saying,
How did the fig
tree immediately
wither away? 21 And
Jesus answered and
said unto them,
Verily I say unto you,
If ye have faith, and
doubt not, ye shall
not only do what is
done to the fig tree,
but even if ye shall
say unto this mountain,
Be thou taken
up and cast into the
sea, it shall be done.
22 And all things,
whatsoever ye shall ask
in prayer, believing,
ye shall receive.
37    And every day
he was teaching in
the temple; and every
night he went out,
and lodged in the
mount that is called
the mount of Olives.
38 And all the people
came early in the
morning to him in
the temple, to hear
him.
1 Gr. whenever evening came.
2 Some ancient authorities read they.
3 Many ancient authorities add ver. 26 But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses.

a The Synoptic Gospels give more details of the teaching of Jesus on this Tuesday in the Temple and on the Mount of Olives than for any other single day. We had another Busy Day in Galilee (§§ 61-66).





§ 132. THE RULERS (SANHEDRIN) FORMALLY CHALLENGEa THE AUTHORITY OF JESUS AS AN ACCREDITED TEACHER (RABBI)

Jesus bases His human authority on John the Baptist, His Forerunner who baptized him, and demands the Sanhedrin's opinion of the Baptism of John. This pertinent counter-question paralyzes the Jewish leaders and Jesus drives His argument home by three parables. (a) Parable of the Two Sons. (b) Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. (c) Parable of the Marriage Feast of the King's Son.

In the court of the Temple. (Tuesdayb) A Day of Controversy


Mark 11:27-12:12 Matt. 21:23-22:14 Luke 20:1-19
27    And they come
again to Jerusalem:
and as he was walking
in the temple, there
come to him the
chief priests, and the
scribes, and the
elders; 28 and they said
unto him,


By what authority
doest thou these
things? or who gave
thee this authority
to do these things?
29 And Jesus said unto
them, I will ask of
you one 1question,
and answer me, and
I will tell you by
what authority I do
these things. 30 The
baptism of John, was
it from heaven, or
from men? answer me.
31 And they reasoned
with themselves,
saying, If we shall say,
From heaven; he will
say, Why then did
ye not believe him?
32 7But should we say,
From men—they
feared the people: 8for
all verily held John
to be a prophet. 33 And
they answered Jesus
and say, We know

not. And Jesus saith
unto them, Neither
tell I you by what
authority I do these
things.


































1    And he began to
speak unto them in
parables. A man
planted a vineyard,
and set a hedge
about it, and digged
a pit for the winepress,
and built a
tower, and let it out
to husbandmen, and
went into another
country.
2            And at
the season he sent
to the husbandmen
a 9servant, that he
might receive from the
husbandmen of the
fruits of the vineyard.
3 And they took
him, and beat him,
and sent him away
empty. 4 And again
he sent unto them
another 9servant; and
him they wounded in
the head, and handled
shamefully. 5 And he
sent another; and him
they killed: and many
others; beating some,
and killing some. 6 He
had yet one, a beloved
son: he sent him last
unto them, saying,
They will reverence
my son. 7 But those
husbandmen said
among themselves,
This is the heir; come,
let us kill him, and
the inheritance shall
be ours.
8                     And
they took him, and
killed him, and cast
him forth out of the
vineyard. 9 What
therefore will the lord
of the vineyard do?




        he will come
and destroy the
husbandmen, and will
give the vineyard
unto others.





10                     Have
ye not read even this
scripture;
      The stone which
          the builders
          rejected,
      The same was
          made the head
          of the corner:
11   This was from the
          Lord,
      And it is marvel-
          lous in our eyes?


















12 And they sought to
lay hold on him; and
they feared the
multitude; for they
perceived that he spake
the parable against
them: and they left
him, and went away.


23    And when he was
come into the temple,
the chief priests and
the elders of the
people came unto him
as he was teaching,
and said,

                         By
what authority doest
thou these things?
and who gave thee
this authority? 24 And
Jesus answered and
said unto them, I
also will ask you one
1question, which if
ye tell me, I likewise
will tell you by what
authority I do these
things. 25 The baptism
of John, whence was
it? from heaven or
from men? And they
reasoned with
themselves, saying,
If we shall say, From
heaven; he will say unto
us, Why then did ye
not believe him? 26 But
if we shall say, From
men; we fear the
multitude; for all hold
John as a prophet.
27 And they answered
Jesus, and said, We
know not.

He also said unto
them, Neither tell I
you by what authority
I do these things.
28 But what think ye?
A man had two sons;
and he came to the
first, and said, 2Son,
go work to-day in the
vineyard. 29 And he
answered and said, I
will not: but afterward
he repented
himself, and went.
30 And he came to the
second, and said
likewise. And he
answered and said, I
go, sir: and went not.
31 Whether of the twain
did the will of his
father? They say,
The first. Jesus saith
unto them, Verily I
say unto you, that
the publicans and the
harlots go into the
kingdom of God
before you. 32 For John
came unto you in the
way of righteousness,
and ye believed him
not: but the publicans
and the harlots
believed him: and ye,
when ye saw it, did not
even repent yourselves
afterward, that
ye might believe him.
33    Hear another
parable: There was a
man that was a
householder, which
planted a vineyard,
and set a hedge about
it, and digged a
winepress in it, and
built a tower, and let it
out to husbandmen,
and went into another
country.
34            And when
the season of the
fruits drew near, he
sent his 3servants to
the husbandmen, to
receive 4his fruits.
35 And the husbandmen
took his 3servants,
and beat one, and
killed another, and
stoned another.
36 Again, he sent other
3servants more than
the first: and they did
unto him in like
manner.



37                     But
afterward he sent
unto them his son,
saying, They will
reverence my son.

38 But the husbandmen,
when they saw the
son, said among
themselves, This is
the heir; come, let us
kill him, and take his
inheritance.
39                     And
they took him, and
cast him forth out of
the vineyard, and
killed him. 40 When
therefore the lord of
the vineyard shall
come, what will he
do unto those
husbandmen? 41 They
say unto him, He will
miserably destroy
those miserable men,
and will let out the
vineyard unto other
husbandmen, which
shall render him the
fruits in their seasons.
42 Jesus saith
unto them, Did ye
never read in the
scriptures [see Ps.
118:22-23
],
      The stone which
          the builders
          rejected,
      The same was
          made the head
          of the corner:
      This was from the
          Lord,
      And it is marvel-
          lous in our eyes?
43 Therefore say I unto
you, The kingdom of
God shall be taken
away from you, and
shall be given to a
nation bringing forth
the fruits thereof.
44 5And he that falleth
on this stone shall be
broken to pieces; but
on whomsoever it
shall fall, it will scatter
him as dust. 45 And
when the chief priests
and the Pharisees
heard his parables,
they perceived that
he spake of them.
46 And when they
sought to lay hold on
him, they feared the
multitudes,

            because they
took him for a
prophet.
1    And it came to
pass, on one of the
days, as he was teaching
the people in the
temple, and preaching
the gospel, there came
upon him the chief
priests and the scribes
with the elders; 2 and
they spake, saying
unto him, Tell us: By
what authority doest
thou these things? or
who is he that gave
thee this authority?
3 And he answered and
said unto them, I also
will ask you a
1question; and tell me:
4 The baptism of John,
was it from heaven,
or from men?



5          And they
reasoned with
themselves, saying,
If we shall say, From
heaven; he will say,
Why did ye not
believe him? 6 But if
we shall say, From
men; all the people
will stone us: for
they be persuaded
that John was a
prophet. 7 And they
answered, that they
knew not whence it
was
. 8 And Jesus said
unto them, Neither
tell I you by what
authority I do these
things.


































9    And he began to
speak unto the people
this parable [see Isa.
5:1-2
]: A man planted
a vineyard,



                and let it
out to husbandmen,
and went into another
country for a long
time. 10 And at the
season he sent unto
the husbandmen a
9servant, that they
should give him of the
fruit of the vineyard:
but the husbandmen
beat him, and sent
him away empty.
11 And he sent yet
another 9servant: and
him also they beat,
and handled him
shamefully, and sent
him away empty.
12 And he sent yet a
third: and him also
they wounded, and
cast him forth. 13 And
the Lord of the vineyard
said, What shall
I do? I will send my
beloved son: it may
be they will reverence
him.
14            But when
the husbandmen saw
him, they reasoned
one with another,
saying, This is the heir:
let us kill him, that
the inheritance may
be ours. 15 And they
cast him forth out of
the vineyard, and
killed him. What
therefore will the lord
of the vineyard do
unto them?



16 He will come and
destroy these
husbandmen, and will
give the vineyard unto
others. And when
they heard it, they
said, 10God forbid.

17 But he looked upon
them, and said, What
then is this that is
written [see Ps.
118:22
],
      The stone which
          the builders
          rejected,
      The same was
          made the head
          of the corner?











18 Every one that falleth
on that stone shall be
broken to pieces; but
on whomsoever it
shall fall, it will scatter
him as dust [see
Isa. 8:14-15
].
19    And the scribes
and the chief priests



sought to lay hands
on him in that very
hour; and they feared
the people: for they
perceived that he
spake this parable
against them.

1    And Jesus answered and spake again in parables unto them, saying, 2 The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a certain king, which made a marriage feast for his son, 3 and sent forth his 3servants to call them that were bidden to the marriage feast: and they would not come. 4 Again he sent forth other 3servants, saying, Tell them that are bidden, Behold, I have made ready my dinner: my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come to the marriage feast. 5 But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his own farm, another to his merchandise: 6 and the rest laid hold on his 3servants, and entreated them shamefully, and killed them. 7 But the king was wroth; and he sent his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burned their city. 8 Then saith he to his 3servants, The wedding is ready, but they that were bidden were not worthy. 9 Go ye therefore unto the partings of the highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage feast. 10 And those 3servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found, both bad and good: and the wedding was filled with guests. 11 But when the king came in to behold the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding-garment: 12 and he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding-garment? And he was speechless. 13 Then the king said to the 6servants, Bind him hand and foot, and cast him out into the outer darkness; there shall be the weeping and gnashing of teeth. 14 For many are called, but few chosen.

1 Gr. word.
2 Gr. Child.
3 Gr. bondservants.
4 Or, the fruits of it.
5 Some ancient authorities omit ver. 44.
6 Or, ministers.
7 Or, But shall we say, From men?
8 Or, for all held John to be a prophet indeed.
9 Gr. bondservant.
10 Gr. Be it not so.

a It was very common to test a Rabbi with hard questions. See this continued in the following sections. In like manner the Fourth Gospel gave us much animated dialogue between Jesus and the Jews at Jerusalem in chap. 5, and chap. 7-10. The Sanhedrin were within their rights in challenging the ecclesiastical and scholastic (scribal) standing of Jesus. He did not dodge in his answer.

b On this last day of Christ's public ministry the Sanhedrin seek to break the power of Jesus with the people whose hero he is since the Triumphal Entry. The first attempt fails miserably, but it is followed by a series of other efforts to entrap Jesus and so turn the crowd against him. The three parables leave the rulers exposed by Jesus and they keenly feel the denunciation of the reply of Jesus.





§ 133. THE PHARISEES AND THE HERODIANS TRY TO ENSNARE JESUS ABOUT PAYING TRIBUTE TO CÆSAR


Mark 12:13-17 Matt. 22:15-22 Luke 20:20-26
13    And they send
unto him certain of the
Pharisees and of the
Herodians, that they
might catch him in
talk.

14        And when they
were come, they say
unto him, 1Master,
we know that thou
art true, and carest
not for any one: for
thou regardest not
the person of men,
but of a truth teachest
the way of God:
Is it lawful to give
tribute unto Cæsar,
or not? 15 Shall we
give, or shall we not
give? But he, knowing
their hypocrisy,
said unto them, Why
tempt ye me? bring
me a 2penny, that I
may see it. 16 And
they brought it. And
he saith unto them,

Whose is this image
and superscription?
And they said unto
him, Cæsar's. 17 And
Jesus said unto them,
Render unto Cæsar
the things that are
Cæsar's, and unto
God the things that
are God's.


                         And
they marvelled greatly
at him.


15    Then went the
Pharisees, and took
counsel how they might
ensnare him in his
talk. 16 And they send
to him their disciples,a
with the Herodians,
saying, 1Master,
we know that
thou art true, and
teachest the way of
God in truth, and
carest not for any
one: for thou regardest
not the person of men.
17 Tell us therefore,
What thinkest
thou? Is it lawful to
give tribute unto
Cæsar, or not? 18 But
Jesus perceived their
wickedness, and said,
Why tempt ye me,
ye hypocrites? 19 Shew
me the tribute
money. And they
brought unto him a
2penny. 20 And he saith
unto them, Whose is
this image and
superscription? 21 They
say unto him, Cæsar's.
Then saith he unto
them, Render therefore
unto Cæsar the
things that are
Cæsar's; and unto God
the things that are
God's.
22                     And
when they heard it,
they marvelled, and
left him, and went
their way.
20    And they watched
him, and sent forth
spies, which feigned
themselves to be
righteous, that they
might take hold of
his speech, so as to
deliver him up to the
rule and to the
authority of the
governor. 21 And they
asked him, saying,
1Master, we know
that thou sayest and
teachest rightly, and
acceptest not the
person of any, but of a
truth teachest the
way of God [see John
3:2
]: 22 Is it lawful for
us to give tribute
unto Cæsar, or not?
23 But he perceived
their craftiness,
and said unto
them, 24 Shew me a
2penny.



            Whose image
and superscription
hath it? And they
said, Cæsar's. 25 And
he said unto them,
Then render unto
Cæsar the things that
are Cæsar's, and unto
God the things that
are God's. 26 And they
were not able to take
hold of the saying
before the people: and
they marvelled at his
answer, and held their
peace.
1 Or, Teacher.
2 See marginal note on Matt. 18:28.

a The Pharisees send a group of their keenest students to go with the Herodians to catch Jesus with the dilemma about paying tribute to Cæsar, a live question in current politics and theology. They offered Jesus the alternative of popular disfavor or of disloyalty to the Roman government.





§ 134. THE SADDUCEES ASK HIM A PUZZLING QUESTIONa ABOUT THE RESURRECTION

In the Court of the Temple. (Tuesday)


Mark 12:18-27 Matt. 22:23-33 Luke 20:27-40
18    And there come
unto him Sadducees,
which say that there
is no resurrection;
and they asked him,
saying, 19 2Master,
Moses wrote unto us,
If a man's brother
die, and leave a wife
behind him, and
leave no child, that
his brother should
take his wife, and
raise up seed unto
his brother. 20 There


were seven brethren:
and the first took a
wife, and dying left
no seed; 21 and the
second took her, and
died, leaving no seed
behind him; and the
third likewise: 22 and
the seven left no
seed. Last of all the
woman also died.
23 In the resurrection
whose wife shall she
be of them? for the
seven had her to wife.
24 Jesus said unto
them, Is it not for
this cause that ye
err, that ye know
not the scriptures,
nor the power of
God?





25        For when they
shall rise from the
dead, they neither
marry, nor are given
in marriage; but are

as angels in heaven.


26 But as touching the
dead, that they are
raised; have ye not
read in the book of
Moses, in the place
concerning
the Bush,
how God spake unto
him, saying, I am the
God of Abraham, and
the God of Isaac, and
the God of Jacob?
27 He is not the God
of the dead, but of the
living: ye do greatly
err.
23    On that day there
came to him Sadducees,
1which say that
there is no resurrection:
and they asked
him, 24 saying, 2Master,
Moses said, If a man
die, having no
children, his brother
3shall marry his wife,
and raise up seed
unto his brother.




25                     Now
there were with us
seven brethren: and
the first married and
deceased, and having
no seed left his wife
unto his brother; 26 in
like manner the second
also, and the third,
unto the 4seventh.
27 And after them
all the woman died.
28 In the resurrection
therefore whose wife
shall she be of the
seven? for they all
had her. 29 But Jesus
answered and said
unto them, Ye do
err, not knowing the
scriptures, nor the
power of God.






30 For in the
resurrection they neither
marry, nor are given
in marriage, but are


as angels5 in heaven.


31 But as touching the
resurrection of the
dead, have ye not
read that which was
spoken unto you by
God, saying,

32                 I am the
God of Abraham, and
the God of Isaac, and
the God of Jacob?
God is not the God of
the dead, but of the
living. 33 And when the
multitudes heard it,
they were astonished
at his teaching.
27    And there came
to him certain of the
Sadducees, they
which say that there
is no resurrection;
28 and they asked him,
saying, 2Master,
Moses wrote unto us
[see Gen. 38:8; Deut.
25:5-6
], that if a
man's brother die,
having a wife, and
he be childless, his
brother should take
the wife, and raise
up seed unto his
brother. 29 There were
therefore seven
brethren: and the first
took a wife, and died
childless; 30 and the
second; 31 and the
third took her; and
likewise the seven also
left no children, and
died.
32            Afterward
the woman also died.
33 In the resurrection
therefore whose wife
of them shall she be?
for the seven had her
to wife. 34 And Jesus
said unto them,



                         The
sons of this 6world
marry, and are given
in marriage: 35 but they
that are accounted
worthy to attain to
that 6world, and the
resurrection from the
dead, neither marry,
nor are given in
marriage: 36 for neither
can they die any more:
for they are equal unto
the angels; and are sons
of God, being sons
of the resurrection.
37 But that the
dead are raised,

                         even
Moses shewed in the
place concerning
the
Bush, when he calleth
the Lord the God of
Abraham, and the
God of Isaac, and the
God of Jacob [see Ex.
3:6
]. 38 Now he is not
the God of the dead,
but of the living: for
all live unto him.
39 And certain of the
scribes answering
said, 2Master, thou
hast well said. 40 For
they durst not any
more ask him any
question.
1 Gr. saying.
2 Or, Teacher.
3 Gr. shall perform the duty of a husband's brother to his wife. Compare Deut. 25:5.
4 Gr. seven.
5 Many ancient authorities add of God.
6 Or, age.

a Probably a stock conundrum that the Sadducees had often propounded to the discomfort of the Pharisees.





§ 135. THE PHARISEES REJOICE OVER THE ROUT OF THE SADDUCEES AND A PHARISAIC LAWYER ASKS JESUS A LEGAL QUESTION

In the Court of the Temple. (Tuesday)


Mark 12:28-34 Matt. 22:34-40
28    And one of the scribes came,
and heard them questioning
together, and knowing that he had
answered them well, asked him,

                                          What
commandment is the first of all
[see Deut. 6:4]? 29 Jesus answered,
The first is, Hear, O Israel; 3The
Lord our God [see Deut. 6:4], the
Lord is one: 30 and thou shalt love
the Lord thy God 4with all thy
heart, and 4with all thy soul, and
4with all thy mind, and 4with all thy
strength [see Deut. 6:5]. 31 The
second is this, Thou shalt love
thy neighbor as thyself [see Lev.
19:18
]. There is none other
commandment greater than these.
32 And the scribe said unto him,
Of a truth, 1Master, thou hast
well said that he is one; and there
is none other but he: 33 and to
love him with all the heart, and
with all the understanding, and
with all the strength, and to love
his neighbor as himself, is much
more than all whole burnt offerings
and sacrifices [see 1 Sam. 15:22].
34 And when Jesus saw that
he answered discreetly, he said
unto him, Thou art not far from
the kingdom of God. And no
man after that durst ask him any
question.
34    But the Pharisees, when they
heard that he had put the
Sadducees to silence, gathered
themselves together. 35 And one of
them, a lawyer, asked him a question,
tempting him, 36 1Master, which is
the great commandment in the
law? 37 And he said unto him,


                                          Thou
shalt love the Lord thy God with
all thy heart, and with all thy soul,
and with all thy mind. 38 This is
the great and first commandment.
39 2And a second like unto it is this,
Thou shalt love thy neighbour as
thyself. 40 On these two
commandments hangeth the whole
law, and the prophets.
1 Or, Teacher.
2 Or, And a second is like unto it, Thou shalt love etc.
3 Or, The Lord is our God; the Lord is one.
4 Gr. from.




§ 136. JESUS, TO THE JOY OF THE MULTITUDE, SILENCES HIS ENEMIES BY THE PERTINENT QUESTION OF THE MESSIAH'S DESCENT FROM DAVID AND LORDSHIP OVER DAVID

In the Court of the Temple. (Tuesday)


Mark 12:35-37 Matt. 22:41-46 Luke 20:41-44



35    And Jesus
answered and said, as
he taught in the temple,
How say the scribes
that the Christ is
the son of David?

36 David himself said
in the Holy Spirit,
[see Ps. 110:1],
    The Lord said unto
        my Lord,
    Sit thou on my
        right hand,
    Till I make thine
        enemies 1the foot-
        stool of thy feet.
37 David himself calleth
him Lord; and
whence is he his son?
    And 2the common
people heard him
gladly.
41    Now while the
Pharisees were
gathered together,
Jesus asked them a
question, 42 saying,
What think ye of the
Christ? whose son is
he? They say unto
him, The son of David.
43 He saith unto them,
How then doth David
in the Spirit call him
Lord, saying,
44  The Lord said unto
         my Lord,
     Sit thou on my
         right hand,
     Till I put thine
         enemies under-
         neath thy feet?
45 If David then calleth
him Lord, how is he
his son? 46 And no one
was able to answer
him a word, neither
durst any man from
that day forth ask him
any more questions.



41    And he said unto
them,
          How say they
that the Christ is
David's son?


42                   For
David himself saith in
the book of Psalms,
     The Lord said unto
        my Lord,
      Sit thou on my
         right hand,
43  Till I make thine
         enemies the foot-
         stool of thy feet.
44 David therefore
calleth him Lord, and
how is he his son?
1 Some ancient authorities read underneath thy feet.
2 Or, the great multitude.




§ 137. IN HIS LAST PUBLIC DISCOURSE, JESUS SOLEMNLY DENOUNCESa THE SCRIBES AND PHARISEES (COMP. § 107)

In the Court of the Temple. (Tuesday)


Mark 12:38-40 Matt. 23:1-39 Luke 20:45-47

38    And in his teaching
he said, Beware of
the scribes,






















                     which
desire to walk in long
robes, and to have
salutations in the
marketplaces, 39 and
chief seats in the
synagogues, and chief
places at feasts:
































40 they which devour
widows' houses, 12and
for a pretence make
long prayers; these
shall receive greater
condemnation.
1    Then spake Jesus
to the multitudes
and to his disciples,
saying, 2 The scribes
and the Pharisees sit
on Moses' seat: 3 all
things therefore
whatsoever they bid
you, these do and
observe: but do not ye
after their works; for
they say, and do not.
4 Yea, they bind heavy
burdens 1and grievous
to be borne, and lay
them on men's shoul-
ders; but they them-
selves will not move
them with their finger.
5 But all their works
they do for to be seen
of men [see Ex. 13:9;
Num. 15:38-39;
Deut. 6:8; 11:18
]:
for they make broad
their phylacteries,
and enlarge the bor-
ders of their garments,
6 and love the chief
place at feasts, and
the chief seats in the
synagogues, 7 and the
salutations in the
marketplaces, and to
be called of men,
Rabbi. 8 But be not
ye called Rabbi: for
one is your teacher,
and all ye are brethren.
9 And call no
man your father on
the earth: for one is
your Father, 2which
is in heaven. 10 Neither
be ye called masters:
for one is your
master, even the
Christ. 11 But he that
is 3greatest among
you shall be your
4servant. 12 And
whosoever shall exalt
himself shall be hum-
bled; and whosoever
shall humble himself
shall be exalted.
13    But woe unto you,
scribes and Pharisees,
hypocrites! because
ye shut the kingdom
of heaven
5against men: for ye
enter not in yourselves,
neither suffer
ye them that are
entering in to enter.6
45    And in the hearing
of all the people he
said unto his disciples,
46 Beware of the
scribes,





















            which desire
to walk in long robes,
and love salutations
in the marketplaces,
and chief seats in the
synagogues, and chief
places at feasts;

































47        which devour
widows' houses,
and for a pretence
make long prayers:
these shall receive
greater condemnation.
15    Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass
sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he is become so, ye
make him twofold more a son of 7hell than yourselves.
16    Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear
by the 8temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of
the 8temple, he is 9a debtor. 17 Ye fools and blind: for whether is
greater, the gold, or the 8temple that hath sanctified the gold? 18 And,
Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever shall
swear by the gift that is upon it, he is 9a debtor. 19 Ye blind: for whether
is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? 20 He therefore
that sweareth by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon.
21 And he that sweareth by the 8temple, sweareth by it, and by him that
dwelleth therein. 22 And he that sweareth by the heaven, sweareth by
the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.
23    Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye tithe
mint and 10anise and cummin [see Lev. 27:30; Mic. 6:8], and have left
undone the weightier matters of the law, judgement, and mercy, and
faith: but these ye ought to have done, and not to have left the other
undone. 24 Ye blind guides, which strain out the gnat, and swallow the
camel.
25    Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye cleanse
the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full from
extortion and excess. 26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first the inside of
the cup and of the platter, that the outside thereof may become clean
also.
27    Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like
unto whited sepulchres, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly
are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 28 Even so ye
also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but inwardly ye are full of
hypocrisy and iniquity.
29    Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye build the
sepulchres of the prophets, and garnish the tombs of the righteous,
30 and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we should not
have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.
31 Wherefore ye witness to yourselves, that ye are sons of them that
slew the prophets. 32 Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. 33 Ye
serpents, ye offspring of vipers, how shall ye escape the judgement of
7hell? 34 Therefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men,
and scribes: some of them shall ye kill and crucify; and some of them
shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city:
35 that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth,
from the blood of Abel the righteous unto the blood of Zachariah son
of Barachiah, whom ye slew between the sanctuary and the altar [see
Gen. 4:8; 2 Chron. 24:20-21
]. 36 Verily I say unto you, All these
things shall come upon this generation.
37    O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killeth the prophets, and stoneth
them that are sent unto her! how often would I have gathered thy
children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings,
and ye would not! 38 Behold, your house is left unto you 11desolate
[see Jer. 12:7; 39 22:5]. 39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me
henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of
the Lord [see Ps. 118:26].
1 Many ancient authorities omit and grievous to be borne.
2 Gr. the heavenly.
3 Gr. greater.
4 Or, minister.
5 Gr. before.
6 Some authorities insert here, or after ver. 12, ver. 14, Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, even while for a pretence ye make long prayers: therefore ye shall receive greater condemnation. See Mark 12:40, Luke 20:47, above.
7 Gr. Gehenna.
8 Or, sanctuary: as in ver. 35.
9 Or, bound by his oath.
10 Or, dill.
11 Some ancient authorities omit desolate.
12 Or, even while for a pretence they make.

a Jesus has been criticized for lack of self-control in this exposure of the hypocrisy of the Pharisees. One must bear in mind the tremendous sins of which the Pharisees are guilty. The very teachers of righteousness are now in the act of rejecting and finally crucifying the Son of God. See my book, The Pharisees and Jesus, for full discussion.





§ 138. JESUS CLOSELY OBSERVESa THE CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE TEMPLE, AND COMMENDS THE POOR WIDOW'S GIFT

(Tuesday)


Mark 12:41-44 Luke 21:1-4
41    And he sat down over against
the treasury, and beheld how the
multitude cast 1money into the
treasury: and many that were
rich cast in much. 42 And there
came 2a poor widow, and she cast
in two mites, which make a
farthing. 43 And he called unto
him his disciples, and said unto
them, Verily I say unto you, This
poor widow cast in more than all
they which are casting into the
treasury: 44 for they all did cast in
of their superfluity; but she of
her want did cast in all that she
had, even all her living.
1    And he looked up, 3and saw
the rich men that were casting their
gifts into the treasury. 2 And he
saw a certain poor widow casting
in thither two mites.


3                             And he
said, Of a truth I say unto you,
This poor widow cast in more
than they all: 4 for all these did
of their superfluity cast in unto
the gifts: but she of her want did
cast in all the living that she had.
1 Gr. brass.
2 Gr. one.
3 Or, and saw them that ... treasury, and they were rich.

a Notice that this was the last occurrence in the Saviour's public ministry, except the trial and the crucifixion. This is the last appearance of Jesus in the Temple. His public teaching is over save the words of defence in his trial and the seven sayings on the Cross. The Pharisees and Sadducees had withdrawn in terror at the explosion of the wrath of Jesus and even the disciples were at some distance as Jesus sat alone by the treasury. It is useless further to plead with his enemies. The task now remains to get the disciples prepared for the Master's death and the time is short and they as yet have completely failed to grasp the fact or the significance of his death and the promise of his resurrection on the third day.





PART XII
IN THE SHADOW WITH JESUS

Tuesday afternoon to Thursday night of Passion Week, A.D. 30 (or 29). Jerusalem.

§§ 139-152. Jesus now seeks to prepare the disciples for the tragedy of His death and for carrying on His work after His departure.





§ 139. SITTING ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES, JESUS SPEAKS TO HIS DISCIPLES ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, AND HIS OWN SECOND COMING, IN APOCALYPTIC LANGUAGE. THE GREAT ESCHATOLOGICAL DISCOURSEa

(Tuesday Afternoon)


a This great discourse has as its background the death of Christ. Further on as part punishment for this crime lies the destruction of Jerusalem. This catastrophe is itself a symbol of the end of the world and in one sense a coming of Christ in power and judgment. But Christ boldly predicts his own personal return to earth, though the time is not revealed. But he does exhort an expectant attitude toward the promises of his coming and readiness for his return which will be at an unexpected hour. Jesus employs the common Jewish apocalyptic imagery to portray this most difficult subject. Some scholars insist that Jesus was himself merely a wild enthusiast who was carried away by the Messianic hopes of his people, but that is a one-sided and distorted view of Christ's life and ignores the great mass of his ethical teaching. It forgets also that Jesus has a world program of conquest and of power. The various aspects of the discourse are not kept distinct. Some think that the Gospels have misunderstood or misrepresented Jesus in this discourse. But we can catch the general drift of the teaching and leave alone minute details of time and place against which Jesus himself warned us.

  Mark 13:1-37 Matt. 24 and 25 Luke 21:5-36
1    Occasion
of the
Prophecy
about the
Destruction of
the Temple.


















2    Inquiry for
Further Light
from Peter
and James
and John and
Andrew on
Christ's Second
Coming
and the End
of the World.












































































































































3    Sign of the
Destruction of
Jerusalem.































































































4    False
Christs and
the Second
Coming.















































































































Parable of
the Fig Tree.











































































5 Readiness
urged by
Series of
Parables.
















Parable of
the Porter
1    And as he
went forth out
of the temple,
one of his
disciples saith
unto him,
18Master, behold,
what manner
of stones and
what manner
of buildings!

2 And Jesus said
unto him, Seest
thou these
great buildings?
there
shall not be
left here one
stone upon
another, which
shall not be
thrown down.
3    And as he
sat on the
mount of
Olives over
against the
temple, Peter
and James and
John and
Andrew asked
him privately,
4 Tell us, when
shall these
things be? and
what shall be
the sign when
these things are
all about to be
accomplished?
5 And
Jesus began to
say unto them,
Take heed that
no man lead
you astray.
6 Many shall
come in my
name, saying,
I am he; and
shall lead
many astray.
7 And when ye
shall hear of
wars and
rumours of
wars, be not
troubled: these
things
must
needs come to
pass; but the
end is not yet.
8 For nation
shall rise
against nation,
and kingdom
against
kingdom: there
shall be
earthquakes in
divers places;
there shall be
famines:








                these
things are the
beginning of
travail [see
Isa. 19:2
].
9    But take ye
heed to
yourselves: for
they shall deliver
you up to
councils; and
in synagogues
shall ye be
beaten; and
before governors
and kings
shall ye stand
for my sake,
for a
testimony
unto them.
10 And the gospel
must first be
preached unto
all the nations.
11 And when
they lead you
to judgement,
and deliver
you up, be not
anxious
beforehand what
ye shall speak:
but whatsoever
shall be given
you in that
hour, that
speak ye: for
it is not ye
that speak,
but the Holy
Ghost. 12 And
brother shall
deliver up
brother to
death, and the
father his
child; and
children shall
rise up against
parents, and
19cause them
to be put to
death [see Micah
7:6
]. 13 And
ye shall be
hated of all
men for my
name's sake:















    but he that
endureth to
the end, the
same shall be
saved.











14    But when
ye see the
abomination of
desolation
standing where
he ought not






    (let him that
readeth
understand),







then let them
that are in Judea
flee unto
the mountains:
15 and let him
that is on the
housetop not
go down, nor
enter in, to
take anything
out of his
house: 16 and let
him that is in
the field not
return back to
take his cloke.






17 But woe unto
them that are
with child and
to them that
give suck in
those days!
18 And pray ye
that it be not
in the winter.
19 For those
days shall be
tribulation, such
as there hath
not been the
like from the
beginning of
the creation
which God
created until
now, and never
shall be. 20 And
except the
Lord had
shortened the
days, no flesh
would have
been saved:
but for the
elect's sake,
whom he
chose, he
shortened the
days.




















21 And then if
any man shall
say unto you,
Lo, here is the
Christ; or, Lo,
there; believe
7it not: 22 for
there shall
arise false
Christs and
false prophets,
and shall shew
signs and
wonders, that
they may lead
astray, if possible,
the elect.
23 But take ye
heed: behold,
I have told
you all things
beforehand.
























24    But in those
days, after
that tribulation,
the sun shall
be darkened,
and the
moon shall not
give her light,
25 and the stars
shall be falling
from heaven,









                and
the powers
that are in the
heavens shall
be shaken.









26    And then
shall they see
the Son of man
coming in
clouds with
great power
and glory. 27 And
then shall he
send forth the
angels, and
shall gather
together his elect
from the four
winds, from
the uttermost
part of the
earth to the
uttermost part
of heaven.















28    Now from
the fig tree
learn her parable:
when her
branch is now
become tender,
and putteth
forth its
leaves, ye know
that the summer
is nigh;
29 even so ye
also, when ye
see these
things coming
to pass, know
ye that 12he is
nigh, even at
the doors.
30 Verily I say
unto you, This
generation shall
not pass away,
until all these
things be
accomplished.
31 Heaven and
earth shall
pass away: but
my words shall
not pass away.
32 But of that
day or that
hour knoweth
no one, not
even the angels
in heaven,
neither the
Son, but the
Father.




































33        Take ye
heed, watch
20and pray: for
ye know not
when the time
is. 34 It is as
when a man,
sojourning in
another country,
having left
his house, and
given authority
to his 21servants,
to each
one his work,
commanded
also the
porter to

watch. 35 Watch
therefore: for
ye know not
when the lord
of the house
cometh,
whether at
even, or at
midnight, or at
cockcrowing,
or in the
morning; 36 lest
coming suddenly
he find you
sleeping. 37 And
what I say unto
you I say unto
all, Watch.
1    And Jesus
went out from
the temple, and
was going on
his way; and
his disciples
came to him
to shew him
the buildings
of the temple.
2 But he
answered and
said unto
them, See ye
not all these
things? verily
I say unto
you, There
shall not be
left here one
stone upon
another, that
shall not be
thrown down.
3    And as he
sat on the
mount of
Olives, the
disciples came
unto him
privately, saying,


Tell us, when
shall these
things be? and
what shall be
the sign of thy
1coming, and
of 2the end of
the world?
4 And Jesus
answered and
said unto
them, Take
heed that no
man lead you
astray. 5 For
many shall
come in my
name, saying,
I am the
Christ; and
shall lead
many astray.
6 And ye shall
hear of wars
and rumours of
wars: see that ye
be not troubled:
for these
things
must
needs come to
pass; but the
end is not yet.
7 For nation
shall rise
against nation,
and kingdom
against
kingdom: and
there shall be
famines and
earthquakes in
divers places.






8            But
all these things
are the beginning
of travail.



9    Then shall
they deliver
you up unto
tribulation,
and shall kill
you:
            and ye
shall be hated
of all the
nations for my
name's sake.























10        And then
shall many
stumble, and
shall deliver
up one
another, and
shall hate one
another.
















11    And many
false prophets
shall arise, and
shall lead
many astray.
12 And because
iniquity shall
be multiplied,
the love of the
many shall wax
cold. 13 But he
that endureth
to the end, the
same shall be
saved. 14 And
3this gospel of
the kingdom
shall be
preached in
the whole
4world for a
testimony unto
all the nations;
and then
shall the end
come.
15    When
therefore ye see
the abomination
of desolation,
which was
spoken of 5by
Daniel the
prophet [see
Dan. 9:27;
11:31; 12:11
],
standing in
6the holy place
(let him that
readeth
understand),







16 then let them
that are in Judea
flee unto
the mountains:
17 let him
that is on the
housetop not
go down to
take out the
things that
are in his
house: 18 and let
him that is in
the field not
return back to
take his cloke.






19            But
woe unto them
that are with
child and to
them that give
suck in those
days! 20 And
pray ye that
your flight be
not in the
winter, neither
on a sabbath:
21 for then shall
be great
tribulation, such
as hath not been
from the
beginning of the
world until
now, no, nor
ever shall be
[see Dan. 12:1].
22 And except
those days had
been shortened,
no flesh
would have
been saved:
but for the
elect's sake
those days shall
be shortened.





















23        Then if
any man shall
say unto you,
Lo, here is the
Christ, or,
Here; believe
7it not. 24 For
there shall
arise false
Christs, and
false prophets,
and shall shew
great signs and
wonders; so as
to lead astray,
if possible, even
the elect [see
Deut. 13:1
].
25 Behold, I
have told you
beforehand. 26 If
therefore they
shall say unto
you, Behold,
he is in the
wilderness; go
not forth:
Behold, he is
in the inner
chambers;
believe 8it not.
27 For as the
lightning cometh
forth from
the east, and
is seen even
unto the west;
so shall be the
1coming of the
Son of man.
28 Wheresoever
the carcase is,
there will the
9eagles be
gathered
together.
29    But immedi-
ately, after
the tribulation
of those days,
the sun shall
be darkened,
and the moon
shall not give
her light, and
the stars shall
fall from heaven,









        and the
powers of the
heavens shall
be shaken:
30 and then shall
appear the
sign of the Son
of man in
heaven [see
Zech. 12:12
]:
and then shall
all the tribes
of the earth
mourn, and
they shall see
the Son of man
coming on the
clouds of heaven
with power
and great
glory. 31 And he
shall send
forth his angels
10with 11a
great sound of
a trumpet, and
they shall
gather together
his elect
from the four
winds, from
one end of
heaven to the
other.














32    Now from
the fig tree
learn her parable:
when her
branch is now
become tender,
and putteth
forth its
leaves, ye
know that the
summer is
nigh; 33 even so
ye also, when
ye see all these
things, know
ye that 12he is
nigh, even at
the doors.
34 Verily I say
unto you, This
generation shall
not pass away,
till all these
things be
accomplished.
35 Heaven and
earth shall
pass away, but
my words shall
not pass away.
36 But of that
day and hour
knoweth no
one, not even
the angels of
heaven,
13neither the
Son, but the
Father only.
37 And as were
the days of
Noah, so shall
be the 1coming
of the Son of
man [see Gen.
6:11-13; 7:7,
21-23
]. 38 For
as in those
days which
were before
the flood they
were eating
and drinking,
marrying and
giving in
marriage, until the
day that Noah
entered into
the ark, 39 and
they knew not
until the flood
came, and took
them all away;
so shall be the
1coming of the
Son of man.
40 Then shall two
men be in the
field; one is
taken, and one
is left: 41 two
women shall
be
grinding
at the mill;
one is taken,
and one is left.



















42    Watch
therefore: for ye
know not on
what day your
Lord cometh.
5    And as some
spake of the
temple, how it
was adorned
with goodly
stones and
offerings, he
said, 6 As for
these things
which ye
behold,

            the
days will come,
in which there
shall not be
left here one
stone upon
another, that
shall not be
thrown down.









7        And they
asked him,
saying, 18Master,
when therefore
shall these
things be? and
what shall be
the sign when
these things
are about to
come to pass?
8 And he said,
Take heed
that ye be not
led astray: for
many shall
come in my
name, saying,
I am he; and,
The time is at
hand: go ye
not after them.
9 And when ye
shall hear of
wars and
tumults, be not
terrified: for
these things
must needs
come to pass
first; but the
end is not
immediately.
10    Then said
he unto them,
Nation shall
rise against
nation, and
kingdom
against kingdom:
11 and there
shall be great
earthquakes,
and in divers
places famines
and pestilences;
and
there shall be
terrors and
great signs
from heaven.

12    But before
all these
things, they
shall lay their
hands on you,
and shall
persecute you,
delivering you
up to the
synagogues
and prisons,
22bringing you
before kings
and governors
for my name's
sake. 13 It shall
turn unto you
for a testimony.









14    Settle it
therefore in
your hearts,
not to meditate
beforehand
how to
answer: 15 for I
will give you
a mouth and
wisdom, which
all your
adversaries shall
not be able to
withstand or
to gainsay.
16 But ye shall
be delivered
up even by
parents, and
brethren, and
kinsfolk, and
friends; and
some of you
23shall they
cause to be put
to death. 17 And
ye shall be
hated of all
men for my
name's sake.
18 And not a hair
of your head
shall perish.
19 In your
patience ye shall
win your
24souls.









































20        But
when ye see
Jerusalem
compassed with
armies, then
know that her
desolation is at
hand. 21 Then
let them that
are in Judea
flee unto the
mountains;
and let them
that are in the
midst of her
depart out; and
let not them
that are in the
country enter
therein.



22        For these
are days of
vengeance,
that all things
which are
written may be
fulfilled. 23 Woe
unto them
that are with
child and to
them that give
suck in those
days!


























        for there
shall be great
distress upon
the 25land, and
wrath unto
this people.
24 And they
shall fall by the
edge of the
sword, and
shall be led
captive into all
nations: and
Jerusalem
shall be trodden
down of
the Gentiles,
until the times
of the Gentiles
be fulfilled.
















































25        And there
shall be signs
in sun and
moon and
stars; and upon
the earth
distress of
nations, in
perplexity for
the roaring of
the sea and the
billows; 26 men
26fainting for
fear, and for
expectation of
the things
which are
coming on 27the
world: for the
powers of the
heavens shall
be shaken [see
Isa. 13:9-10;
Ezek. 32:7-8;
Joel 2:1-2,
10-11, 30-31;
Amos 8:9;
Zeph. 1:14-16
].




27        And then
shall they see
the Son of man
coming in a
cloud with
power and
great glory. [see
Dan. 7:13-14
(Septuagint)
]











28            But
when these
things begin to
come to pass,
look up, and
lift up your
heads; because
your redemption
draweth nigh.
[see Deut. 30:4
(Septuagint);
Isa. 27:12-13;
Zech. 2:6
(Septuagint)
]
29    And he
spake to them
a parable:
Behold the fig
tree, and all
trees: 30 when
they now
shoot forth,
ye see it and
know of your
own selves
that the summer
is now
nigh. 31 Even
so ye also,
when ye see
these things
coming to
pass, know ye
that the kingdom
of God is
nigh. 32 Verily
I say unto
you, This
generation shall
not pass away,
till all things be
accomplished.
33 Heaven
and earth shall
pass away: but
my words shall
not pass away.











































34    But take
heed to
yourselves, lest
haply your
hearts be
overcharged with
surfeiting, and
drunkenness,
and cares of
this life, and
that day come
on you
suddenly as a
snare: 35 for so
shall it come
upon all them
that dwell on
the face of all
the earth.
36            But
watch ye at
every season,
making
supplication,
that ye may
prevail to escape
all these things
that shall
come to pass,
and to stand
before the Son
of man.

Parable of
the Master of
the House.



Parable of
the Faithful
Servant and
of the Evil
Servant.




                             Matt. 24 and 25
43    14But know this, that if the master of the house had
known in what watch the thief was coming, he would
have watched, and would not have suffered his house to
be 15broken through. 44 Therefore be ye also ready: for
in an hour that ye think not the Son of man cometh.
45 Who then is the faithful and wise 16servant, whom
his lord hath set over his household, to give them their
food in due season? 46 Blessed is that 16servant, whom
his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. 47 Verily I
say unto you, that he will set him over all that he hath.
48 But if that evil 16servant shall say in his heart, My lord
tarrieth; 49 and shall begin to beat his fellow-servants,
and shall eat and drink with the drunken;
50 the lord of that 16servant shall come in a day when
he expecteth not, and in an hour when he knoweth not,
51 and shall 17cut him asunder, and appoint his portion
with the hypocrites: there shall be the weeping and
gnashing of teeth.
1 Gr. presence.
2 Or, the consummation of the age.
3 Or, these good tidings.
4 Gr. inhabited earth.
5 Or, through.
6 Or, a holy place.
7 Or, him.
8 Or, them.
9 Or, vultures.
10 Many ancient authorities read with a great trumpet, and they shall gather &c.
11 Or, a trumpet of great sound.
12 Or, it.
13 Many authorities, some ancient, omit neither the Son.
14 Or, But this ye know.
15 Gr. digged through.
16 Gr. bondservant.
17 Or, severely scourge him.
18 Or, Teacher.
19 Or, put them to death.
20 Some ancient authorities omit and pray.
21 Gr. bondservants.
22 Gr. you being brought.
23 Or, shall they put to death.
24 Or, lives.
25 Or, earth.
26 Or, expiring.
27 Gr. the inhabited earth.
  Matt. chap. 25
Parable of
the Ten
Virgins.




















Parable of
the Talents.










































6 Picture of
the Judgment
with Parable
of the Sheep
and the
Goats.
1    Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto
ten virgins, which took their 1lamps, and went forth
to meet the bridegroom. 2 And five of them were
foolish, and five were wise. 3 For the foolish, when
they took their 1lamps, took no oil with them: 4 but the
wise took oil in their vessels with their 1lamps. 5 Now
while the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and
slept. 6 But at midnight there is a cry, Behold, the
bridegroom! Come ye forth to meet him. 7 Then all
those virgins arose, and trimmed their 1lamps.
8 And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your
oil; for our 1lamps are going out. 9 But the wise
answered, saying, Peradventure there will not be enough
for us and you: go ye rather to them that sell, and buy
for yourselves. 10 And while they went away to buy,
the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went
in with him to the marriage feast: and the door was
shut. 11 Afterward, come also the other virgins, saying,
Lord, Lord, open to us. 12 But he answered and said,
Verily I say unto you, I know you not. 13 Watch
therefore, for ye know not the day nor the hour.

14    For it is as when a man, going into another country,
called his own 2servants, and delivered unto them his
goods. 15 And unto one he gave five talents, to another
two, to another one; to each according to his several
ability; and he went on his journey. 16 Straightway he
that received the five talents went and traded with
them, and made other five talents. 17 In like manner
he also that received the two gained other two. 18 But
he that received the one went away and digged in the
earth, and hid his lord's money. 19 Now after a long
time the lord of those 2servants cometh, and maketh
a reckoning with them. 20 And he that received the
five talents came and brought other five talents, saying,
Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: lo,
I have gained other five talents. 21 His lord said unto
him, Well done, good and faithful 3servant: thou hast
been faithful over a few things, I will set thee over
many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. 22 And
he also that received the two talents came and said,
Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents: lo, I have
gained other two talents. 23 His lord said unto him,
Well done, good and faithful 3servant; thou hast been
faithful over a few things, I will set thee over many
things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. 24 And he
also that had received the one talent came and said,
Lord, I knew thee that thou art a hard man, reaping
where thou didst not sow, and gathering where thou
didst not scatter: 25 and I was afraid, and went away
and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, thou hast thine
own. 26 But his lord answered and said unto him,
Thou wicked and slothful 3servant, thou knewest that
I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I did not
scatter; 27 thou oughtest therefore to have put my money
to the bankers, and at my coming I should have
received back mine own with interest. 28 Take ye away
therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him
that hath the ten talents. 29 For unto every one that
hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance:
but from him that hath not, even that which he hath
shall be taken away. 30 And cast ye out the unprofitable
3servant into the outer darkness: there shall be
the weeping and gnashing of teeth.

31    But when the Son of man shall come in his glory,
and all the angels with him [see Zech. 14:5], then
shall he sit on the throne of his glory: 32 and before him
shall be gathered all the nations: and he shall separate
them one from another, as the shepherd separateth
the sheep from the 4goats; 33 and he shall set the sheep
on his right hand, but the 4goats on the left. 34 Then
shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come,
ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom
prepared for you from the foundation of the world:
35 for I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was
thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and
ye took me in; 36 naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick,
and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto
me. 37 Then shall the righteous answer him, saying,
Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee?
or athirst, and gave thee drink? 38 And when saw we
thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and
clothed thee? 39 And when saw we thee sick, or in
prison, and came unto thee? 40 And the King shall
answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you,
Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of these my brethren,
even these least, ye did it unto me. 41 Then shall he
say also unto them on the left hand, 5Depart from me,
ye cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for
the devil and his angels: 42 for I was an hungred, and
ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me
no drink: 43 I was a stranger, and ye took me not in;
naked, and ye clothed me not; sick, and in prison, and
ye visited me not. 44 Then shall they also answer,
saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst,
or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did
not minister unto thee? 45 Then shall he answer them,
saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did
it not unto one of these least, ye did it not unto me.
46 And these shall go away into eternal punishment:
but the righteous into eternal life [see Dan. 12:2].
1 Or, torches.
2 Gr. bondservants.
3 Gr. bondservant.
4 Gr. kids.
5 Or, Depart from me under a curse.




§ 140. JESUS PREDICTS HIS CRUCIFIXION TWO DAYS HENCE (JEWISH FRIDAY)

Probably at Bethany on Tuesday evening (beginning of Jewish Wednesday). The Rulers in Jerusalem plot His death


Mark 14:1-2 Matt. 26:1-5 Luke 22:1-2
1    Now after two
days was the feast of
the passover and the
unleavened bread:






                         and
the chief priests and
the scribes



                    sought
how they might take
him with subtilty,
and kill him: 2 for they
said, Not during the
feast, lest haply there
shall be a tumult of
the people.
1    And it came to
pass, when Jesus had
finished all these
words, he said unto his
disciples, 2 Ye know
that after two days
the passover cometh,
and the Son of man
is delivered up to be
crucified. 3 Then were
gathered together the
chief priests, and the
elders of the people,
unto the court of the
high priest, who was
called Caiaphas; 4 and
they took counsel
together that they
might take Jesus by
subtilty, and kill him.
5 But they said, Not
during the feast, lest
a tumult arise among
the people.
1    Now the feast of
unleavened bread
drew nigh, which is
called the Passover.






2                And the
chief priests and the





scribes sought how
they might put him
to death; for they



feared the people.





§ 141. AT THE FEAST IN THE HOUSE OF SIMON THE LEPER MARY OF BETHANY ANOINTS JESUS FOR HIS BURIAL

At Bethany (Tuesday evening, Jewish Wednesday)


Mark 14:3-9 Matt. 26:6-13 John 12:2-8
3    And while he was
in Bethany in the
house of Simon the
leper, as he sat at
meat, there came a
woman having 1an
alabaster cruse of
ointment of 2spikenard
very costly; and
she brake the cruse,
and poured it over
his head. 4 But there
were some that had
indignation among
themselves, saying,
To what purpose hath
this waste of the
ointment been made?
5 For this ointment
might have been sold
for above three
hundred 3pence, and
given to the poor.
And they murmured
against her. 6 But
Jesus said, Let her
alone; why trouble ye
her? she hath wrought
a good work on me.
7 For ye have the poor
always with you, and
whensoever ye will
ye can do them good:
but me ye have not
always. 8 She hath
done what she could:
she hath anointed my
body aforehand for
the burying. 9 And
verily I say unto you,
Wheresoever the gospel
shall be preached
throughout the whole
world, that also which
this woman hath done
shall be spoken of for
a memorial of her.
6    Now when Jesus
was in Bethany, in
the house of Simon
the leper, 7 there came
unto him a woman
having 1an alabaster
cruse of exceeding
precious ointment,
and she poured it
upon his head, as he
sat at meat. 8 But
when the disciples
saw it, they had
indignation, saying,

                To what
purpose is this waste?
9 For this ointment
might have been sold
for much, and given
to the poor.



10 But Jesus perceiving
it said unto them,
Why trouble ye the
woman? for she hath
wrought a good work
upon me. 11 For ye
have the poor always
with you; but me you
have not always.
12 For in that she poured
this ointment upon
my body, she did it to
prepare me for burial.
13 Verily I say unto you,
Wheresoever this gospel
shall be preached
in the whole world,
that also which this
woman hath done
shall be spoken of for
a memorial of her.
2    So they made him
a supper there: and
Martha served; but
Lazarus was one of
them that sat at meat
with him. 3 Marya
therefore took a
pound of ointment
of 2spikenard, very
precious, and anointed
the feet of Jesus,
and wiped his feet
with her hair: and the
house was filled with
the odour of the
ointment. 4 But Judas
Iscariot, one of his
disciples, which
should betray him,
saith, 5 Why was not
this ointment sold for
three hundred 3pence,
and given to the
poor? 6 Now this he
said, not because he
cared for the poor;
but because he was a
thief, and having the
4bag 5took away what
was put therein.
7 Jesus therefore said,
6Suffer her to keep
it against the day of
my burying. 8 For
the poor ye have
always with you; but
me ye have not
always.
1 Or, a flask.
2 Gr. pistic nard, pistic being perhaps a local name. Some take it to mean genuine; others, liquid.
3 The word in the Greek denotes a coin worth about seventeen cents.
4 Or, box.
5 Or, carried what was put therein.
6 Or, Let her alone: it was that she might keep it.

a This anointing has nothing in common with that given by Luke (§ 59), except the fact of a woman anointing the Saviour's feet, and the name Simon, which was common. The former was in Galilee, this is at Bethany near Jerusalem. There the host despised the woman who anointed, here her brother is one of the guests, and her sister an active attendant. There the woman was "a sinner," a notoriously bad woman, here it is the devout Mary who "sat at the Lord's feet and heard his word" months before (§ 104). There the host thought strange that Jesus allowed her to touch him, here the disciples complain of the waste. There the Saviour gave assurance of forgiveness, here of perpetual and world-wide honor. Especially notice that here the woman who anoints is anticipating his speedy death and burial, of which at the former time he had never distinctly spoken. In view of all these differences it is absurd to represent the two anointings as the same, and outrageous on such slender ground to cast reproach on Mary of Bethany.





§ 142. JUDAS, STUNG BY THE REBUKE OF JESUS AT THE FEAST, BARGAINS WITH THE RULERS TO BETRAY JESUS

Tuesday Night in Jerusalem


Mark 14:10-11 Matt. 26:14-16 Luke 22:3-6
10    And Judas Iscariot,
1he that was one of
the twelve, went away


unto the chief priests,


that he might deliver
him unto them.



11                     And
they, when they
heard it, were glad,
and promised to give
him money.



                     And he
sought how he might
conveniently deliver
him unto them.
14    Then one of the
twelve, who was
called Judas Iscariot,


went unto the chief
priests, 15 and said,



What are ye willing
to give me, and I will
deliver him unto you?

And they weighed
unto him thirty pieces
of silver [see Zech.
11:12]
. 16 And from
that time he sought
opportunity to
deliver him unto
them
.
3    And Satan entered
into Judas who was
called Iscariot, being
of the number of the
twelve. 4 And he went
away, and communed
with the chief priests
and captains, how he
might deliver him
unto them.




5                 And they
were glad, and
covenanted to give
him money. 6 And he
consented,


                         and
sought opportunity
to deliver him unto
them 2in the absence
of the multitude.
1 Gr. the one of the twelve.
2 Or, without tumult.




§ 143. THE PREPARATION FOR THE PASCHAL MEAL AT THE HOME OF A FRIEND (POSSIBLY THAT OF JOHN MARK'S FATHER AND MOTHER)

Jerusalem, Thursdaya afternoon. (A Day of Preparation)


Mark 14:12-16 Matt. 26:17-19 Luke 22:7-13
12    And on the first
day of unleavened
bread, when they
sacrificed the passover,
his disciples say
unto him, Where wilt
thou that we go and
make ready that thou
mayest eat the passover
[see Ex. 12:18-20]?
13 And he sendeth
two of his disciples,
and saith unto them,








                Go into
the city, and there
shall meet you a man
bearing a pitcher of
water: follow him;
14 and wheresoever he
shall enter in, say to
the goodman of the
house, The 1Master
saith, Where is my
guest-chamber, where
I shall eat the passover
with my disciples?
15 And he will himself
shew you a large
upper room furnished
and ready: and
there make ready for
us. 16 And the disciples
went forth, and came
into the city, and
found as he had said
unto them: and they
made ready the
passover.
17    Now on the first
day of unleavened
bread the disciples
came to Jesus,
saying,
        Where wilt thou
that we make ready
for thee to eat the
passover? 18 And he
said,











        Go into the city
to such a man, and
say unto him,




                         The
1Master saith, My
time is at hand; I
keep the passover at
thy house with my
disciples.





19                     And
the disciples did as
Jesus appointed them;


        and they made
ready the passover.
7    And the day of
unleavened bread
came, on which the
passover must be
sacrificed.





8            And he sent
Peter and John, saying,
Go and make ready
for us the passover,
that we may
eat. 9 And they said
unto him, Where wilt
thou that we make
ready? 10 And he said
unto them, Behold,
when ye are entered
into the city, there
shall meet you a man
bearing a pitcher of
water; follow him into
the house whereinto
he goeth. 11 And
ye shall say unto the
goodman of the
house, The 1Master
saith unto thee,
Where is the
guest-chamber, where I
shall eat the passover
with my disciples?
12 And he will shew you
a large upper room
furnished: there make
ready.

13 And they went, and

found as he had said
unto them: and they
made ready the
passover.
1 Or, Teacher.

a Wednesday (A Day of Rest) was apparently spent with the disciples in retirement in Bethany. Thursday was spent wholly with the disciples till the arrest in Gethsemane after midnight.





§ 144. JESUS PARTAKES OF THE PASCHAL MEAL WITH THE TWELVE APOSTLES AND REBUKES THEIR JEALOUSY

Jerusalem, Thursday evening after sunset (beginning of Jewish Friday)


Mark 14:17 Matt. 26:20 Luke 22:14-16, 24-30
17    And when it was
evening he cometh
with the twelve.
20    Now when even
was come, he was
sitting at meat with the
twelve 1disciples;




14    And when the hour
was come, he sat down,
and the apostles with
him. 15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this
passovera with you before I suffer: 16 for I say unto you, I will not eat
it, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
24    And there arose also a contention among them, which of them is
accounted to be 2greatest. 25 And he said unto them, The kings of the
Gentiles have lordship over them; and they that have authority over
them are called Benefactors. 26 But ye shall not be so: but he that is
the greater among you, let him become as the younger; and he that is
chief, as he that doth serve. 27 For whether is greater, he that 3sitteth at
meat, or he that serveth? is not he that 3sitteth at meat? but I am in the
midst of you as he that serveth. 28 But ye are they which have
continued with me in my temptations; 29 and 4I appoint unto you a
kingdom, even as my Father appointed unto me, 30 that ye may eat
and drink at my table in my kingdom; and ye shall sit on thrones
judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
1 Many authorities, some ancient, omit disciples.
2 Gr. greater.
3 Gr. reclineth.
4 Or, I appoint unto you, even as my Father appointed unto me a kingdom, that ye may eat and drink etc.

a Some regard certain expressions in the Gospel of John as showing that Jesus did not eat the Paschal meal, thus hopelessly contradicting the other Gospels. But no one of John's expressions shows what is supposed, and one of them really indicates the contrary. See note at end of volume. Matthew, Mark, and Luke clearly show that he did eat the regular Passover meal.





§ 145. DURING THE PASCHAL MEAL, JESUS WASHES THE FEET OF HIS DISCIPLES

Evening before the Crucifixion (our Thursday, Jewish Friday)


John 13:1-20

1    Now beforea the feast of the passover, Jesus knowing that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them 1unto the end. 2 And during supper, the devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him, 3 Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he came forth from God, and goeth unto God, 4 riseth from supper, and layeth aside his garments; and he took a towel, and girded himself. 5 Then he poureth water into the bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded. 6 So he cometh to Simon Peter. He saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet? 7 Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt understand hereafter. 8 Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. 9 Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. 10 Jesus saith to him, He that is bathed needeth not 2save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all. 11 For he knew him that should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.

12    So when he had washed their feet, and taken his garments, and 3sat down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you? 13 Ye call me, 4Master, and, Lord: and ye say well; for so I am. 14 If I then, the Lord and the 4Master, have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another's feet. 15 For I have given you an example, that ye also should do as I have done to you. 16 Verily, verily, I say unto you, A 5servant is not greater than his lord; neither 6one that is sent greater than he that sent him. 17 If ye know these things, blessed are ye if ye do them. 18 I speak not of you all: I know whom I 7have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth 8my bread lifted up his heel against me [see Ps. 41:9]. 19 From henceforth I tell you before it come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that 9I am he. 20 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.

1 Or, to the uttermost.
2 Some ancient authorities omit save, and his feet.
3 Gr. reclined.
4 Or, Teacher.
5 Gr. bondservant.
6 Gr. an apostle.
7 Or, chose.
8 Many ancient authorities read his bread with me.
9 Or, I am.

a It is needlessly inferred that John by this expression means that it was a full day before the passover meal. In fact, the words in verse 2 "during supper" rather imply that "before passover" was just before the meal began.





§ 146. AT THE PASCHAL MEAL JESUS POINTS OUT JUDAS AS THE BETRAYER

Thursday evening (Jewish Friday)


Mark 14:18-21 Matt. 26:21-25 Luke 22:21-23 John 13:21-30
18    And as they
2sat and were
eating, Jesus
said, Verily I
say unto you,
One of you
shall betray
me, even he
that eateth
with me [see
Ps. 41:9
].



19            They
began to be
sorrowful, and
to say unto
him one by
one, Is it I?


20        And he
said unto
them, It is one
of the twelve,
he that dippeth
with me
in the dish.
21 For the Son
of man goeth,
even as it is
written of him:
but woe unto
that man
through whom
the Son of man
is betrayed!
good were it
1for that man
if he had not
been born.

21 and as they
were eating, he
said, Verily I
say unto you,
that one of you
shall betray
me.






22        And they
were exceeding
sorrowful,
and began to
say unto him
every one, Is
it I, Lord?
23        And he
answered and
said, He that
dipped his
hand with me
in the dish,
the same shall
betray me.
24 The Son of
man goeth,
even as it is
written of him:
but woe unto
that man
through whom
the Son of man
is betrayed!
good were it
1for that man
if he had not
been born.
21    But behold,
the hand of
him that
betrayeth me is
with me on the
table. 22 For the
Son of man
indeed goeth,
as it hath been
determined:
but woe unto
that man
through whom
he is betrayed!
23 And they
began to
question among
themselves,
which of them
it was that
should do this
thing.
21    When Jesus
had thus said,
he was troubled
in the spirit,
and testified,
and said, Verily,
verily, I say
unto you, that
one of you
shall betray
me.



22            The
disciples looked
one on another,
doubting
of whom
he spake.






















23        There
was at the
table reclining
 












25        And
Judas, which
betrayed him,
answered and
said, Is it I,
Rabbi? He
saith unto
him, Thou
hast said.
in Jesus' bosom one of his
disciples, whom Jesus loved. 24
Simon Peter therefore beckoneth
to him, and saith unto him, Tell us
who it is of whom he speaketh.
25 He leaning back, as he was, on
Jesus' breast saith unto him,
Lord, who is it? 26 Jesus therefore
answereth, He it is, for whom I
shall dip the sop, and give it him.
So when he had dipped the sop,
he taketh and giveth it to Judas,
the son of Simon Iscariot.









27 And after the sop, then entered
Satan into him. Jesus therefore
saith unto him, That thou doest,
do quickly. 28 Now no man at the
table knew for what intent he
spake this unto him. 29 For some
thought, because Judas had the
3bag, that Jesus said unto him, Buy
what things we have need of for
the feast; or, that he should give
something to the poor. 30 He then
having received the sop went out
straightway: and it was night.
1 Gr. for him if that man.
2 Gr. reclined.
3 Or, box.




§ 147. AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF JUDAS JESUS WARNS THE DISCIPLES (PETER IN PARTICULAR) AGAINST DESERTION, WHILE ALL PROTEST THEIR LOYALTY


Mark 14:27-31 Matt. 26:31-35 Luke 22:31-38 John 13:31-38








































27    And Jesus
saith unto
them, All ye
shall be
3offended: for it
is written [see
Zech. 13:7
],
I will smite the
shepherd, and
the sheep shall
be scattered
abroad.
28 Howbeit,
after I am raised
up, I will go
before you into
Galilee.
29    But Peter
said unto
him, Although
all shall be
3offended, yet
will not I.
30 And Jesus
saith unto
him, Verily I
say unto thee,
that thou
to-day, even this
night, before
the cock crow
twice, shalt
deny me thrice.
31 But he spake
exceeding
vehemently, If
I must die with
thee, I will not
deny thee. And
in like manner
also said they
all.








































31    Then saith
Jesus unto
them, All ye
shall be
3offended in me
this night: for
it is written,
I will smite the
shepherd, and
the sheep of the
flock shall
be scattered
abroad. 32 But
after I am
raised up, I
will go before
you into Galilee.
33 But Peter
answered and
said unto him,
If all shall be
3offended in
thee, I will never
be 3offended.
34 Jesus said
unto him, Verily
I say unto
thee, that this
night, before
the cock
crow, thou
shalt deny me
thrice. 35 Peter
saith unto
him, Even if I
must die with
thee, yet will
I not deny
thee. Likewise
also said all
the disciples.








































31    Simon,
Simon, behold,
Satan 4asked
to have you, that
he might sift
you as wheat:
32 but I made
supplication
for thee,
that thy faith
fail not: and
do thou, when
once thou hast
turned again,
stablish thy
brethren.

33        And he
said unto him,
Lord, with thee
I am ready to
go both to
prison and to
death. 34 And he
said, I tell thee,
Peter, the cock
shall not crow
this day, until
thou shalt
thrice deny
that thou
knowest me.
31    When
therefore he was
gone out, Jesus
saith, Now 1is
the Son of man
glorified, and
God 1is glorified
in him; 32 and
God shall
glorify him in
himself, and
straightway
shall he glorify
him. 33 Little
children, yet a
little while I
am with you.
Ye shall seek
me: and as I
said unto the
Jews, Whither
I go, ye cannot
come; 34 so now
I say unto you,
A new
commandment I
give unto you,
that ye love
one another;
2even as I have
loved you,
that ye also
love one another.
35 By this
shall all men
know that ye
are my disciples,
if ye have
love one to
another.
36    Simon Peter
saith unto
him, Lord,
whither goest
thou? Jesus
answered,
Whither I go,
thou canst not
follow me now;
but thou shalt
follow
afterwards.





37            Peter
saith unto
him, Lord, why
cannot I follow
thee even now?
I will lay
down my life
for thee. 38 Jesus
answereth,
Wilt thou
lay down thy
life for me?
Verily, verily,
I say unto
thee, The cock
shall not crow,
till thou hast
denied me
thrice.
    35    And he said unto them, When
I sent you forth without purse,
and wallet, and shoes, lacked ye
any thing? And they said, Nothing.
36 And he said unto them, But
now, he that hath a purse, let him
take it, and likewise a wallet: 5and
he that hath none, let him sell his
cloke, and buy a sword. 37 For I
say unto you, that this which is
written must be fulfilled in me [see
Isa. 53:12
], And he was reckoned
with transgressors: for that which
concerneth me hath 6fulfilment.
38 And they said, Lord, behold, here
are two swords. And he said unto
them, It is enough.
1 Or, was.
2 Or, even as I loved you, that ye also may love one another.
3 Gr. caused to stumble.
4 Or, obtained you by asking.
5 Or, and he that hath no sword, let him sell his cloke, and buy one.
6 Gr. end.




§ 148. JESUS INSTITUTES THE MEMORIAL OF EATING BREAD AND DRINKING WINE

Jerusalem. Evening before the Crucifixion


Mark 14:22-25 Matt. 26:26-29 Lukea 22:17-20 1 Cor.b 11:23-26

















22    And as they
were eating,
he took 1bread,
and when he
had blessed, he
brake it, and
gave to them,
and said, Take
ye: this is my
body.

23        And he
took a cup, and
when he had
given thanks,
he gave to
them: and they
all drank of it.
24 And he said
unto them,
This is my
blood of 3the
4covenant,
which is shed
for many [see
Ex. 24:8; Lev.
4:18-20; Jer.
31:31; Zech.
9:11
]. 25 Verily
I say unto you,
I will no more
drink of the
fruit of the
vine, until that
day when I
drink it new
in the kingdom
of God.

















26    And as they
were eating,
Jesus took
1bread, and
blessed, and
brake it; and
he gave to the
disciples, and
said, Take, eat;
this is my
body.
27        And he
took 2a cup,
and gave
thanks, and
gave to them,
saying, Drink
ye all of it;

28            for
this is my
blood of 3the
4covenant,
which is shed
for many unto
remission of
sins. 29 But I
say unto you,
I will not drink
henceforth
of this
fruit of the
vine, until that
day when I
drink it new
with you in my
Father's
kingdom.
17    And he
received a cup,
and when he
had given
thanks, he said,
Take this, and
divide it among
yourselves:
18 for I
say unto you,
I will not
drink from
henceforth of
the fruit of the
vine, until the
kingdom of
God shall come.
19    And he
took 1bread, and
when he had
given thanks,
he brake it,
and gave to
them, saying,
This is my
body 5which is
given for you:
this do in
remembrance of
me. 20 And the
cup in like
manner after
supper, saying,




This cup is the
new 6covenant
in my blood,
even that
which is poured
out for you.

















23    For I
received of the
Lord that
which also I
delivered unto
you, how that
the Lord Jesus
in the night in
which he was
betrayed took
bread; 24 and
when he had
given thanks,
he brake it,
and said, This
is my body,
which 7is for
you: this do
in remembrance
of me. 25 In
like manner
also the cup,
after supper,
saying, This
cup is the new
6covenant in
my blood: this
do, as oft as ye
drink it, in
remembrance of
me. 26 For as
often as ye eat
this bread, and
drink the cup,
ye proclaim
the Lord's
death till he
come.
1 Or, a loaf.
2 Some ancient authorities read the cup.
3 Or, the testament.
4 Many ancient authorities insert new.
5 Some ancient authorities omit which is given for you ... which is poured out for you.
6 Or, testament.
7 Many ancient authorities read is broken for you.

a Luke here (see § 144) departs from the order of Mark (and Matthew) and mentions the institution of the supper earlier in the evening. It seems best to follow the chronology of Mark, who places it after the departure of Judas.

b These are two parallel reports of the institution of the supper. Mark is followed by Matthew and 1 Corinthians (about A.D. 56) by Luke (not earlier than A.D. 58).





§ 149. THE FAREWELL DISCOURSE TO HIS DISCIPLES IN THE UPPER ROOM

Jerusalem


John 14a

1    Let not your heart be troubled: 1ye believe in God, believe also in me. 2 In my Father's house are many 2mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. 3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I come again, and will receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also. 4 3And whither I go, ye know the way. 5 Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know not whither thou goest; how know we the way? 6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life: no one cometh unto the Father, but 4by me. 7 If ye had known me, ye would have known my Father also: from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him. 8 Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. 9 Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and dost thou not know me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; how sayest thou, Shew us the Father? 10 Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I say unto you I speak not from myself: but the Father abiding in me doeth his works. 11 Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me: or else believe me for the very works' sake. 12 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto the Father. 13 And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 14 If ye shall ask 5me anything in my name, that will I do. 15 If ye love me, ye will keep my commandments. 16 And I will 6pray the Father, and he shall give you another 7Comforter, that he may be with you for ever, 17 even the Spirit of truth: whom the world cannot receive; for it beholdeth him not, neither knoweth him: ye know him; for he abideth with you, and shall be in you. 18 I will not leave you 8desolate: I come unto you. 19 Yet a little while, and the world beholdeth me no more; but ye behold me: because I live, 9ye shall live also. 20 In that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you. 21 He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself unto him. 22 Judas (not Iscariot) saith unto him, Lord, what is come to pass that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? 23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my word: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. 24 He that loveth me not keepeth not my words: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father's who sent me.

25    These things have I spoken unto you, while yet abiding with you. 26 But the 7Comforter, even the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I said unto you. 27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be fearful. 28 Ye heard how I said to you, I go away, and I come unto you. If ye loved me, ye would have rejoiced, because I go unto the Father: for the Father is greater than I. 29 And now I have told you before it come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe. 30 I will no more speak much with you, for the prince of the world cometh: and he hath nothing in me; 31 but that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do. Arise, let us go hence.b

1 Or, believe in God.
2 Or, abiding-places.
3 Many ancient authorities read And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know.
4 Or, through.
5 Many ancient authorities omit me.
6 Gr. make request of.
7 Or, Advocate. Or, Helper. Gr. Paraclete.
8 Or, orphans.
9 Or, and ye shall live.

a Chapters 13 to 17 in John really belong together. There is first the effort of Jesus to stop the bickerings of the Twelve, then his warning and their reply. Jesus continues to address them with repeated interruption (dialogue), but finally they fear to ask him further (monologue). The discourse concludes with the wonderful prayer (the real Lord's Prayer) in chapter 17.

b Apparently they leave the Upper Room.





§ 150. THE DISCOURSE ON THE WAY TO GETHSEMANE

Possibly on the Street


John 15 and 16a

1    I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. 2 Every branch in me that beareth not fruit, he taketh it away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he cleanseth it, that it may bear more fruit. 3 Already ye are clean because of the word which I have spoken unto you. 4 Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; so neither can ye, except ye abide in me. 5 I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit: for apart from me ye can do nothing. 6 If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and they gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned. 7 If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask whatsoever ye will, and it shall be done unto you. 8 Herein 1is my Father glorified, 2that ye bear much fruit; and so shall ye be my disciples. 9 Even as the Father hath loved me, I also have loved you: abide ye in my love. 10 If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father's commandments, and abide in his love. 11 These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be fulfilled. 12 This is my commandment, that ye love one another, even as I have loved you. 13 Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. 14 Ye are my friends, if ye do the things which I command you. 15 No longer do I call you 3servants; for the 4servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I heard from my Father I have made known unto you. 16 Ye did not choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that ye should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should abide: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you. 17 These things I command you, that ye may love one another. 18 If the world hateth you, 5ye know that it hath hated me before it hated you. 19 If ye were of the world, the world would love its own: but because ye are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. 20 Remember the word that I said unto you, A 4servant is not greater than his lord. If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they keep my word, they will keep yours also. 21 But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me. 22 If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no excuse for their sin. 23 He that hateth me hateth my Father also. 24 If I had not done among them the works which none other did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father. 25 But this cometh to pass, that the word may be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause [see Ps. 35:19; 69:4]. 26 But when the 6Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which 7proceedeth from the Father, he shall bear witness of me: 27 8and ye also bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.


1    These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be made to stumble. 2 They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you shall think that he offereth service unto God. 3 And these things will they do, because they have not known the Father, nor me. 4 But these things have I spoken unto you, that when their hour is come, ye may remember them, how that I told you. And these things I said not unto you from the beginning, because I was with you. 5 But now I go unto him that sent me; and none of you asketh me, Whither goest thou? 6 But because I have spoken these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. 7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the 6Comforter will not come unto you; but if I go, I will send him unto you. 8 And he, when he is come, will convict the world in respect of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgement: 9 of sin, because they believe not on me; 10 of righteousness, because I go to the Father, and ye behold me no more; 11 of judgement, because the prince of this world hath been judged. 12 I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. 13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he shall guide you into all the truth: for he shall not speak from himself; but what things soever he shall hear, these shall he speak: and he shall declare unto you the things that are to come. 14 He shall glorify me: for he shall take of mine, and shall declare it unto you. 15 All things whatsoever the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he taketh of mine, and shall declare it unto you. 16 A little while, and ye behold me no more; and again a little while, and ye shall see me. 17 Some of his disciples therefore said one to another, What is this that he saith unto us, A little while, and ye behold me not; and again a little while, and ye shall see me: and, Because I go to the Father? 18 They said therefore, What is this that he saith, A little while? We know not what he saith. 19 Jesus perceived that they were desirous to ask him, and he said unto them, Do ye inquire among yourselves concerning this, that I said, A little while, and ye behold me not, and again a little while, and ye shall see me? 20 Verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice: ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. 21 A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come: but when she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for the joy that a man is born into the world. 22 And ye therefore now have sorrow: but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no one taketh away from you [see Isa. 66:14]. 23 And in that day ye shall 9ask me nothing. Verily, verily, I say unto you, If ye shall ask anything of the Father, he will give it you in my name. 24 Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name: ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be fulfilled.

25    These things have I spoken unto you in 10proverbs: the hour cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in 10proverbs, but shall tell you plainly of the Father. 26 In that day ye shall ask in my name: and I say not unto you, that I will 11pray the Father for you; 27 for the Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came forth from the Father. 28 I came out from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave the world, and go unto the Father. 29 His disciples say, Lo, now speakest thou plainly, and speakest no 12proverb. 30 Now know we that thou knowest all things, and needest not that any man should ask thee: by this we believe that thou camest forth from God. 31 Jesus answered them, Do ye now believe? 32 Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. 33 These things have I spoken unto you, that in me ye may have peace. In the world ye have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.

1 Or, was.
2 Many ancient authorities read that ye bear much fruit, and be my disciples.
3 Gr. bondservants.
4 Gr. bondservant.
5 Or, know ye.
6 Or, Advocate. Or, Helper. Gr. Paraclete.
7 Or, goeth forth from.
8 Or, and bear ye also witness.
9 Or, ask me no question.
10 Or, parables.
11 Gr. make request of.
12 Or, parable.

a Chapters 14-17 are called the Heart of Christ. Nowhere does the Master lay bare his very soul more completely than here in chapters 15 and 16, with the allegory of the Vine and the teaching concerning the Holy Spirit.





§ 151. CHRIST'S INTERCESSORY PRAYER

Possibly near Gethsemane


John 17

1    These things spake Jesus; and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that the Son may glorify thee: 2 even as thou gavest him authority over all flesh, that whatsoever thou hast given him, to them he should give eternal life. 3 And this is life eternal, that they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, even Jesus Christ. 4 I glorified thee on the earth, having accomplished the work which thou hast given me to do. 5 And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was. 6 I manifested thy name unto the men whom thou gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them to me; and they have kept thy word. 7 Now they know that all things whatsoever thou hast given me are from thee: 8 for the words which thou gavest me I have given unto them; and they received them, and knew of a truth that I came forth from thee, and they believed that thou didst send me. 9 I 1pray for them: I 1pray not for the world, but for those whom thou hast given me; for they are thine: 10 and all things that are mine are thine, and thine are mine: and I am glorified in them. 11 And I am no more in the world, and these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep them in thy name which thou hast given me, that they may be one, even as we are. 12 While I was with them, I kept them in thy name which thou hast given me: and I guarded them, and not one of them perished, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled [see Ps. 41:9]. 13 But now I come to thee; and these things I speak in the world, that they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves. 14 I have given them thy word; and the world hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 15 I 1pray not that thou shouldest take them 2from the world, but that thou shouldest keep them 2from 3the evil one. 16 They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 17 4Sanctify them in the truth: thy word is truth. 18 As thou didst send me into the world, even so sent I them into the world. 19 And for their sakes I 4sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth. 20 Neither for these only do I 1pray, but for them also that believe on me through their word; 21 that they may all be one; even as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be in us: that the world may believe that thou didst send me. 22 And the glory which thou hast given me I have given unto them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 23 I in them, and thou in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that thou didst send me, and lovedst them, even as thou lovedst me. 24 Father, 5that which thou hast given me, I will that, where I am, they also may be with me; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world. 25 O righteous Father, the world knew thee not, but I knew thee; and these knew that thou didst send me; 26 and I made known unto them thy name, and will make it known; that the love wherewith thou lovedst me may be in them, and I in them.

1 Gr. make request.
2 Gr. out of.
3 Or, evil.
4 Or, Consecrate.
5 Many ancient authorities read those whom.




§ 152. GOING FORTH TO GETHSEMANE, JESUS SUFFERS LONG IN AGONY

IN AN OPEN GARDEN, BETWEEN THE BROOK KEDRON AND THE FOOT OF THE MOUNT OF OLIVES

Late in the night introducing Friday


Mark 14:26, 32-42 Matt. 26:30, 36-46 Luke 22:39-46 John 18:1
26a    And when
they had sung
a hymn, they
went out unto
the mount of
Olives.
32    And they
come unto 1a
place which
was named
Gethsemane:
and he saith
unto his
disciples, Sit ye
here, while I
pray.

33 And he taketh
with him Peter
and James
and John, and
began to be
greatly amazed,
and sore
troubled. 34 And
he saith unto
them, My soul
is exceeding
sorrowful even
unto death
[see Ps. 42:6]:
abide ye here,
and watch.
35 And he went
forward a
little, and fell
on the ground,
and prayed
that, if it were
possible, the
hour might
pass away
from him. 36 And
he said, Abba,
Father, all
things are
possible unto
thee; remove
this cup from
me: howbeit
not what I
will, but what
thou wilt.


















37            And
he cometh,
and findeth
them sleeping,
and saith unto
Peter, Simon,
sleepest thou?
couldest thou
not watch one
hour?
38        2Watch
and pray, that
ye enter not
into tempta-
tion: the spirit
indeed is
willing, but the
flesh is weak.
39 And again he
went away,
and prayed,
saying the
same words.




40            And
again he came,
and found
them sleeping,
for their eyes
were very
heavy; and
they wist not
what to answer
him.




41 And he
cometh the third
time, and saith
unto them,
Sleep on now,
and take your
rest: it is
enough; the
hour is come;
behold, the
Son of man is
betrayed into
the hands of
sinners. 42 Arise,
let us be going:
behold, he
that betrayeth
me is at hand.
30    And when
they had sung
a hymn, they
went out unto
the mount of
Olives.
36    Then cometh
Jesus with
them unto 1a
place called
Gethsemane,
and saith unto
his disciples,
Sit ye here,
while I go
yonder and
pray. 37 And he
took with him
Peter and the
two sons of
Zebedee, and
began to be
sorrowful and
sore troubled.
38 Then saith he
unto them, My
soul is
exceeding
sorrowful, even
unto death: abide
ye here, and
watch with
me. 39 And he
went forward
a little, and
fell on his face,
and prayed,






saying, O my
Father, if it be
possible, let
this cup pass
away from me:
nevertheless,
not as I
will, but as
thou wilt.



















40            And
he cometh unto
the disciples,
and findeth
them
sleeping, and
saith unto
Peter, What,
could ye not
watch with me
one hour?
41 2Watch and
pray, that ye
enter not into
temptation:
the spirit indeed
is willing,
but the flesh
is weak. 42 Again
a second time
he went away,
and prayed,
saying, O my
Father, if this
cannot pass
away, except
I drink it, thy
will be done.
43 And he came
again and
found them
sleeping, for
their eyes were
heavy. 44 And
he left them
again, and
went away,
and prayed a
third time,
saying again the
same words.
45 Then cometh
he to the
disciples, and
saith unto
them, Sleep on
now, and take
your rest:
behold, the hour
is at hand, and
the Son of man
is betrayed unto
the hands of
sinners.
46        Arise,
let us be
going: behold,
he is at hand
that betrayeth me.
39    And he
came out, and
went, as his
custom was,
unto the mount
of Olives; and
the disciples also
followed him.
40 And when he
was at the
place, he said
unto them,













Pray that ye
enter not into
temptation.




41            And
he was parted
from them
about a stone's
cast; and he
kneeled down
and prayed,
saying,




42        Father,
if thou be
willing, remove
this cup from
me: nevertheless
not my
will, but thine,
be done.

43            3And
there appeared
unto him an
angel from
heaven,
strengthening
him. 44 And
being in an agony
he prayed more
earnestly: and
his sweat became
as it were
great drops of
blood falling
down upon the
ground. 45 And
when he rose
up from his
prayer, he
came unto the
disciples, and
found them
sleeping for
sorrow, 46 and
said unto
them, Why
sleep ye? rise
and pray, that
ye enter not
into temptation.
1    When Jesus
had spoken
these words,
he went forth
with his
disciples over
the 4brook
5Kidron, where
was a garden,
into the which
he entered,
himself and
his disciples.
1 Gr. an enclosed piece of ground.
2 Or, Watch ye, and pray that ye enter not.
3 Many ancient authorities omit verses 43, 44.
4 Or, ravine. Gr. winter-torrent.
5 Or, of the Cedars.

a The Synoptic Gospels do not give the great discourse of Jesus in John 14 to 17. Hence they represent Jesus as going forth to Gethsemane after the institution of the supper (§ 148). The time was probably not long and they apparently sang the hymn (probably one of the Psalms) as they rose to leave the Upper Room (John 14:31). Hence the passage in John 15 to 17 comes in between singing the hymn and reaching Gethsemane.





PART XIII
THE ARREST, TRIAL, CRUCIFIXION AND BURIAL OF JESUS

Thursday Night, Friday, and Saturday of Passion Week (Days of Darkness for the Kingdom of Goda). §§ 153-168.

a "Your hour and the power of darkness" (Luke 22:53). Friday, the Day of Suffering, has become for Christians the Day of the Cross and of Glory.





§ 153. JESUS IS BETRAYED, ARRESTED AND FORSAKEN

Garden of Gethsemane. Friday, long before dawn


Mark 14:43-52 Matt. 26:47-56 Luke 22:47-53 John 18:2-12









43    And
straightway, while
he yet spake,
cometh Judas,
one of the twelve,
and with him
a multitude
with swords
and staves,
from the chief
priests and the
scribes and
the elders.













































44        Now he
that betrayed
him had given
them a token,
saying,
Whomsoever I
shall kiss, that is
he; take him, and
lead him away
safely. 45 And
when he was
come, straightway
he came
to him, and
saith, Rabbi;
and 1kissed
him.









46        And they
laid hands on
him, and took
him.
47        But a
certain one of
them that
stood by drew
his sword, and
smote the
2servant of the
high priest,
and struck off
his ear.
























48            And
Jesus answered
and said unto
them,

                Are
ye come out,
as against a
robber, with
swords and
staves to seize
me? 49 I was
daily with you
in the temple
teaching, and
ye took me
not: but this
is done
that
the scriptures
might be
fulfilled. 50 And
they all left
him, and fled.

51    And a
certain young
man followed
with him,
having a linen
cloth cast
about him,
over his naked
body: and they
lay hold on
him; 52 but he
left the linen
cloth, and fled
naked.









47    And while
he yet spake, lo,
Judas, one of
the twelve,
came, and with
him a great
multitude with
swords and
staves, from
the chief
priests and
elders of the
people.













































48        Now he
that betrayed
him gave them
a sign, saying,
Whomsoever I
shall kiss, that
is he: take
him.



49            And
straightway he
came to Jesus,
and said, Hail,
Rabbi; and
1kissed him.




50 And Jesus
said unto him,
Friend, do that
for which thou
art come. Then
they came and
laid hands on
Jesus, and took
him. 51 And
behold, one of
them that
were with
Jesus stretched
out his
hand, and drew
his sword, and
smote the
2servant of the
high priest,
and struck off
his ear. 52 Then
saith Jesus unto
him, Put up
again thy
sword into its
place: for all
they that take
the sword shall
perish with the
sword. 53 Or
thinkest thou
that I cannot
beseech my
Father, and he
shall even now
send me more
than twelve
legions of
angels? 54 How
then should
the scriptures
be fulfilled,
that thus it
must be? 55 In
that hour said
Jesus to the
multitudes,

                Are
ye come out
as against a
robber with
swords and
staves to seize
me? I sat daily
in the temple
teaching, and
ye took me
not. 56 But all
this is come to
pass, that the
scriptures of
the prophets
might be
fulfilled. Then
all the
disciples left
him, and fled.









47    While he yet
spake, behold,
a multitude,
and he that
was called Judas,
one of the
twelve, went
before them;






























































and he drew
near unto
Jesus to kiss
him. 48 But
Jesus said unto
him, Judas,
betrayest thou
the Son of man
with a kiss?
49 And when they
that were about
him saw what
would follow,
they said,
Lord, shall we
smite with the
sword?
50        And a
certain one of
them smote
the 2servant of
the high priest,
and struck off
his right ear.





51            But
Jesus answered
and said,
Suffer ye thus
far. And he
touched his
ear, and healed
him.















52    And Jesus
said unto the
chief priests,
and captains
of the temple,
and elders,
which were
come against
him, Are ye
come out, as
against a
robber, with
swords and
staves? 53 When
I was daily
with you in the
temple, ye
stretched not
forth your
hands against
me: but this is
your hour, and
the power of
darkness.
2    Now Judas
also, which
betrayed him,
knew the
place: for Jesus
oft-times
resorted thither
with his disciples.
3 Judas
then, having
received the
3band of
soldiers,
and
officers from
the chief
priests and the
Pharisees,
cometh thither
with lanterns
and torches
and weapons.
4 Jesus therefore,
knowing
all the things
that were coming
upon him,
went forth, and
saith unto
them, Whom
seek ye? 5 They
answered him,
Jesus of
Nazareth. Jesus
saith unto
them, I am he.
And Judas
also, which
betrayed him,
was standing
with them.
6 When therefore
he said
unto them,
I am he, they
went backward,
and fell
to the ground.
7 Again therefore
he asked
them, Whom
seek ye? And
they said,
Jesus of
Nazareth. 8 Jesus
answered, I told
you that I am
he: if therefore
ye seek me, let
these go their
way: 9 that the
word might be
fulfilled which
he spake, Of
those whom
thou hast
given me I lost
not one.





























10 Simon Peter
therefore
having a sword
drew it, and
struck the
high priest's
2servant, and
cut off his right
ear. Now the
2servant's name
was Malchus.
11 Jesus therefore
said unto
Peter, Put up
the sword into
the sheath: the
cup which the
Father hath
given me, shall
I not drink it?

12    So the 3band
and the 4chief
captain, and
the officers of
the Jews, seized
Jesus and
bound him.
1 Gr. kissed him much.
2 Gr. bondservant.
3 Or, cohort.
4 Or, military tribune. Gr. chiliarch.




§ 154. JESUS FIRSTa EXAMINED BY ANNAS, THE EX-HIGH-PRIEST

The Jewish Trial and related occurrences, §§ 154-162.

Friday before dawn


John 18:12-14, 19-23

12    So the 1band and the 2chief captain, and the officers of the Jews, seized Jesus and bound him, 13 and led him to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was high priest that year. 14 Now Caiaphas was he which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

19    The high priest therefore asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his teaching. 20 Jesus answered him, I have spoken openly to the world; I ever taught in 3synagogues, and in the temple, where all the Jews come together; and in secret spake I nothing. 21 Why askest thou me? ask them that have heard me, what I spake unto them: behold, these know the things which I said. 22 And when he had said this, one of the officers standing by struck Jesus 4with his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so? 23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?

1 Or, cohort.
2 Or, military tribune. Gr. chiliarch.
3 Gr. synagogue.
4 Or, with a rod.

a The Jewish trial comprised three stages, the preliminary examination by Annas (§ 154), the informal trial by the Sanhedrin, probably before dawn, and the formal trial after dawn. With these are narrated two related matters, the denial by Peter and the suicide of Judas.





§ 155. JESUS HURRIEDLY TRIED AND CONDEMNED BY CAIAPHAS AND THE SANHEDRIN, WHO MOCK AND BUFFET HIM

Residence of the High-priest Caiaphas. Before dawn on Friday


Mark 14:53, 55-65 Matt. 26:57, 59-68 Luke 22:54, 63-65 John 18:24
53    And they led
Jesus away to
the high
priest: and
there come
together with
him all the
chief priests
and the elders
and the scribes.
55    Now the
chief priests
and the whole
council sought
witness against
Jesus to put
him to death;
and found it
not. 56 For many
bare false
witness against
him, and their
witness agreed
not together.
57 And there
stood up
certain, and bare
false witness
against him,
saying, 58 We
heard him say,
I will destroy
this 1temple
that is made
with hands,
and in three
days I will
build another
made without
hands. 59 And
not even so did
their witness
agree together.
60 And the
high priest
stood up in the
midst, and
asked Jesus,
saying,
Answerest thou
nothing? what
is it which
these witness
against thee?
61 But he held
his peace, and
answered
nothing. Again
the high priest
asked him, and
saith unto
him,


Art thou the
Christ, the Son
of the Blessed?
62 And Jesus
said, I am: and
ye shall see
the Son of
man sitting at
the right hand
of power, and
coming with
the clouds of
heaven [see Ps.
110:1; Dan.
7:13
]. 63 And
the high priest
rent his
clothes, and
saith,



            What
further need
have we of
witnesses? 64 Ye
have heard
the blasphemy
[see Lev. 24:16]:
what
think ye? And
they all
condemned him
to be 2worthy
of death. 65 And
some began to
spit on him,
and to cover
his face, and
to buffet him,
and to say unto
him, Prophesy:
and the
officers received
him with
4blows of their
hands.
57    And they
that had taken
Jesus led him
away to the
house of

Caiaphas the high
priest, where
the scribes and
the elders were
gathered together.
59    Now the
chief priests
and the whole
council sought
false witness
against Jesus,
that they
might put him
to death; 60 and
they found it
not, though
many false
witnesses
came.
But afterward
came two, 61 and
said,


        This man
said, I am able
to destroy the
1temple of
God, and to
build it in
three days [see
John 2:19
].






62 And the high
priest stood
up, and said
unto him,
Answerest thou
nothing? what
is it which
these witness
against thee?


63 But Jesus held
his peace.

            And
the high priest
said unto him,
I adjure thee
by the living
God, that thou
tell us whether
thou be the
Christ, the Son
of God.
64        Jesus
saith unto
him, Thou
hast said:
nevertheless I
say unto you,
Henceforth
ye shall see the
Son of man
sitting at the
right hand of
power, and
coming on the
clouds of heaven.
65 Then the
high priest
rent his
garments, saying,
He hath spoken
blasphemy:
what further
need have we
of witnesses?
behold, now ye
have heard
the blasphemy:
66 what think
ye? They
answered and
said, He is
2worthy of
death.
67        Then
did they spit
in his face and
buffet him: and
some smote
him 3with the
palms of their
hands, 68 saying,
Prophesy unto
us, thou Christ:
who is he that
struck thee?

54    And they
seized him,
and led him
away, and
brought him
into the high
priest's house.






















































































63    And the men
that held 5Jesus
mocked
him, and beat
him. 64 And they
blindfolded
him, and asked
him, saying,
Prophesy:
who is he that
struck thee?
65 And many
other things
spake they
against him,
reviling him.

24    Annas
therefore sent
him bound
unto Caiaphas
the high priest.
1 Or, sanctuary: as in Matt. 23:35; and chap. 27:5.
2 Gr. liable to.
3 Or, with rods.
4 Or, strokes of rods.
5 Gr. him.




§ 156. PETER THRICEa DENIES HIS LORD

COURT OF THE HIGH-PRIEST'S RESIDENCE, DURING THE SERIES OF TRIALS

Friday before and about dawn


Mark 14:54,
66-72
Matt. 26:58,
69-75
Luke 22:54-62 John 18:15-18,
25-27
54 And Peter had
followed him
afar off,















            even
within, unto the
court of the
high priest;


















        and he
was sitting
with the officers,
and warming
himself
in the light
of the fire.


66    And as Peter
was beneath in
the court, there
cometh one of
the maids of
the high priest;
67 and seeing
Peter warming
himself, she
looked upon
him, and saith,
Thou also wast
with the
Nazarene, even
Jesus. 68 But he
denied, saying,
1I neither
know, nor
understand what
thou sayest:
and he went
out into the
2porch; 3and
the cock crew.




69 And the maid
saw him, and
began again to
say to them
that stood by,
This is one of
them.

70        But he
again denied
it.

        And after
a little while
again they
that stood by
said to Peter,
Of a truth
thou art one
of them; for
thou art a
Galilean. 71 But
he began to
curse, and to
swear, I know
not this man
of whom ye
speak. 72 And
straightway
the second
time the cock
crew.



            And
Peter called to
mind the
word, how
that Jesus said
unto him,
Before the cock
crow twice,
thou shalt
deny me
thrice. 4And
when he
thought thereon,
he wept.
58 But Peter
followed him
afar off,
















        unto the
court of the
high priest,
and entered in,


















and sat with
the officers, to
see the end.





69 Now Peter was
sitting without
in the court:
and a maid
came unto
him, saying,





Thou also wast
with Jesus the
Galilean.
70            But
he denied
before them all,
saying, I know
not what thou
sayest.




71            And
when he was
gone out into
the porch,
another maid saw
him, and saith
unto them
that were
there, This
man also was
with Jesus the
Nazarene.
72 And again he
denied with an
oath, I know
not the man.
73 And after a
little while
they that
stood by came
and said to
Peter, Of a
truth thou also
art one of
them; for thy
speech
bewrayeth thee.
74 Then began
he to curse and
to swear, I
know not the
man.
And straightway
the cock
crew.




75        And Peter
remembered
the word
which Jesus
had said,
Before the cock
crow, thou
shalt deny
me thrice.
And he went
out, and wept
bitterly.
54 But Peter
followed afar
off.









































55    And when
they had
kindled a fire in
the midst of
the court, and
had sat down
together,
Peter sat in the
midst of them.
56 And a certain
maid seeing
him as he sat
in the light of
the fire,
and
looking
stedfastly upon
him, said, This
man also was
with him.
57          But he
denied, saying,
Woman, I
know him not.









58 And after a
little while
another saw
him, and said,
Thou also art
one of them.
But Peter said,
Man, I am not.




59            And
after the space
of about one
hour another
confidently
affirmed, saying,
Of a truth this
man also was
with him: for
he is a Galilean.
60 But
Peter said, Man,
I know not
what thou
sayest.


    And
immediately,
while he yet
spake, the cock
crew. 61 And the
Lord turned,
and looked upon
Peter. And Peter
remembered
the word
of the Lord,
how that he
said unto him,
Before the
cock crow this
day, thou shalt
deny me
thrice. 62 And
he went out,
and wept
bitterly.
15    And Simon
Peter followed
Jesus, and so
did
another
disciple. Now
that disciple
was known
unto the high
priest, and
entered in
with Jesus into
the court of
the high priest;
16 but Peter was
standing at the
door without.
So the
other disciple,
which was
known unto
the high priest,
went out and
spake unto her
that kept the
door, and
brought in Peter.
17 The maid
therefore that
kept the door
saith unto
Peter, Art thou
also one of
this man's
disciples? He
saith, I am
not. 18 Now the
5servants and
the officers
were standing
there, having
made 6a fire of
coals; for it
was cold; and
they were
warming
themselves:
and Peter also
was with
them, standing
and warming
himself.


25 Now Simon
Peter was
standing and
warming himself.
They said
therefore unto
him, Art thou
also one of his
disciples?

                He
denied, and
said, I am not.






















26    One of the
5servants of
the high priest,
being a kinsman
of him
whose ear
Peter cut off,
saith, Did not
I see thee in
the garden with
him? 27 Peter
therefore
denied again:




and straightway
the cock
crew.
1 Or, I neither know, nor understand: thou, what sayest thou?
2 Gr. forecourt.
3 Many ancient authorities omit and the cock crew.
4 Or, And he began to weep.
5 Gr. bondservants.
6 Gr. a fire of charcoal.

a Each of the four Gospels records three denials; but the details differ considerably, as must always be the case where in each narrative a few facts are selected out of many sayings and doings. We have seen (footnote on § 154) that there were three stages of the Jewish trial, (l) before Annas, (2) before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin for informal examination, (3) before them in a formal trial. Now John gives only the first of the three stages, Luke only the last, Matthew and Mark give the second stage fully, and the third in brief mention. If Peter's denials ran through all three (and Luke says in ver. 59 that there was an hour between his second and third denials), then no one of the four Gospels could give each of the denials precisely at the time of its occurrence; and so each Gospel merely throws them together, as in another way we here bring them together in one section. There is no difficulty about the substantial fact of the denials; and we must be content with our inability to arrange all the circumstances into a complete programme.





§ 157. AFTER DAWN, JESUS IS FORMALLYa CONDEMNED BY THE SANHEDRIN

Friday


Mark 15:1 Matt. 27:1 Luke 22:66-71
1    And straightway in
the morning the chief
priests with the elders
and scribes, and the
whole council, held a
consultation,
1    Now when morning
was come, all the
chief priests and the
elders of the people
took counsel against
Jesus to put him to
death:
66    And as soon as it
was day, the assembly
of the elders
of the people was
gathered together,
both chief priests and
scribes; and they led
him away into their
council, saying, 67 If
thou art the Christ,
tell us. But he said
unto them, If I tell
you, ye will not believe:
68 and if I ask you,
ye will not answer.
69 But from henceforth
shall the Son of man
be seated on the right
hand of the power of
God [see Ps. 110:1;
Dan. 7:13
]. 70 And they
all said, Art thou then
the Son of God? And
he said unto them,
1Ye say that I am.
71 And they said, What
further need have we
of witness? for we
ourselves have heard
from his own mouth.
1 Or, Ye say it, because I am.

a This ratification of the condemnation after dawn was an effort to make the action legal. But no ratification of a wrong can make it right. Some modern Jewish writers admit the illegalities and argue the unhistorical character of the narrative. But the hate of the Sanhedrin for Jesus made them violate their own rules of legal procedure. See my book, The Pharisees and Jesus.





§ 158. REMORSE AND SUICIDE OF JUDAS THE BETRAYER

IN THE TEMPLE AND IN A PLACE WITHOUT THE WALLS OF JERUSALEM

Friday morning


Matt. 27:3-10 Acts 1:18, 19
3    Then Judas, which betrayed
him, when he saw that he was
condemned, repented himself, and
brought back the thirty pieces of
silver to the chief priests and
elders, 4 saying, I have sinned in
that I betrayed 1innocent blood.
But they said, What is that to us?
see thou to it. 5 And he cast down
the pieces of silver into the sanctu-
ary, and departed; and he went
away and hanged himself. 6 And
the chief priests took the pieces of
silver, and said, It is not lawful to
put them into the 2treasury, since
it is the price of blood [see Deut.
23:18
]. 7 And they took counsel,
and bought with them the potter's
field, to bury strangers in.
8 Wherefore that field was called,
The field of blood, unto this day.
9 Then was fulfilled that which was
spoken 3by Jeremiah the prophet,
saying, And 4they took the thirty
pieces of silver, the price of him
that was priced, 5whom certain of
the children of Israel did price;
10 and 6they gave them for the
potter's field, as the Lord appointed
me [see Zech. 11:13; Jer. 18:2;
19:2; 32:6-15
].
18    (Now this man obtained a field
with the reward of his iniquity;
and falling headlong, he burst
asunder in the midst, and all his
bowels gushed out. 19 And it
became known to all the dwellers at
Jerusalem; insomuch that in their
language that field was called
Akeldama, that is, The field of
blood.)
1 Many ancient authorities read righteous.
2 Gr. corbanas, that is, sacred treasury. Comp. Mark 7:11.
3 Or, through.
4 Or, I took.
5 Or, whom they priced on the part of the sons of Israel.
6 Some ancient authorities read I gave.




§ 159. JESUS BEFORE PILATE THE FIRSTa TIME

Jerusalem. Friday, early morning


Mark 15:1-5 Matt. 27:2, 11-14 Luke 23:1-5 John 18:28-38
1 and bound
Jesus, and
carried him
away, and
delivered him
up to Pilate.


















































2    And Pilate
asked him,




            Art
thou the King
of the Jews?
And he
answering saith
unto him,
Thou sayest.






















































3        And the
chief priests
accused him of
many things.


4 And Pilate
again asked
him, saying,
Answerest
thou nothing?
behold how
many things
they accuse
thee of. 5 But
Jesus no more
answered
anything;
insomuch that
Pilate
marvelled.
2        and they
bound him,
and led him
away, and
delivered him
up to Pilate the
governor.

















































11    Now Jesus
stood before
the governor:
and the
governor asked
him, saying,
Art thou the
King of the
Jews? And
Jesus said unto
him, Thou
sayest.























































12 And when
he was accused
by the chief
priests and
elders, he
answered
nothing.
13 Then saith
Pilate unto him,
Hearest thou
not how many
things they
witness against
thee? 14 And he
gave him no
answer, not
even to one
word: insomuch
that the governor
marvelled
greatly.
1    And the
whole company
of them
rose up, and
brought him
before Pilate.












2    And they
began to accuse
him, saying,
We found
this man
perverting our
nation, and
forbidding to
give tribute to
Cæsar, and
saying that he
himself is
1Christ a king.

























3 And Pilate
asked him,
saying,



        Art thou
the King of the
Jews? And he
answered him
and said, Thou
sayest.
















































4            And
Pilate said
unto the chief
priests and the
multitudes, I
find no fault
in this man.





















5 But they were
the more
urgent, saying,
He stirreth up
the people,
teaching
throughout
all Judea, and
beginning from
Galilee even
unto this place.
28    They lead
Jesus therefore
from Caiaphas
into the 2palace:
and it was
early;
and they
themselves
entered not into
the 2palace, that
they might not
be defiled,
but might eat
the passover.
29 Pilate
therefore
went out unto
them, and saith,
What accusation
bring
ye against this
man? 30 They
answered and
said unto him,
If this man
were not an
evil-doer, we
should not
have delivered
him up unto
thee. 31 Pilate
therefore said
unto them,
Take him
yourselves,
and judge him
according to
your law. The
Jews said unto
him, It is not
lawful for us
to put any
man to death:
32 that the word
of Jesus might
be fulfilled,
which he
spake, signifying
by what
manner of
death he should
die. 33 Pilate
therefore
entered
again into the
2palace, and
called Jesus,
and said unto
him,



        Art thou
the King of the
Jews? 34 Jesus
answered,
Sayest thou this
of thyself, or
did others tell it
thee concerning
me? 35 Pilate
answered, Am
I a Jew? Thine
own nation
and the chief
priests delivered
thee unto me:
what hast thou
done? 36 Jesus
answered,
My kingdom
is not of
this world: if
my kingdom
were of this
world, then
would my
3servants fight,
that I should
not be delivered
to the Jews:
but now is my
kingdom not
from hence.
37 Pilate
therefore said
unto him, Art
thou a king then?
Jesus answered,
4Thou sayest
that I am
a king. To
this end have
I been born,
and to this end
am I come into
the world, that
I should bear
witness unto
the truth.
Every one that
is of the truth
heareth my
voice. 38 Pilate
saith unto
him, What is
truth? And
when he had
said this, he
went out again
unto the
Jews, and saith
unto them, I
find no crime
in him.
1 Or, an anointed king.
2 Gr. Prætorium.
3 Or, officers: as in verses 3, 12, 18, 22.
4 Or, Thou sayest it, because I am a king.

a The Roman Trial also comprised three stages, (1) the first appearance before the Roman procurator Pilate (§ 159), (2) the appearance before Herod Antipas, the native ruler of Galilee appointed by the Romans (§ 160), and (3) the final appearance before Pilate (§ 161).





§ 160. JESUS BEFORE HEROD ANTIPAS THE TETRARCH

Jerusalem. Friday, early morning


Luke 23:6-12

6    But when Pilate heard it, he asked whether the man were a Galilean. 7 And when he knew that he was of Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him unto Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem in these days.

8    Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was of a long time desirous to see him, because he had heard concerning him;a and he hoped to see some 1miracle done by him. 9 And he questioned him in many words; but he answered him nothing. 10 And the chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. 11 And Herod with his soldiers set him at nought, and mocked him, and arraying him in gorgeous apparel sent him back to Pilate. 12 And Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day: for before they were at enmity between themselves.

1 Gr. sign.

a See § 71.





§ 161. JESUS THE SECOND TIME BEFORE PILATE

Pilate slowly and reluctantly and in fear surrenders to the demand of the Sanhedrin for the crucifixion of Christ.

Friday toward sunrise (John 19:14)


Mark 15:6-15 Matt. 27:15-26 Luke 23:13-25 John 18:39-19:16
6    Now at 1the
feast he used
to release unto
them one
prisoner, whom
they asked of
him. 7 And
there was one
called Barabbas,
lying bound
with them that
had made
insurrection,
men who in the
insurrection
had committed
murder.
8 And the
multitude
went up and
began to ask
him to do as
he was wont
to do unto
them.


































9            And
Pilate answered
them, saying,
Will ye
that I release
unto you the
King of the
Jews?
10        For he
perceived that
for envy the
chief priests
had delivered
him up.













11        But the
chief priests
stirred up the
multitude,
that he should
rather release
Barabbas unto
them.




























































12    And Pilate
again answered
and said unto
them, What
then shall I do
unto him
whom ye call
the King of the
Jews? 13 And
they cried out
again, Crucify
him. 14 And
Pilate said unto
them, Why,
what evil hath
he done?






                But
they cried out
exceedingly,
Crucify him.







































































































15    And Pilate,
wishing to
content the
multitude,


        released
unto them
Barabbas,



                and
delivered Jesus,
when he had
scourged him,
to be crucified.
15    Now at 1the
feast the
governor was
wont to release
unto the multitude
one prisoner,
whom they
would. 16 And
they had then
a notable
prisoner, called
Barabbas.












































17        When
therefore they
were gathered
together,
Pilate said unto
them, Whom
will ye that I
release unto
you? Barabbas,
or Jesus
which is called
Christ? 18 For
he knew that
for envy they
had delivered
him up. 19 And
while he was
sitting on the
judgement-seat,
his wife
sent unto him,
saying, Have
thou nothing
to do with that
righteous man:
for I have
suffered many
things this
day in a dream
because of
him. 20 Now the
chief priests
and the elders
persuaded the
multitudes
that they
should ask for
Barabbas, and
destroy Jesus.
21 But the
governor
answered and
said unto them,
Whether of
the twain will
ye that I
release unto
you? And
they said,
Barabbas.
















































22    Pilate saith
unto them,
What then
shall I do unto
Jesus which is
called Christ?
They all say,


Let him be
crucified.

23            And
he said, Why,
what evil hath
he done?






                But
they cried out
exceedingly,
saying, Let
him be crucified.















































































24    So when
Pilate saw that
he prevailed
nothing, but
rather that a
tumult was
arising, he took
water, and
washed his
hands before
the multitude
[see Deut.
21:6-9
], saying,
I am innocent
2of the blood of
this righteous
man: see
ye to it. 25 And
all the people
answered and
said, His blood
be on us, and
on our children.b





26        Then
released he
unto them
Barabbas:




        but Jesus
he scourged
and delivered
to be crucified.

























13    And Pilate
called together
the chief
priests and the
rulers and the
people, 14 and
said unto
them, Ye
brought unto
me this man,
as one that
perverteth the
people: and
behold, I, having
examined him
before you,
found no fault
in this man
touching those
things whereof
ye accuse him:
15 no, nor yet
Herod: for he
sent him back
unto us; and
behold, nothing
worthy of
death hath
been done by
him.




16        I will
therefore
chastise him,
and release
him.5








































18 But they cried
out all together,
saying,
Away with
this man, and
release unto us
Barabbas: 19 one
who for a certain
insurrection
made in
the city, and
for murder,
was cast into
prison.




































20    And Pilate
spake unto
them again,
desiring to
release Jesus;
21 but they
shouted,
saying,
            Crucify,
crucify him.
22 And he
said unto them
the third time,
Why, what evil
hath this man
done? I have
found no cause
of death in
him: I will
therefore
chastise him and
release him.






































































23    But they
were instant
with loud
voices, asking
that he might
be crucified.








            And
their voices
prevailed.




















24            And
Pilate gave
sentence that
what they asked
for should
be done. 25 And
he released
him that for
insurrection
and murder
had been cast
into prison,
whom they
asked for; but
Jesus he
delivered up
to their will.























































39    But ye have
a custom, that
I should
release unto you
one at the
passover: will
ye therefore
that I release
unto you the
King of the
Jews?






































40      They cried
out therefore
again, saying,
Not this man,
but Barabbas.
Now Barabbas
was a robber.







1    Then Pilate
therefore took
Jesus, and
scourged him.
2 And the
soldiers plaited
a crown of
thorns, and put
it on his head,
and arrayed
him in a purple
garment; 3 and
they came unto
him, and
said, Hail,
King of the
Jews! and they
struck him
6with their
hands. 4 And
Pilate went
out again, and
saith unto
them, Behold,
I bring him
out to you,
that ye may
know that I
find no crime
in him. 5 Jesus
therefore came
out, wearing
the crown of
thorns and the
purple
garment. And
Pilate saith
unto them,
Behold, the man!
6 When therefore
the chief
priests and the
officers saw
him, they cried
out, saying,
Crucify him,
crucify him.
Pilate saith
unto them,
Take him
yourselves,
and crucify
him: for I find
no crime in
him. 7 The Jews
answered him,
We have a
law, and by
that law he
ought to die,
because he
made himself
the Son of
God. 8 When
Pilate therefore
heard this
saying, he was
the more afraid;
9 and he entered
into the 3palace
again, and saith
unto Jesus,
Whence art
thou? But Jesus
gave him no
answer. 10 Pilate
therefore saith
unto him,
Speakest thou
not unto me?
knowest thou
not that I have
7power to release
thee, and have
7power to crucify
thee? 11 Jesus
answered him,
Thou wouldest
have no 7power
against me,
except it were
given thee from
above: therefore
he that delivered
me unto thee
hath greater sin.
12    Upon this
Pilate sought to
release him: but
the Jews cried
out, saying, If
thou release this
man, thou art
not Cæsar's
friend: every
one that maketh
himself a king
8speaketh against
Cæsar. 13 When
Pilate therefore
heard these
words, he
brought Jesus
out, and sat
down on the
judgement-seat
at a place called
The Pavement,
but in Hebrew,
Gabbatha.
14 Now it was
the Preparation
of the passover:
it was about the
sixth hour.a And
he saith unto the
Jews, Behold,
your King!
15 They therefore
cried out,
Away with
him, away with
him, crucify
him. Pilate
saith unto
them, Shall I
crucify your
King? The
chief priests
answered, We
have no king
but Cæsar.



































16 Then therefore
he delivered
him unto them

to be crucified.
1 Or, a feast.
2 Some ancient authorities read of this blood: see ye etc.
3 Gr. Prætorium. See Mark 15:16.
4 Or, palace.
5 Many ancient authorities insert ver. 17 Now he must needs release unto them at the feast one prisoner. Others add the same words after ver. 19.
6 Or, with rods.
7 Or, authority.
8 Or, opposeth Cæsar.

a It appears that John, who wrote in Asia Minor, long after the destruction of Jerusalem, makes the day begin at midnight, as the Greeks and Romans did. We seem compelled so to understand him in 20:19 (comp. Luke 24:29-39); and in no passage of his Gospel is that view unsuitable. Here then we understand that Pilate passed the sentence about sunrise, which at the Passover, near the vernal equinox, would be 6 o'clock. The intervening three hours might be occupied in preparations, and the Crucifixion occurred at 9 o'clock, viz. the third hour as counted by the Jews (Mark 15:25).

b Pilate, of course, could not escape full legal and moral responsibility for his cowardly surrender to the Sanhedrin to keep his own office. The guilt of the Sanhedrin (both Pharisees and Sadducees unite in the demand for the blood of Jesus) is beyond dispute. It is impossible to make a mere political issue out of it and to lay all the blame on the Sadducees, who feared a revolution. The Pharisees began the attacks against Jesus on theological and ecclesiastical grounds. The Sadducees later joined the conspiracy against Christ. Judas was a mere tool of the Sanhedrin, who had his resentments and grievances to avenge. There is guilt enough for all the plotters in the greatest wrong of the ages.





§ 162. THE ROMAN SOLDIERS MOCKa JESUS

Friday, between 6 and 9 A.M.


Mark 15:16-19 Matt. 27:27-30
16    And the soldiers led him away
within the court, which is the
4Prætorium; and they call together
the whole 2band. 17 And they clothe
him with purple, and plaiting a
crown of thorns, they put it on
him; 18 and they began to salute
him, Hail, King of the Jews!
19 And they smote his head with a
reed, and did spit upon him, and
bowing their knees worshipped
him.
27    Then the soldiers of the
governor took Jesus into the 1palace,
and gathered unto him the whole
2band. 28 And they 3stripped him,
and put on him a scarlet robe.
29 And they plaited a crown of thorns
and put it upon his head, and a
reed in his right hand; and they
kneeled down before him, and
mocked him, saying, Hail, King
of the Jews! 30 And they spat upon
him, and took the reed and smote
him on the head.
1 Gr. Prætorium.
2 Or, cohort.
3 Some ancient authorities read clothed him.
4 Or, palace.

a The Sanhedrin likewise had mocked Jesus when they had condemned him to death (§ 155).





§ 163. JESUS ON THE WAY TO THE CROSS (VIA DOLOROSA) ON GOLGOTHAa

Before 9 A.M. Friday


Mark 15:20-23 Matt. 27:31-34 Luke 23:26-33 John 19:16-17
20    And when
they had mocked
him, they took
off from him
the purple, and
put on him his
garments. And
they lead him
out to crucify
him.
21    And they
2compel one
passing by,
Simon of Cyrene,
coming from
the country,
the father of
Alexander and
Rufus, to go
with them, that
he might bear
his cross.















































22            And
they bring him
unto the place
Golgotha,
which is, being
interpreted,
The place of a
skull. 23 And
they offered
him wine
mingled with
myrrh: but he
received it not.
31    And when
they had mocked
him, they took
off from him
the robe, and
put on him his
garments, and
led him away
to crucify him.

32    And as they
came out, they
found a man
of Cyrene,
Simon by name:
him they
1compelled to go
with them, that
he might bear
his cross.

















































33            And
when they
were come unto
a place called
Golgotha,
that is to say,
The place of a
skull, 34 they
gave him wine
to drink
mingled with gall
[see Ps. 69:21]:
and when he
had tasted it,
he would not
drink.










26    And when
they led him
away, they laid
hold upon one
Simon of
Cyrene, coming
from the country,
and laid
on him the
cross, to bear
it after Jesus.

27    And there
followed him a
great multitude
of the
people, and of
women who
bewailed and
lamented him.
28 But Jesus
turning unto them
said, Daughters
of Jerusalem,
weep not
for me, but
weep for your-
selves, and for
your children.
29 For behold, the
days are coming,
in which
they shall say,
Blessed are the
barren, and the
wombs that
never bare, and
the breasts that
never gave
suck. 30 Then
shall they
begin to say to
the mountains,
Fall on
us; and to the
hills, Cover us
[see Hos. 10:8].
31 For if they
do these things
in the green
tree, what shall
be done in the
dry?
32    And there
were also two
others,
malefactors, led
with him to be
put to death.
33    And when
they came unto
the place
which is called
3The skull,
16    They took
Jesus therefore:
17 and he went
out, bearing the
cross for
himself,
































































        unto the
place called
The place of a
skull, which
is called in
Hebrew
Golgotha:
1 Gr. impressed.
2 Gr. impress.
3 According to the Latin, Calvary, which has the same meaning.

a Golgotha is the Aramaic word for "skull," and Calvary is the Latin word. The place cannot have been where the so-called "Church of the Holy Sepulchre" stands, far within the walls. There is of late a rapidly growing agreement that it was the northern end of the Temple hill, whose rounded summit (without the city wall), and southern face with holes in the rock, looks at a little distance much like a skull. This place fulfils all the conditions.





§ 164. THE FIRST THREE HOURS ON THE CROSS

From nine A.M. till noon on Friday (three sayings of Jesus; the soldiers gambling for the garment of Jesus; the inscription on the Cross; the scoffing of Jesus by the multitude, the Sanhedrin, the soldiers, and even by the two robbers on each side of Christ)a


Mark 15:24-32 Matt. 27:35-44 Luke 23:33-43 John 19:18-27
24 And they
crucify him, and
part his
garments among
them, casting
lots upon them,
what each
should take
[see Ps. 22:18].






































25    And it was
the third hour,
and they crucified
him. 26 And the
superscription
of his accusation
was written over,
THE KING OF
THE JEWS.



27            And
with him they
crucify two
robbers; one
on his right
hand, and one
on his left.3















29 And they that
passed by railed
on him,
wagging their
heads [see Ps.
22:7
], and
saying, Ha! thou
that destroyest
the 1temple,
and buildest it
in three days,
30 save thyself,
and come down
from the cross.

31 In like manner
also the chief
priests mocking
him among
themselves
with the
scribes said,
He saved
others; 2himself
he cannot save.
32 Let the Christ,
the King of
Israel, now come
down from the
cross, that we
may see and
believe.






                And
they that were
crucified with
him reproached
him.
35    And when
they had
crucified him,
they parted
his garments
among them,
casting lots:
36 and they sat
and watched
him there.





































37            And
they set up
over his head
his accusation
written, THIS
IS JESUS THE
KING OF THE
JEWS.




38    Then are
there crucified
with him two
robbers, one on
the right hand,
and one on the
left.















39 And they that
passed by railed
on him, wagging
their heads,
40 and saying,
Thou that
destroyest the
1temple, and
buildest it in
three days,
save thyself: if
thou art the
Son of God,
come down
from the cross.
41 In like manner
also the chief
priests mocking
him, with the
scribes and
elders, said,
42 He saved
others; 2himself
he cannot save.
He is the King
of Israel; let
him now come
down from the
cross, and we
will believe on
him. 43 He
trusteth on God
[see Ps. 22:8];
let him deliver
him now, if he
desireth him:
for he said, I
am the Son of
God. 44 And the
robbers also
that were
crucified with
him cast upon
him the same
reproach.
33 there they
crucified him,
        and the
malefactors,
one on the
right hand and
the other on
the left. 34 4And
Jesus said,
Father, forgive
them; for they
know not what
they do.

                And
parting his
garments
among them,
they cast lots.




























38 And there
was also a
superscription
over him,
THIS IS THE
KING OF THE
JEWS.



























35 And the
people stood
beholding.












                And
the rulers also
scoffed at him,
saying, He
saved others;
let him save
himself, if this
is the Christ
of God, his
chosen. 36 And
the soldiers
also mocked
him, coming to
him, offering
him vinegar,
37 and saying,
If thou art the
King of the
Jews, save
thyself.










39    And one of
the malefactors
which
were hanged
railed on him,
saying, Art not
thou the
Christ? save
thyself and us.
40 But the other
answered, and
rebuking him
said, Dost thou
not even fear
God, seeing thou
art in the same
condemnation?
41 And we
indeed justly;
for we receive
the due reward
of our deeds:
but this man
hath done
nothing amiss.
42 And he said,
Jesus, remember
me when
thou comest 6in
thy kingdom.
43 And he said
unto him, Verily
I say unto
thee, To-day
shalt thou be
with me in
Paradise.
18 where they
crucified him,
and with him
two others, on
either side one,
and Jesus in
the midst.





23    The soldiers
therefore, when
they had crucified
Jesus, took
his garments,
and made four
parts, to every
soldier a part;
and also the
5coat: now the
5coat was
without seam,
woven from the
top throughout.
24 They said
therefore one
to another, Let
us not rend it,
but cast lots
for it, whose it
shall be: that
the scripture
might be fulfilled,
which saith,
    They parted
        my garments
        among them,
    And upon my
        vesture did
        they cast
        lots. [Ps.
        22:18
].
25 These things
therefore the
soldiers did.
19 And Pilate
wrote a title
also, and put it
on the cross.
And there was
written, JESUS OF
NAZARETH, THE
KING OF THE
JEWS.
20 This
title therefore
read many of
the Jews: 7for
the place where
Jesus was
crucified was nigh
to the city: and
it was written
in Hebrew, and
in Latin, and in
Greek. 21 The
chief priests of
the Jews
therefore said to
Pilate, Write not,
The King of
the Jews; but,
that he said, I
am King of the
Jews. 22 Pilate
answered,
What I have
written I have
written.


















































































25 But there were
standing by the
cross of Jesus
his mother, and
his mother's
sister, Mary
the wife of
Cleopas, and
Mary Magdalene.
26 When Jesus
therefore
saw his mother,
and the disciple
standing by,
whom he
loved, he saith
unto his mother,
Woman, behold,
thy son!
27 Then saith
he to the
disciple, Behold,
thy mother!
And from that
hour the disciple
took her unto
his own home.
1 Or, sanctuary.
2 Or, can he not save himself?
3 Many ancient authorities insert ver. 28 And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was reckoned with transgressors. See Luke 22:37.
4 Some ancient authorities omit And Jesus said, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.
5 Or, tunic.
6 Some ancient authorities read into thy kingdom.
7 Or, for the place of the city where Jesus was crucified was nigh at hand.

a It is not easy to tell the precise order of the events during this period of three hours, since the Gospels do not present them in the same detail or order. On the whole it has seemed best simply to follow Mark's arrangement as we have done uniformly in the Harmony. Thus the apparent order of the sayings is (1) The Prayer for Christ's enemies in Luke 23:34. (2) The Promise to the Repentant Robber in Luke 23:43. (3) The Charge to the Mother of Jesus and to the Beloved Disciple in John 19:26, 27. These three sayings are with reference to others.





§ 165. THE THREE HOURS OF DARKNESS FROM NOON TO THREE P.M.

(Four More Sayingsa at the Close of the Darkness and the Death of Christ.)